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PostPosted: Sun May 31, 2015 5:11 pm 
Avisaru
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A place to dump all those inflexion tables you draw up when trying to learn or at least make some sense of a particular language. Add your own ...

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 Post subject: Latvian
PostPosted: Sun May 31, 2015 5:29 pm 
Avisaru
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Location: Kernow
Latvian

Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Locative, Genative, Plural endings below singulars. Adjectives have a separate set of ending when they relate to definite nouns, dAm Definite Adjective Masculine, dAf Definite Adjective Feminine.
Various slightly irregular nouns are listed under subclasses at the end. Generally these differ only slightly from the regular declensions.


Code:

     iAm                               iAf
      I          II         III         IV         V          VI       |    dAm               dAf
                                                                       |
 N   -s (-š)    -is (-s)   -us    :    -a         -e         -s        |   -ais  (tas, šis)  -ā    (šī)
 A   -u         -i         -u     :    -u         -i         -i        |   -o                -o
 D   -am        -im        -um    :    -ai (-am)  -ei (-em)  -ij       |   -ajam (tam, šim)  -ajai (-ai)
 L   -ā         -ī         -ū     :    -ā         -ē         -ī        |   -ajā              -ajā
 G   -a         -ja (-s)   -us    :    -as        -es        -s        |   -ā    (šī/šā)     -ās   (šīs/šās)
                                  :                                    |
 N   -i         -ji        -i     :    -as        -es        -is       |   -ie               -ās   (šīs/šās)
 A   -us        -jus       -us    :    -as        -es        -is       |   -os               -ās   (šās/šīs)
 D   -iem       -jiem      -iem   :    -ām        -ēm        -īm       |   -ajiem (-iem)     -ajām (-ām, šīm)
 L   -os        -jos       -os    :    -ās        -ēs        -īs       |   -ajos             -ajās
 G   -u         -ju        -u     :    -u         -ju        -ju (-u)  |   -o                -o

Generally I-III are fem., IV-VI are masc.

IIa masc. _suns_ (dog) regular apart from N
IIa masc. _akmens_ (stone) G _akmens_ otherwise regular,
         likewise: _asmens_ (blade), _mēness_ (moon), _rudens_ (autumn), _sāls_ (salt) or VI,
         _tesmens_ (udder), _ūdens_ (water), _zibens_ (lightening)
IIb _viesis_ (guest) G _viesa_ NN _viesi_ etc. (no -j-),
    likewise: _tētis_ (dad), surnames in _-skis_, _-ckis_,
     simple masc. names in _-tis_, _-dis_, nouns in _-astis_, _-jis_, _-matis_, _-skatis_
III masc. _alus_ (ale), _cirkus_ (circus), _kāsus_ (dry cough), _klepus_ (cough),
         _krogus_ (pub), _ledus_ (ice), _lietus_ (rain),  _medus_ (honey),
         _tirgus_ (marketplace), _vidus_ (middle), _apvidus_ (region), _dienvidus_ (noon),
         _viltus_ (deceit)
IVa masc. _puika_ D _puikam_, _Janka_ D _Jankam_, _tiepša_ (stubbon person) Dm _-am_ Df _-ai_
 Va masc. _bende_ D _bendem_ (hangman), _Zāle_ D _Zālem_, _Straume_ D _Straumem_
VI  masc. pl. _ļaudis_ (people);
VI   fem. pl. _durvis_ (door), _brokastis*_ (breakāst), _Cēsis*_ a town;
VI  fem. _acs*_ (eye), _asins_ (blood), _ass*_ (axle), _auss*_ (ear), _avs_ (ewe),
         _balss*_ (voice), _birzs_ (birch grove), _cilts_ (clan), _debress*_ (sky),
         _dzelzs*_ (iron), _govs_ (cow), _izkapts_ (scythe), _klēts_ (granary),
         _krāsns_ (stove), _kūts_ (byre), _maksts_ (sheath, vagina), _nāss_ (nostril),
         _nakts_ (night), _pils_ (castle), _pirts_ (bath-house), _sāls_ (salt) or II,
         _sirds_ (heart), _smilts_ (sand), _telts_ (tent), _uguns_ (fire), _uts*_ (louse),
         _vāts_ (wound), _zivs_ (fish), _zoss*_ (goose), _žults_ (bile)
VIa  fem. (* above) _acs_ GG _acu_, _ass_ GG _asu_, _auss_ GG _ausu_, _balss_ GG _balsu_,
         _brokastis_ GG _brokastu_, _Cēsis_ GG _Cēsu_, _debess_ GG _debesu_,
         _dzelzs_ GG _dzelzu_, _uts_ GG _utu_, _zoss_ GG _zosu_


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Last edited by Cedh on Mon Jun 01, 2015 3:04 am, edited 1 time in total.
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 14, 2017 9:52 am 
Sumerul
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I must say, I'm really, really surprised that this thread was moved to the L&L museum with only one relevant post. An interesting post of a language we don't hear often about, sure, but I would've expected more posts before moving the thread to this place.

Anyway, here's all the nominal declensions of Arabic.

Code:
THE NOMINAL DECLENSIONS OF ARABIC

-Triptote (singular or plural)-
   DEF           INDEF   CONST
 N (2a)l-...-u   -un     -u
 A (2a)l-...-a   -an     -a
 G (2a)l-...-i   -in     -i

-2imru2un 'man' (irregular singular)-
   DEF          INDEF      CONST
 N (2a)lmar2u   2imru2un   2imru2u
 A (2a)lmar2a   2imra2an   2imra2a
 G (2a)lmar2i   2imri2in   2imri2i

-2imra2atun 'woman' (irregular singular)-
   DEF            INDEF          CONST
 N (2a)lmar2atu   (2i)mra2atun   (2i)mra2atu
 A (2a)lmar2ata   (2i)mra2atan   (2i)mra2ata
 G (2a)lmar2ati   (2i)mra2atin   (2i)mra2ati

-The five nouns (irregular singular)-
   DEF           INDEF   CONST
 N (2a)l-...-u   -un     -uu
 A (2a)l-...-a   -an     -aa
 G (2a)l-...-i   -in     -ii

-Diptote (singular or plural)-
   DEF           INDEF   CONST
 N (2a)l-...-u   -u      -u
 A (2a)l-...-a   -a      -a
 G (2a)l-...-i   -a      -i

-Dual-
   DEF              INDEF   CONST
 N (2a)l-...-aani   -aani   -aa
 A (2a)l-...-ayni   -ayni   -ay
 G (2a)l-...-ayni   -ayni   -ay

-Dual of the distal demonstrative dhaalika 'that' (irregular dual)-
   MASC     FEM
 N dhaanika taanika
 A dhaynika taynika
 G dhaynika taynika

-Sound masculine plural-
   DEF              INDEF   CONST
 N (2a)l-...-uuna   -uuna   -uu
 A (2a)l-...-iina   -iina   -ii
 G (2a)l-...-iina   -iina   -ii

-Sound feminine plural-
   DEF              INDEF    CONST
 N (2a)l-...-aatu   -aatun   -aatu
 A (2a)l-...-aati   -aatin   -aati
 G (2a)l-...-aati   -aatin   -aati

-Defective (singular or plural)-
   DEF             INDEF   CONST
 N (2a)l-...-ii    -in     -ii
 A (2a)l-...-iya   -iyan   -iya
 G (2a)l-...-ii    -in     -ii

-Indeclinable -an from CCy root (singular)-
 DEF   INDEF   CONST
 -aa   -an     -aa

-Invariable (singular or plural)-
 DEF   INDEF   CONST
 --    --      --

The number 2 represents the glottal stop.

As you probably already know, Arabic inanimate nouns in general (along with quite a number of the more common adjectives) usually form the plural with a change of stem that is often predictable, often not. This means that the tables for declensions are not so strongly associated with a number axis, very much unlike declension tables for Indo-European languages. Instead, the axis of "state", namely definite - indefinite - construct, is more important.

So, when I say the triptote declension can be "singular or plural", I mean that there's nouns in a singular stem which take these endings as well nouns in a plural stem that do the same, for example: جمل jamalun 'a camel (nom. sg.)' and its plural جمال jimaalun 'camels (nom. indef. pl.)' are both of the triptote declension (the dual would take the dual ending: جملان jamalaani 'two camels (nom. indef. dual)').
Code:
INFLECTION OF jamalun 'CAMEL'

--singular: triptote declension--
   DEF           INDEF     CONST
 N (2a)ljamalu   jamalun   jamalu
 A (2a)ljamala   jamalan   jamala
 G (2a)ljamali   jamalin   jamali
--dual: dual declension
   DEF              INDEF       CONST
 N (2a)ljamalaani   jamalaani   jamalaa
 A (2a)ljamalayni   jamalayni   jamalay
 G (2a)ljamalayni   jamalayni   jamalay
--plural: triptote declension--
   DEF            INDEF      CONST
 N (2a)ljimaalu   jimaalun   jimaalu
 A (2a)ljimaala   jimaalan   jimaala
 G (2a)ljimaali   jimaalin   jimaali


It is also perfectly possible for a singular to be in one declension and the plural in another (duals are practically their own declension, as you can tell from the table), e.g. خنزير xinziirun 'pig (nom. indef. sg.)' is a triptote whereas its plural خنازير xanaaziiru 'pigs (nom. indef. pl.)' is a diptote.
Code:
INFLECTION OF xinziirun 'PIG'

--singular: triptote declension--
   DEF             INDEF       CONST
 N (2a)lxinziiru   xinziirun   xinziiru
 A (2a)lxinziira   xinziiran   xinziira
 G (2a)lxinziiri   xinziirin   xinziiri
--dual: dual declension
   DEF                INDEF         CONST
 N (2a)lxinziiraani   xinziiraani   xinziiraa
 A (2a)lxinziirayni   xinziirayni   xinziiray
 G (2a)lxinziirayni   xinziirayni   xinziiray
--plural: diptote declension--
   DEF               INDEF        CONST
 N (2a)lxanaaziiru   xanaaziiru   xanaaziiru
 A (2a)lxanaaziira   xanaaziira   xanaaziira
 G (2a)lxanaaziiri   xanaaziira   xanaaziiri


For the sake of completion, I'll also note that adjectives also inflect for gender with a change of stem, while distinguishing animacy. Here's what a fully declined adjective looks like:
Code:
INFLECTION OF Tawiilun 'LONG (THING), TALL (PERSON)'

--masculine singular: triptote declension--
   DEF            INDEF      CONST
 N (2a)TTawiilu   Tawiilun   Tawiilu
 A (2a)TTawiila   Tawiilan   Tawiili
 G (2a)TTawiili   Tawiilin   Tawiila
--feminine singular: triptote declension--
   DEF              INDEF        CONST
 N (2a)TTawiilatu   Tawiilatun   Tawiilatu
 A (2a)TTawiilata   Tawiilatan   Tawiilata
 G (2a)TTawiilati   Tawiilatin   Tawiilati
--masculine dual: dual declension--
   DEF               INDEF        CONST
 N (2a)TTawiilaani   Tawiilaani   Tawiilaa
 A (2a)TTawiilayni   Tawiilayni   Tawiilay
 G (2a)TTawiilayni   Tawiilayni   Tawiilay
--feminine dual: dual declension--
   DEF                 INDEF          CONST
 N (2a)TTawiilataani   Tawiilataani   Tawiilataa
 A (2a)TTawiilatayni   Tawiilatayni   Tawiilatay
 G (2a)TTawiilatayni   Tawiilatayni   Tawiilatay
--animate masculine plural: triptote declension--
   DEF            INDEF      CONST
 N (2a)TTiwaalu   Tiwaalun   Tiwaalu
 A (2a)TTiwaala   Tiwaalan   Tiwaala
 G (2a)TTiwaali   Tiwaalin   Tiwaali
--animate feminine plural: sound feminine plural declension--
   DEF
 N (2a)TTawiilaatu   Tawiilaatun   Tawiilaatu
 A (2a)TTawiilaati   Tawiilaatin   Tawiilaati
 G (2a)TTawiilaati   Tawiilaatin   Tawiilaati
--inanimate plural: triptote declension--
   DEF              INDEF        CONST
 N (2a)TTawiilatu   Tawiilatun   Tawiilatu
 A (2a)TTawiilata   Tawiilatan   Tawiilata
 G (2a)TTawiilati   Tawiilatin   Tawiilati

Note that the definite "article" (or prefix) (2a)l- has undergone assimilation with the following T to become (2a)T-.

The "five nouns" referred to above in the first table are أب 'abun 'father', أخ 'axun 'brother', حم Hamun 'father-in-law', فو fuu 'mouth [of...]' (used in the construct state), ذو dhuu 'possessor [of...]' (used in the construct state).

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