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zompist bboard :: View topic - The Correspondence Library
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The Correspondence Library
http://www.incatena.org/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=1533
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Author:  Whimemsz [ Sun Dec 07, 2003 3:50 pm ]
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Author:  Mecislau [ Sun Dec 07, 2003 4:04 pm ]
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Author:  DF [ Sat Apr 17, 2004 7:00 pm ]
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Author:  Siride [ Sat Apr 17, 2004 8:45 pm ]
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Some Germanic sound changes

From IE to common Germanic:
Consonants
bh, dh, gh > B, D, G
b, d, g > p, t, k
p, t, k > f, T, x > B, D, G (except initially or following IE stress, in which case they remained f, T, x)
s > z (except initially or following IE stress)
i/j > j after short vowel plus consonant, otherwise > ij
u/w > w after short vowel plus consonant, otherwise > uw

Vowels
a > a
a: > o:
e > i
e: > {: (e.g. *se:d- > *s{:t "sat")
o > a (e.g. *dhoghos > *DaGaz)
o: > o:
i > i
i: > i:
u > u (e.g. *ghutos > *GuDaz "god (being invoked?)")
u > u:

ei > i:
e:i > e: (?)
oi > ai (e.g. *stoigha > *staiG "ascended")
o:i > o: (?) (e.g. *ulkwo:i > *wulfo:? "wolf (dat. sg.)")
ai > ai
a:i > o: (?)

eu > iu (e.g. *geusonom > *kiusanan "to choose")
ou > au (e.g. *prousa > *fraus "froze")
au > au (e.g. *aug- > *auk- "increase")

Common Germanic to West Germanic
Consonants
B, D, G > b, d, g initially and following IE stress (but *gefan < *ghebh- "give")
z > r or disappeared (e.g. *dagaz > *dag but *hauzjan > *haurjan "to hear")
Cj > CCj (unless C == *r), (e.g. *satjan > *sattjan "to set")

Stressed Vowels
A-umlaut (common and early enough to be included here):
i > e preceding syllable with a, o in it (e.g. *GiBanan > *gefan "to give")
u > o preceding syllable with a, o in it (e.g. *GulDaz > *gold "gold")
final o: > u: (*GiBo: > *gefo: > *gefu:)

That's all for now.

Author:  Shm Churmey [ Mon May 03, 2004 6:12 pm ]
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I'm reviving this thread to post a link to this:

Which is a study of the historical phonology of Ancient Greek, and has a list of changes from PIE to Ancient Greek.

Author:  civman2000 [ Thu May 06, 2004 5:40 pm ]
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So you're at Washington University? I live a couple blocks away and am going there next year!

GOD

Author:  pharazon [ Thu May 06, 2004 5:45 pm ]
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Author:  civman2000 [ Thu May 06, 2004 5:57 pm ]
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Author:  Mecislau [ Fri Jun 18, 2004 5:44 pm ]
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Today I've managed to find a bunch of Latin to Spanish sound changes. Here's the list I've compiled:

V = vowels
C = consonants
O = obstruents
S = sonorants
L = liquids
U = back vowels
E = front vowels
N = nasal
K = velar
? = stressed vowel
A = unstressed vowel

(I originally had this in IPA, but a lot of people here probably can't display the IPA characters. To distinguish between X-SAMPA and the above categories, I've underlined all of the capitalized SAMPA letters)

Vulgar Latin > Spanish

I: > i
[i, e:] > e
[ae, e] > ie
[a:, a] > a
o > ue
[au, o:, u] > o
u: > u

C > ? / _# (if C is not l, s, n)
f > h > ? / #_
v > b
z > s
Z > S
S > x
w > B
B > b / V_V
B > b / V_L
p > b / V_V
j > x / #_U, ? elsewhere
tj > ts > s / #_, C_
kj > ts > s / #_, C_
tj > dz > z > s / V_V
kj > dz > z > s / V_V
O > ? / OldSp. _ts
dj > ts > s / C_
[dj,gj] > ? / _E
[dj, gj] > j / _
nj > J / _
g > ? / #_
g > ? / V_V
p > b / V_V, _L
t > d / V_V, _L
k > g / V_V, _L
A > ? / ?(C)_(C)?
lj > L > Z > x / _
g > dz > s / [n, r]_
mp > m / _C
m > n / _[t, d]
n > m / [p, b]
n > l / _m
n > r / nK_
[p, b, l] > w > ? / _$
kt > jt > tS / V_V
kt > jt / _C
lt > jt > tS / u_V
lt > jt / _C
ks > js > S / V_V
ks > js / _#, _C
[kl, gl] > jl > L > Z > S > x / V_V
[kl, gl] > jl / _C
gn > jn > J / V_V
k_w > k / _V (other than a)
k_w > kj > ts > s / _V (rare)
k_w > gw / V_a
k_w > kw / #_a
[pl, fl, kl] > tS / C_, L elsewhere (with exceptions)
C > ? / _tS (if C is not N)
ps > ss / _
pt > tt / _
SS > S / _C (if S = S)
ll > L / _
nn > J / _
rr > r / _
OO > O / _ (if O = O)
e > ? / _#
dn > nd / _
? > e / _sC
Vr > rV / _#

("k_w" is supposed to be [k_w])

(Note that these aren't in any real order... I just added them in the order I found them, but I moved some things around when their locations were more obvious or needed to be before another change. Hopefully there aren't any mistakes here :wink: )

Anyone here who knows more, feel free to add/correct/re-order the above.

Also, I remember a thread awhile ago about PIE > Latin changes (IIRC). Would someone mind posting that here?


I'll post more stuff on other languages when I find some...

Author:  Allie [ Fri Jun 18, 2004 8:03 pm ]
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Cool. :) I really wanted those sound changes.

Author:  civman2000 [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 7:54 am ]
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Author:  finlay [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 7:58 am ]
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Author:  civman2000 [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 8:09 am ]
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Author:  Ran [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 10:04 am ]
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Author:  Mecislau [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 11:18 am ]
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Author:  civman2000 [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 11:35 am ]
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Author:  Mecislau [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 11:46 am ]
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Author:  civman2000 [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 12:00 pm ]
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Author:  Mecislau [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 12:40 pm ]
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Author:  Mecislau [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 1:53 pm ]
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Author:  civman2000 [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 2:58 pm ]
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Author:  Mecislau [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 4:42 pm ]
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Author:  Soap [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 9:38 pm ]
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fuerza's an irregular of some sort, I think. Are those double consonants up there like (ps > ss) correct? Spanish doesnt have any double consonants.

EDIT: -ción is not a native Spanish word ending. The native ending is in fact /Ton/, spelled -zón, but occurring in only a few words such as razón "reason". All the words that have ción are reborrowings from Latin.

Author:  Mecislau [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 9:49 pm ]
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Author:  pharazon [ Sat Jun 19, 2004 10:49 pm ]
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