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PostPosted: Sun Mar 27, 2016 10:45 am 
Smeric
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Thanks, 2+3 clusivity! :)


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PostPosted: Thu May 05, 2016 11:04 am 
Smeric
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Don't expect much by way of the vowels; they're all over the place. I may revisit this post later when I've gotten some much-needed sleep.

Proto-Chimakuan to Chimakum

From Swadesh, Morris (1955), "Chemakum Lexicon Compared With Quileute". International Journal of American Linguistics 21(1):60 – 72

tʃ tʃ' ʃ → ts ts' s
k k' x → tʃ tʃ' ʃ
w j → kʷ tʃ / ! V_{C,#}
s → ʃ / _tʃ(') (conjecture)
ji → Ø / V_ (conjecture)
ɬ → s / _t (conjecture)
Some apparent correspondences of aj : iː (and possibly the reverse)
Some apparent correspondences of ʔ : x

Proto-Chimakuan to Quileute

From Swadesh, Morris (1955), "Chemakum Lexicon Compared With Quileute". International Journal of American Linguistics 21(1):60 – 72

m n → b d
ʔ → Ø / _R (conjecture)
Vː → V[- long] / _# (conjecture)
i → Ø / _ji (conjecture)
Kʷ Qʷ → K Q / _u(ː) (conjecture)
Some apparent correspondences of iː : aj (and possibly the reverse)
Some apparent correspondences of x : ʔ

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Last edited by Pogostick Man on Thu May 05, 2016 10:13 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Thu May 05, 2016 2:04 pm 
Smeric
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Pogostick Man wrote:
...

Proto-Chimakuan to Quileute

From Swadesh, Morris (1955), "Chemakum Lexicon Compared With Quileute". International Journal of American Linguistics 21(1):60 – 72

b d → m n
...


b d → m n? I think you really do need some sleep.

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PostPosted: Thu May 05, 2016 2:47 pm 
Smeric
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Apparently, it was the other way around, and that change may have taken place as recently as the late 19th century.


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PostPosted: Thu May 05, 2016 3:12 pm 
Smeric
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Precisely. It's such a distinctive sound change of the PNW that it's hard not to miss it.

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PostPosted: Thu May 05, 2016 10:05 pm 
Smeric
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Thanks for the correction. I edited the post.

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PostPosted: Wed Jul 13, 2016 11:09 am 
Sumerul
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Proto Oceanic to Proto Micronesian

I've had to do a little interpretation here because the symbology of the papers I've used is mixed up, but for POc I'll be using the Blust transcription and for PMic I'll be using a sort of ad-hoc representation and just explaining what the symbols are supposed to mean according to the authors afterwards.

For completeness, the phoneme inventory of POc:

p (pw) t c k q
b bw d j g
m mw n ñ ŋ
s
l r R dr w y

i e a o u

sound changes:

C > 0/_#
q > 0
y > 0
p b m > 0~w bw mw/_{u,o}
p > f
R > 0~r
d > dr
j > s sometimes(?), retained otherwise
b bw dr g > p pw t' x
the only recognizable vowel changes are that at the PMic stage, *u had already gained a central allophone in certain environments, and that in disyllabic forms, the stressed vowel lengthened.

t' was probably a retroflex obstruent of some kind (given the devoicing of other prenasalized stops, probably an unvoiced stop)
x is a little mysterious, I don't think it's meant to be IPA [x], because it has a slightly odd set of reflexes in Micronesian: 0, k, or r.

PMic now has:

p pw t t' c j k
m mw n ñ ŋ
f s x
w l r

Proto Micronesian to Chuukese


ñ l > n n
t' > tʂ
x j > 0 0
s > t̪
t > s/_a
t > 0
k > s/_{i, u} (apparently doesn't happen all the time?)
k > 0 (only if it's not adjacent to a high vowel)
ŋ > n/_i (sometimes)
t̪ > t
c > t/_a (and > s everywhere else)
in between homorganic or identical phonemes, unstressed vowels were lost, forming geminates. this gives chuukese the illustrious honor of being one of the few languages to have geminates *initially*.
there seems to have been some glide insertion in between vowels and word initially, but I can't make any consistent headway on this phenomenon. for instance, the reflex of *topu 'sugarcane' is not the expected oow, but instead it is woow.

Vowel changes:
u > ú when "not adjacent to a labial consonant, whether retained or lost"
iu, ui > úú
ae ea > áá
ao > óó
a aa > á áá/_Ce
a aa > ó óó/_Co
a aa > e áá/_i, Ci, yi, wi aa > ee frequently, also
a > é/_u, Cu aa > éé/_u often, > oo sometimes.
a aa > o óó/_u, Cu
ei eu > ii uu
oa > aa or óó/aC_
oi > ii
oo > éé sometimes
ou > uu or úú with a few exceptions, e.g. *topu
high/mid vowel combinations underwent a sort of vowel harmony, with irregular results. for instance, iCo could become iCe or uCo with no apparent determining factors.
V > 0/_#

note: á é ó ú are the traditional ways of indicating certain vowels in micronesian, as far as I can tell they're /æ ə ɒ ɨ/ respectively.

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PostPosted: Wed Jul 13, 2016 8:00 pm 
Sumerul
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Proto Micronesian to Kiribati
f > 0
k > 0 (occasionally if the morpheme contained *t)
x > 0
t > 0, k (occasionally if the morpheme contained *k) [for t > k, e.g *kuRita > kiika
c > t
r > 0
{s j t'} > r
{l ñ} > n
ɨ > i (ɨ from *u)
{ui iu} > ii
V[+high] > 0/N_# (except in the sequence *ŋu)
t > s/_i

Proto Micronesian to Marshallese
f > y
x > 0
j > 0
{t c} > j
s > t
t' > d
l n > lˠ nˠ/_{a, o} (*o does not always condition this change)
n l r k ŋ > nʷ lʷ rʷ kʷ ŋʷ when adjacent to a rounded vowel, unless the only adjacent rounded vowel is a single u
ñ > n

Obviously there are vowel changes in Marshallese, but they were not elaborated on very clearly in the literature, except for the dissimilation of low vowels: a > e before a syllable containing *a. Maybe the vowels just lose all distinctive qualities except height?
the other change that is apparent is V > 0/_#. This is practically a pan-Micronesian thing.

'j' and 'd' mean /tʲ rʲ/, 'l n' should similarly be read as palatalized in modern marshallese.

Sources for this post and the previous one are Proto Micronesian Reconstructions: I (Bender et al. 2007) and Gradual and Quantum Changes in the History of Chuukese Phonology (Goodenough 1992)

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PostPosted: Thu Jul 14, 2016 9:21 pm 
Smeric
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Information in this post is from Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Brittonic languages". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brittonic_languages&oldid=715798370. Note that these are changes in consonants only.

Proto-Celtic to Late Brittonic

sɸ → f
ɸ → Ø
b t d k g → β d ð g ɣ / V_V
β ɣ → v j
pː bː tː dː kː gː → ɸ b θ d x g
ɸ → f
t → θ / x_
j → i / #_
j → ð / _#
kʷ → p / #_
kʷ → b
lː → l
mb nd → mː nː
m → β̃ / ! {#,C}_
C → Ø / _m
s → f / #_r
s → Ø / #_{l,m,n}
s → {h,s} / #_
s → h / #_w
w → ˠw → ɣw → gw / #_
Ø → h / V_#

Late Brittonic to Breton

θ ð → {z,h} {z,Ø}
j → Ø / V_V
x → {x,h}
mː → m
nː → n(ː)
β̃ → v, while nasalizing at least some preceding segments—not sure if it's just vowels or if consonants are affected
h → x / _w
h seems to have been lost sometimes when it developed initially from *s; not sure if that's analogical due to consonant mutation or not
h → {x,h} / V_#

Late Brittonic to Cornish

x → h
j → Ø / V_V
mː → m
nː → n(ː)
β̃ → v
hw → ʍ

Late Brittonic to Welsh

NB: I'm aware this has been done before but I'm including it anyway; maybe both sets of Welsh changes can be compared against each other and provide corrections, if any

l r → ɬ r̥ / #_
j → Ø / V_V
mː → m
nː → n(ː)
β̃ → {v,w}
t → {t,h} / n_
h → x / _w
h → x / V_#

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 15, 2016 10:08 pm 
Smeric
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The information in this post is from Fortescue, Michael (2011), Comparative Chukotko-Kamchatkan Dictionary. These rules are probably jumbled up somewhat chronologically and for the most part only deal with consonants.

I'm going to begin with a note on an alternation that possibly goes back to Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan. The exact environments are somewhat of a conjecture but the rules in general look like this:

k → ɣ / #_…K
q → ʁ / #_…Q

Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan to Alyutor

p t → v ð / #_ (sporadic)
qk → kː
c → ts → s
aw aj → oː eː
əw əj → {u,oː} {i,eː} (apparently vowel harmony has something to do with the outcome? The mid vowels always seem to be long, at any rate)
ʁ → ʔ / sporadic, ! #_
ɣ → w / _%
ð → t
{r,j} → ʃ (dialectal)
S → N / _N
ɣ{w,v} → wː
ɣ → v / _r
{t,n,r}l → lː
ɣ → w / _n
c → s / _q (dialectal)
c → nʲ / _N (dialectal)

Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan to Chukchi

p t → v ð / #_ (sporadic)
VqC → CʔV
ə → e / Cʔ_
ʔ → Ø / “in [the] final open syllable of noun stems” and in some reduplicants
CVʔ → ʔVC / ! _V
k → {ɣ,j} / _C ! _w
ʁ → ʔ
c ~ t / _#
c → ts (“in women’s speech”)
c → s / _q
c → {s,ʃ} (E and S dialects)
c → tʃ (W dialects)
ɣ → Ø / C_
{w,v} → ɣ / _u
w → v (NW dialects)
v → w (else)
l → ɬ ?
ð → ts (women’s speech)
ð → r
j → w / #u_(i)
j → ɣ / _C[+ coronal] (→ dʒ in W dialects)
ŋ → ɣ / {l,c}_
ŋ → ɣ / _N
ŋ → n / _C[+ alveolar]
ŋ → Ø / _#
VFV → VVː / male speech
{lː,cl} → tl
ðː → rː (S dialects)
{ðː,rː} → tː (NW dialects)
{ðː,rː} → tr
{p,c,r}t → tː
cː → tc
{r,ð} → t / _j
{wː,ɣw,wɣ} → kw
k → ɣ / _t
rn → nː
{k,ɣ} → {w,j}m
S → N / _N
{k,ɣ} → w / _p
k → ɣ / _j
ɣː → kɣ
{rk,rɣ,cɣ,tr,tc} → tsː (female speech)

Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan to Itelmen

p t → v ð / #_ (sporadic)
kː → xk
k → x / _q (sporadic)
t → s / _C[- voice]
t → ɬ / _R
t → ɬ / R_
ɬ (from *t) sometimes goes to l “initially in some common words”; sometimes some dissimilation occurs where → c or c’
p → f / _T (sporadic)
p → f / T_ (sporadic)
SVF → S’ (conditioning unknown, involves syncopation)
NVS → S’ (conditioning unknown, involves syncopation)
“clusters containing /r/ or /ð/” → c’ / #_ (sometimes)
Some type of syncopation happens
{w,v} → Ø / #_ (sporadic)
w → {f,x}
v → Ø / V_V
ʁ → χ / #_
ʁ → χ / _#
ʁ → Ø
ɣ → v / _C[+ voiced]
ɣ → v / C[+ voiced]_
ɣ → x / _C[- voiced]
ɣ → x / C[- voiced]_
x → f / W dialects
l → ɬ / _C[- voiced]
l → ɬ / C[- voiced]
ɬ → Ø / _s, in “the present tense” of verbs
l → d / #_ (E dialects)
l ɬ → n s / #_ (S dialects)
ð → Ø / #_C[+ alveolar]
{ð,r} → {s,z}
j…C[+ alveolar] → c…C[+ alveolar]
j → {z,s} / #_ (the latter is dialectal)
m n → b d / #_ (E dialects; “often medially too”)
ŋ → Ø / {#}_V (W dialects)
ŋ → ɣ (E dialects)
F[+ voiced] → Fː / “V_ (W dialects)
l(ə)ʁ l(ə)ɣ → {χ,x} x / #_
l → nʲ / _ɬ

Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan to Kerek

p t → v ð / #_ (sporadic)
q → χ / C_
ɣ → Ø / #_u
ɣ ʁ → h χ / #_
t → s / _i
c → t / _q
v → w
wə → u
ɣ → Ø / {C,V}_V ! near ə
ð → j / C_
ð → Ø / #_{ə,i}
ð → Ø / V_V
r → j / #_…r
r ~ t / _#
jə → i
S → N / _N
l{ŋ,ɣ} → lː
tl → lː
cŋ → tː
tk → tː
{t,ð,r}j → cː
ðː → tː
{ɣw,wː} → kː
km → mŋ

Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan to Koryak

p t → v ð / #_ (sporadic)
c ~ {t,j} / _#
c → t / _q
v → w / _%
ɣ → w / _%
ð → c / _F (dialectal)
ð → {z,j} (the former is dialectal)
jə → e / #_ (sporadic)
{tl,jl,lɣ} → lː
lʲn → lʲ
{tj,jː,ðr,tr,ðː,tc,rː} → cː (→ sː dialectally)
jw → wj
c → t / _q
ɣ{w,v} → wː
tk → cː (dialectal)
S → N / _N

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 19, 2016 3:01 am 
Smeric
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If I got stuff wrong, jump in and correct me. I'd like to write up some stuff on Min later today.

Old Chinese to Early Middle Chinese

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Historical Chinese phonology". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=721993734>

NB: It is unclear just what exactly the distinction was between type-A and type-B syllables.

INITIALS
g → {ɣ,ɦ} / type A
Tr → T[+ retroflex]
r → Ø / C_{V,C}
m̥ n̥ ŋ̊ ŋ̊w → x(j) tʰ(r) x xw / type A
r̥ l̥ → tʰ(r) {x,tʰ} / type A
m̥ n̥ ŋ̊ ŋ̊w → xw(j) {tʰrj,ɕ} xj xwj / type B
r̥ l̥ → {tʰrj,ɕ} tʰr / type B
l → d / #_ type A
l → j / #_ type B
Ø → j / _V type B
Tj → TŚ
Kʷ → Kw

MEDIALS/FINALS
Type-A syllables often underwent lowering or diphthongization of vowels (diphthongization being common for high vowels; the article cites *i → ej); the j-onset of type-B syllables sometimes caused vowel raising
j → Ø / a_
r → n
t k → j Ø / _s
Vs Vʔ → V[+ tone 2] V[+ tone 3]
VC → V[+tone 1]
u o → wi we / _{n,t,r,j}
Vowel changes that the article doesn't describe much beside the following:
- ɨj → ɛj / r_ in type A
- ɨj → ej / T_ in type A
- ɨj → oj / K_ in type A
- ɨj → woj / P_ in type A
- ɨj → ij / {r,T}_ in type B
- ɨj → jɨj / in type B

Early Middle Chinese to Late Middle Chinese

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Historical Chinese phonology". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=721993734>; and Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Four tones (Chinese)". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Four_tones_(Chinese)&oldid=728488270>

p(ʰ)j bj mj → f bv ʋ / _B
e → jie / {P,K,H}_
e → ie
ŋ k → jŋ jk / {æ,ɛ,e}_
ɛɨ → something (seems to have been restricted dialectally; Luoyang had → ɛj, Jinling had something like → ɛ)
j{ɨ(j),e} wj{ɨ(j),e} → i yj
"The III-4 chongniu equivalents of both of the above become /ji/ and /jyj/, respectively", whatever that means
u ju → uə juə (contested)
uw jow → əw yw
o → ə / ! _{m,j}
wə jə → u i / _C
{æ,ɛ} → aː / ! j_
{o,æ,ɛ,e} → a
{wj,jw}i → jy / _C
{wj,jw,wi,ju} → y / _C
w j → u i / _{a,ə}
u i → w j / _{u,aː,i}
Ø → j / {K,H}_aː
i → z̩ / {s,z,ts,tsʰ,dz,tɕ,tɕʰ,dʑ}_
j → Ø / {ʂ,ʐ,ʈʂ,tʂʰ,dʐ}_V
i → ə / {ʂ,ʐ,ʈʂ,tʂʰ,dʐ}_C
i → z̩ / {ʂ,ʐ,ʈʂ,tʂʰ,dʐ}_#
ɥ y → j i / {ʂ,ʐ,ʈʂ,tʂʰ,dʐ}_
ɲ → ɻ / #_
tɕ tɕʰ dʑ ɕ ʑ → ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ɖʐ ʂ ʐ
C[+ voiced] → [+ breathy]

Late Middle Chinese to Standard Mandarin Chinese

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Historical Chinese phonology". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=721993734>; and Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Four tones (Chinese)". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Four_tones_(Chinese)&oldid=728488270>

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_tones_(Chinese)

INITIALS
b d ɖ g v z dz ʐ dʐ ɣ → bʰ dʰ ɖʰ gʰ vʰ zʰ dzʰ ʐʰ dʐʰ ɣʰ / tone 1 syllables
ɳ ŋ → n Ø
ɻ → ɻ~ʐ
{k,ts} {kʰ,tsʰ} {gʰ,dzʰ} {s,x} {zʰ,ɣʰ} → tɕ tɕʰ dʑʰ ɕ ʑʰ / _{ɥ,y,j,i}
ʔ → Ø
ɣʰ → Ø / _{ɥ,j}
vʰ ʋ → f w

FINALS
j → Ø / _{y,i}
{y,i} → Ø / C[+ retroflex]_
u y → Ø i / P_
"Various other changes occur after particular initials."
aː → a
"Various other complex changes" in main vowels
m → n / V_#
k → {w,j,Ø} / V_#
{p,t} → Ø / V_#
"/wŋ wk/ become simple codas", as do /jŋ jk/, though these do something to the vowel

TONES
Basically, if I'm reading this right (and Wikipedia is clear as mud; the tone-correspondence table is a nightmare), tone 1 = Ping, tone 2 = Shang, tone 3 = Qu. Ru basically is a Shang syllable with a stop coda (if this is wrong, someone who is more in the know please correct me).

Ping → Yin Ping (55) / O[- voice]_
Ping → Yang Ping (35) / {R,O[+ voice]}_
Shang → Shang (214) / {O[- voice],R}_
Shang → Qu (51) / O[+ voice]_
Qu → Qu (51)
Ru → Ru (whatever) / O[- voice]_
Ru → Qu (51) / R_
Ru → Yang Ping (35) / O[+ voice]_
Voiced obstruents merge with voiceless ones

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 19, 2016 10:15 am 
Sumerul
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Pogostick Man wrote:
TONES
Basically, if I'm reading this right (and Wikipedia is clear as mud; the tone-correspondence table is a nightmare), tone 1 = Ping, tone 2 = Shang, tone 3 = Qu. Ru basically is a Shang syllable with a stop coda (if this is wrong, someone who is more in the know please correct me).

Qu syllables are usually considered as having a separate "tone" altogether, a 4th "tone".

Quote:
Ru → Ru (whatever) / O[- voice]_

I think it would be clearer to write "Ru → (any tone at random) / O[- voice]_"?

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 19, 2016 8:38 pm 
Smeric
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For tones, I follow the Wikipedia article's convention: The shorthand T D N refers to onsets of voiceless obstruents, voiced obstruents, and resonants, regardless of the place of articulation; NT and ND refer to the prenasalized ("softened") stops. *z *ɣ belong with the Nʰ/Dʰ group; *ʒ, with the D group; and *ɦ, with the ND group. Tones *A, *B, and *C occured on syllables that did not end in a stop. Tone *D only occurred on syllables that ended in a stop. There is probably a lot of information missing from the article.

[EDIT: OriginallyI had sound changes from Old Chinese to Proto-Min here but I think they were highly incorrect and so I have removed them.]

Proto-Min to Chaozhou

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Proto-Min language". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Min_language&oldid=730217259>; and Handel, Zev (2010), "Old Chinese and Min". <https://www.academia.edu/3500703/2010_Old_Chinese_and_Min>

NB: Tones only.

TONES
A B C D → 1 3 5 7 / {Tʰ,T,NT}_
A B C D → 2 4 6 8 / {N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,ND,z,ʒ,ɣ,ɦ}_

Proto-Min to Fuzhou

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Proto-Min language". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Min_language&oldid=730217259>; and Handel, Zev (2010), "Old Chinese and Min". <https://www.academia.edu/3500703/2010_Old_Chinese_and_Min>

INITIALS
mp nt nts ntʃ ŋk → p t ts tʃ k
tʃ tʃʰ → ts tsʰ
bʱ (m)b dʱ (n)d dzʱ (n)dz dʒʱ (n)dʒ gʱ (ŋ)g → pʰ p tʰ t tsʰ {s,ts} tsʰ s kʰ k
l̥ m̥ n̥ ŋ̊ → l m n ŋ
ɲ → n
{ʃ,z,ʒ} → s
{x,ɣ} H → h Ø

TONES
A B C D → 1 3 5 7 / {Tʰ,T,NT}_
C → 6 / {N,D,ND,ʒ,ɦ}_
C → 5 / {Nʰ,Dʰ,z,ɣ}_
A B D → 2 6 8 / else

FINALS
N → ŋ
k → ʔ / V[+ open]_
S → k / _

Proto-Min to Jian'ou

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Proto-Min language". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Min_language&oldid=730217259>; and Handel, Zev (2010), "Old Chinese and Min". <https://www.academia.edu/3500703/2010_Old_Chinese_and_Min>

INITIALS
mp mt {nts,ntʃ} ŋk → {p,Ø} t ts Ø
tʃ tʃʰ → ts tsʰ
bʱ (m)b dʱ (n)d dzʱ (n)dz dʒʰ dʒ ndʒ gʱ (ŋ)g → pʰ p tʰ t tsʰ ts s ts Ø kʰ k
l̥ m̥ n̥ ŋ̊ → s m n ŋ
ɲ → n
No information was given about the fricatives in the article

TONES
A B C D → 1 3 5 7 / {Tʰ,T}_
{A,B} {C,D} → 5 3 / NT_
A C → 5 6 / {N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,z,ʒ,ɣ}_
A {B,D} C → 3 4 6 / {ND,ɦ}_
{B,D} → 4 / N_
{B,D} → 6 / {Nʰ,Dʰ,D,z,ʒ,ɣ}_

FINALS
ɑm ɑn aŋ → aŋ ueŋ aŋ
N → ŋ
S → Ø

Proto-Min to Jianyang

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Proto-Min language". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Min_language&oldid=730217259>; and Handel, Zev (2010), "Old Chinese and Min". <https://www.academia.edu/3500703/2010_Old_Chinese_and_Min>

INITIALS
pʰ p mp tʰ t nt tsʰ ts nts tʃʰ tʃ ntʃ kʰ k ŋk → pʰ p {v,Ø} h t l {tsʰ,tʰ} ts l {tsʰ,tʰ} ts Ø kʰ k {Ø,h}
bʱ b mb dʱ d nd dzʱ dz ndz dʒʱ dʒ ndʒ gʱ g ŋg → pʰ p v h t l {tsʰ,tʰ} ts l {s,tsʰ} ts Ø kʰ k {k,Ø}
l̥ N[- voice] → s N[+ voice]
ɲ → n
{z,ʃ,ʒ} → s
ɣ → x
ʔ → Ø
ɦ → {Ø,h}

TONES
A C D → 1 5 7 / {Tʰ,T}_
A → 9 / {NT,ND,ɦ}_
A → 2 / {N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,z,ʒ,ɣ}_
B → 3 / {Tʰ,T,NT}_
B → 5 / {N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,ND,z,ʒ,ɣ,ɦ}_
C D → 9 3 / NT_
C D → 6 8 / {N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,ND,z,ʒ,ɣ,ɦ}_

FINALS
ɑm ɑn aŋ → aŋ ueŋ aŋ
N → ŋ
S → Ø

Proto-Min to Shaowu

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Proto-Min language". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Min_language&oldid=730217259>; and Handel, Zev (2010), "Old Chinese and Min". <https://www.academia.edu/3500703/2010_Old_Chinese_and_Min>

INITIALS
mp nt nts ntʃ ŋk → pʰ tʰ tsʰ tʃ k
{bʱ,(m)b} {dʱ,(n)d} {dzʱ,(n)dz} {dʒʱ,(n)dʒ} {gʱ,g} ŋg → pʰ tʰ tsʰ ʃ kʰ {kʰ,Ø}
l̥ → s
{ŋ,ŋ̊} → {n,ŋ}
No information was given about fricatives in the article

TONES
A C D → 1 5 7 / {Tʰ,T}_
{A,D} → 3 / NT_ (the reflex of the *B tone in this position is not given in the article)
A {C,D} → 2 6 / N_
A C → 7 5 7 / {Nʰ,Dʰ,z,ɣ}_
A {C,D} → 2 6 / {D,ND,ʒ,ɦ}_
B → 3 (but see above)

Proto-Min to Xiamen

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Proto-Min language". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Min_language&oldid=730217259>; and Handel, Zev (2010), "Old Chinese and Min". <https://www.academia.edu/3500703/2010_Old_Chinese_and_Min>

INITIALS
mp nt nts ntʃ ŋk → p t ts tʃ k
bʱ (m)b dʱ (n)d dzʱ (n)dz dʒʱ (n)dʒ gʱ (ŋ)g → pʰ p tʰ t tsʰ ts tʃʰ tʃ kʰ k
ɲ ŋ̊ → dz h
n̥ → h / _{y,i}
{l,l̥} {m,m̥} n n̥ ŋ → l b l h g / _V[- nas]
{l,l̥} {m,m̥} {n,n̥} ŋ → n m n ŋ / _V[+ nas]
ʃ ʒ → s z
{x,ɣ} {ʔ,h} → h Ø

TONES
A B C D → 1 3 5 7 / {Tʰ,T,NT}_
A {B,C} D → 2 6 8 / {N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,ND,z,ʒ,ɣ,ɦ}_

FINALS
ɑm ɑn aŋ → ã uã ĩ
S → ʔ / V[+ open]_

Proto-Min to Yong'an

From Wikipedia contributors (2016), "Proto-Min language". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Min_language&oldid=730217259>; and Handel, Zev (2010), "Old Chinese and Min". <https://www.academia.edu/3500703/2010_Old_Chinese_and_Min>

NB: Fricatives and laryngeals only.

INITIALS
z → ʃ
ʃ ʒ → {ʃ,s} {s,ʃ}
{x,ɣ} → {h,ʃ}
H → Ø

TONES
A B D → 1 3 7 / {Tʰ,T,NT}_
A {B,D} → 2 4 / {N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,ND,z,ʒ,ɣ,ɦ}_
C → 2 / NT_ (dubious)
C → 5 / {Tʰ,T,NT,N,Nʰ,Dʰ,D,ND,z,ʒ,ɣ,ɦ}_

FINALS
ɑm ɑn aŋ → ɔ̃ ãm ɔ̃
VN → V[+ nas], sometimes with changes to the preceding vowels
S → Ø

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PostPosted: Wed Jul 20, 2016 9:58 pm 
Smeric
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Information in this post is from this article.

Proto-Yeniseian to Ket

p w {dz,dʒ} → h b d / #_
{p,w} → Ø / ! _#
b → v / _V (conditioning beyond this uncertain)
b {d,dz,dʒ} → p t / _#
d → {d,r} / V_V
{r,r1,l} → l(ʲ)
{ts,tʃ} → t
{dz,dʒ} → {d,r} / V_V
s → ɕ / _V[+ high] or _E ?
sq → sː
rʲ → lʲ (→ l / #_ ?)
{ɢ,χ} {x,j} → q Ø / #_
{ɢ,ʔ}→ Ø
χ j → Ø i / _#
k g x q χ → ɣ {ɣ,ŋ} {ɣ,g} {ʁ,Ø} k / V_V
n → Ø / _t
tʃ → t / n_
ŋg ŋq → ɣ ʁ
r(ʲ) → lʲ / _{b,g}
rʲ → j / _g
rʲk → lː
s → ɕ / k_


Proto-Yeniseian to Yugh

p tʃ → f tʲ / ! #_
b {d,dz} dʒ → p t tʲ / _#
w ts rʲ h → b tʃ l Ø / #_
w → Ø / ! _#
r → l / ʌ_ (possibly after other non-high vowels?)
r → l / _b
ts dz → tʲ d
r1 → r
dʒ → dʲ / #_ (possibly V_V as well?)
rʲ ɲ → r n
q {ɢ,ʔ} → x Ø
g {ɢ,χ} {x,j} → k x Ø / #_
{k,x} χ → g k / V_V
{x,χ} q j → k {x,q} i / _#
q {ɢ,ʔ} → x Ø
n → Ø / _{t,s}
ŋk ŋq → g x
rʲk → rx
q → x / _t

Proto-Yeniseian to Kott

p t d ts dz → {f,pʰ} tʰ t h dʲ / #_
b d → p r
w → {b,m} / #_ (not sure what the exact conditioning is beyond this)
w → p / ! _#
ts → t / #_V[+ high]
ts → t
dʒ → tʃ / #_
{dz,dʒ,rʲ} → j / V_V
{dz,dʒ,rʲ} → i / _#
r1 → l
{s,tʃ} → ʃ / #_
s → tʃ / V_V (possibly only before front vowels?)
s → tʃ / n_
s → {ʃ,t} / _#
{lʲ,rʲ,j} → dʲ / #_
ɲ lʲ → n l
g {x,j} → i k / _#
{k,g,q,ɢ} x χ → {k,g} {Ø,j} {Ø,ʔ,j} / V_V
k {q,ɢ,χ} → {g,x} {k,g,x} / _#
ŋ ʔ → {ŋ,n} Ø
x q ɢ χ → Ø {x,kʰ} k h / #_
{ŋ,r} → Ø / _g
ŋq → ŋk
k → g / r_
{rʲ,j}b → jp
jt → tʰ
ks gd → (t)tʃ r
q s → Ø ʃ / _t
t → Ø / _p
tː sː → t tʃ

Proto-Yeniseian to Arin

p → {pʰ,f} / #_V[- high]
b d l → p Ø {l,r}
d → t / #_
d → j / i_#
w → b / ! _#
t → {d,t} / V_V
ts (→ k ?) → q / #_V[+ high]
{ts,dz} → k / #_V
ts {dz,dʒ} rʲ lʲ → t j l {r,l}
r1 ʔ ɲ → l Ø n
s → {s,ʃ,t} / _#
s → dʒ / n_
s → {s,ʃ,tʃ}
tʃ dʒ rʲ → {s,ʃ,tʃ,k} {s,ʃ} {t,d} / #_
j → Ø / #_ (sporadic? conditioned?)
k g ɢ χ → {k,q,x} k {k,q} {k(ʰ),q} / #_ (there's probably conditioning here that I'm missing)
{k,χ} ɢ → {g,j,Ø} {Ø,g} / V_V (there's probably conditioning here that I'm missing)
k χ → {Ø,j} Ø / _# (there's probably conditioning here that I'm missing)
x → k / #_ (sporadic?)
ŋ x → g Ø
q ɢ → {k,q} {u,j,Ø} / _#
q → Ø
n → Ø / _t
p → b / m_
g → Ø / ŋ_
r → n / _b
k → g / r_
lk rʲb rʲg → rq lk lp
j → Ø / _m
ks → ʃtʃ
gd → tk
qt → tː

Proto-Yeniseian to Pumpokol

p → {pf,pʰ} / #_V[+ high]
b {r1,rʲ} → p l
w → {w,m} (conditioning unclear)
t dʒ → {d,t} {j,dʲ} / V_V
ts dz → x k / #_
ts dz → t d
s j tʃ dʒ → {t,ts,s} {d,Ø} {x,k} tʃ / #_
s → {t,tʃ,s}
lʲ ɲ → l {ɲ,n}
j → t / V_V (?)
{k,χ} x ɢ → {k,x} {Ø,h} x / #_ (there's probably conditioning here that I'm missing)
k {g,χ} ɢ → {Ø,j} {k,g} {k,g,x,Ø} / V_V (there's probably conditioning here that I'm missing)
k q ɢ χ → {t,tʃ} k Ø {k,g} / _# (there's probably conditioning here that I'm missing)
q ʔ → {k,x} Ø
nt ŋk ŋg → (l)d n k
l → Ø / _p
rʲk rʲg → lx lk
gd → tk

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 31, 2016 11:40 pm 
Smeric
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Someone called "chridd" or "chri d. d." has made a searchable version of the Index Diachronica in both online and Unicode PDF form. I plan on releasing v.11.0 sometime this week (if possible; I have just started a new job) and plan to render it in XeLaTeX to make it Unicode-searchable from the get-go.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 23, 2016 7:51 pm 
Sumerul
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Note that a new, full reconstruction of Old Chinese was published in 2014, and OU's library just got a copy- Old Chinese-:A New Reconstruction by Baxter and Sagart. Doesn't seem to be cited anywhere on Wikipedia, but I checked it out out of curiosity and I'll see what I can do with it in the nearish future.


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PostPosted: Sat Nov 12, 2016 7:49 pm 
Sumerul
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Out of curiosity, I ILL'd Alan G. Wares' A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism. Since the Index currently has very little on the subject of Yuman, I thought I might make a post.

Proto-Yuman is generally reconstructed with the following consonants:

Code:
*p *t *ʈ *tʃ *kʲ *k *kʷ  *q *ʔ
*m *n    *ɲ
   *s *ʂ         *x *xʷ (*x̣)
*v *r     *j        *w
   *l    *ʎ


*x̣, written here with an underdot because the ZBB can't seem to differentiate <χ> and <x> in its font, is posited due to some not entirely regular correspondences that would otherwise have a reconstructed *x.

The vocalic system of Proto-Yuman is still not entirely understood, but it is thought to have been the standard five-vowel /a e i o u/, with phonemic length and stress. Wares does not go too deeply into the question of comparative vocalism, but does provide some correspondences for stressed vowels (and those only).

Wares classifies the Yuman languages into four groups based on phonological isoglosses:

a) The Northern Yuman group consists of Walapai, Havasupai, Yavapai, and Paipai, the first three of which form a subgroup, also confusingly called Northern Yuman; Paipai is spoken about three hundred miles from the others, but there are good reasons to believe they form a group, such as the split of *v to /w/ before a stressed syllable and /v/ after it and the merger of *l and *lʲ as /l/. To distinguish, we'll call Walapai+Havasupai+Yavapai 'Northern Yuman', with 'Macro-Northern Yuman' for the sum of Northern Yuman and Paipai.

b) Central Yuman, consisting of Mohave, Maricopa and Yuma, is distinguished from the rest of the family by a shared innovation of *j to /ð/ in pre-stressed position; it is also the only branch where *v does not undergo a stress-based split.

c) The Delta-California group, consisting of Cocopa, Diegueño, and Tipai, are distinguished by the split of *v to /w/ before the stress and /p/ after it, as well as retention of , which merges with *t elsewhere. They have also undergone a shift of *lʲ to /ɬ/.

d) Kiliwa is the fourth branch, consisting of a single language. It's the black sheep of the family: it has an additional aspirated series of stops, sometimes corresponding to stop-sibilant clusters elsewhere (e.g. Kiliwa pʰáʔ 'belly', Tipai pxá 'intestines'), but not usually. Kiliwa's become much better studied since Wares' monograph, which was published in 1968, so...someone's research topic? Otherwise, Kiliwa is notable for a shift of *r to /ɣ/, and sharing the Delta-California treatment of *v.

As a reminder, none of these are intended to be exhaustive, and if I were in the mood to get a bunch of dictionaries together and spend a few months with them, I could probably make some decent rewrites to the article. But, I'm not, so here you are.

Proto-Yuman to Northern Yuman
*ʈ > t
*v > w / _...V[+stress]
*v > v / V[+stress]..._
*s > θ
*ʂ > s
*x, *x̣ > h
*xʷ > hʷ
*l, *lʲ > l

Proto-Yuman to Paipai
*ʈ > t
*v > w / _...V[+stress]
*v > v / V[+stress]..._
*l, *lʲ > l


Proto-Yuman to Mohave
*ʈ > t
*s > θ
*ʂ > s
*x *x̣ > h
*xʷ > hʷ
*y > ð / _...V[+stress]
*í > é ! _(*lʲ *ɲ *ʂ)
*á > é (irregular/sporadic)
*ó > áw
*ú > ó / _k (unclear if universal)
[/b]

Proto-Yuman to Maricopa
*ʈ > t
*ʂ > ʃ
*y > ð / _...V[+stress]
*í > é ! _(*lʲ *ɲ *ʂ)
*á > é (sporadic, irregular)
*ó > áw
*ú > ó / *k_ (unclear if universal)

Proto-Yuman to Yuma
*t > ʈ / V[+stress]..._
*ʂ > ʃ
*x *x̣ > x
*y > ð / _...V[+stress]
*í > é ! _(*lʲ *ɲ *ʂ)
*á > á: / C_C, _# (sporadic)
*á > é (sporadic, irregular)
*ó > áw
*ú > ó / k_, _k (unclear if universal)

Proto-Yuman to Cocopa
*tʃ > s
*t > tʃ (apparently unconditionally)
*kʲ *k > k
*v > w / _...V[+stress]
*v > p / V[+stress]..._
*ʂ > ʃ
*s > ʂ
*n, *ɲ > ɲ (there is a synchronic ɲ/n distinction in Cocopa, but /n/ proper is rare and does not occur initially. There's one cognate set in the chapter on comparative vocabulary- Cocopa maní:š 'scorpion', with cognates in /n/ elsewhere, but it's not clear what's going on.)
*lʲ > ɬ
*é(:) > á(:)
*á > á: C_C, _# (sporadic)
*á > é (sporadic)
*ó > á
*ó: > á:, áw
*ó(:) > ú(:) (rare, conditions unclear)

Proto-Yuman to Diegueño
*ʈ > t
*kʲ, *k, *q > k
*v > w / _...V[+stress]
*v > p / V[+stress]..._
*ʂ > ʃ
*x, *x̣ > x
*lʲ > ɬ
*í > í: / _#
*é > á
*á > á: C_C, _# (sporadic)
*ó > áw
*ú > ó / k_ (unclear if universal)

Proto-Yuman to Tipai
*kʲ, *k > k
*v > w / _...V[+stress]
*v > p / V[+stress]..._
*ʂ > ʃ
*lʲ > ɬ
*é > á
*é: > áy
*á > é (sporadic)
*ó(:) > áw
*ú: > íw (sporadic; Wares also lists í as a variant reflex of , but there are no examples given where Tipai has that reflex, and I think it's a typo.)

Proto-Yuman to Kiliwa
*kʲ, *k, *kʷ > k (only one reflex of PY *kʲ given, and that with unexplained aspiration: Kiliwa pahkʰáy 'seven', cognate to Yuma pa:xkʲé:)
*v > w / _...V[+stress]
*v > p / V[+stress]..._
*s, *ʂ > s
*x, *x̣ > h
*xʷ > hʷ
*l, *lʲ > l
*r > ɣ
*í: > é:, ey (conditions unclear)
*á > á: / _# (not always)
*ó > áw
*ó: > ów, áw (conditioning unclear)
*ú > í


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PostPosted: Sat Nov 25, 2017 4:49 pm 
Sanci
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Does anyone have Common Slavic > Czech? Or can point to relevant reading to find out. I never did the module on Historical Linguistics at uni so I don't really know where to go to find lists of sound changes.


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PostPosted: Sat Nov 25, 2017 6:14 pm 
Sumerul
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This probably could help.

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