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PostPosted: Sat Apr 05, 2014 12:19 pm 
Lebom
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Quick Question on this thread.

Some folks I know who aren't part of the boards really appreciate the Index. They also noticed that it is under a creative commons license. We were wondering where we might be able to get the .tex file so that we could play around with it.

Thanks.

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PostPosted: Sat Apr 05, 2014 3:14 pm 
Avisaru
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 05, 2014 3:42 pm 
Lebom
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Thanks kindly!

We're going to try to organize ourselves such that we can hopefully update the KneeQuickee too. I noticed the Greek was a bit light, and as a Greek, I wanted to get it. I've got some stuff on Kypriot Greek too, so, once the semester is over, I'll try to put all that fun stuff here.

One guy is actually pretty great at Japanese in the group, so hopefully that produces too.

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PostPosted: Mon Apr 28, 2014 12:13 am 
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Version 5.0 of the Index is out, now featuring Macro-Pama-Nyungan.

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PostPosted: Thu May 01, 2014 5:33 pm 
Avisaru
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Proto-Naish to Naxi

(From Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), "Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze". Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468–498)

a → e / T_%
a → i / ŋ_%
a → ɯ / {R,w}_%
a → wa / {K,ŋ}w_%
a → e / ! K_%
a aS → ɑ {ɑ,o} / _%
iN → ɚ / {Pr,Cr,T}_%
i → ɯ / {T,R,kr}_%
u → ɯ / T_%
u → ɚ / Pr_%
u o → v̩ u
B → v̩ / {qʰ,(N)q}_
V% → ˧ / C_ru
V% → ˥
Np → p / _V
{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies that similar developments occurred with consonants at other POAs)
{r,s}(N)k → k _V
Sb Sk Sg → b ? g / _V
n̥ → l̥ → h / %_V
{r,s} → Ø / %_V
{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV

Proto-Naish to Na/Mosuo

(From Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), "Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze". Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468–498)

a → e / {R,T}_%
a → wɤ / {K,ŋ}w_%
a → i / ! K_%
a aC → ɑ {ɑ,o} / _%
iN → æ / {P,C}r_
iN → i / T_
i → ɯ / {T,R,kr}_
i → v̩ / m_
u → i / T_
u o → v̩ u
B → ɔ / {qʰ,(N)q}_
V% → ˦˥
{Np,mb} → b / _V
{r,s}pʰ {r,s}p {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies that similar developments occurred with consonants at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V
S{b,g} Sk → Ø h
n̥ → l̥ / %_V
{r,s}l {r,s}N → l̥ N̥ / %_V
N̥V → hṼ
l̥ → ɬ / %_V

Proto-Naish to Laze

(From Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), "Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze". Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468–498)

a u → e y / T_%
a → i / {ŋ,w}_%
a → wɤ / {K,ŋ}w_%
a → ɯ / R_%
a → ie / ! K_%
a aS → ɑ {ɑ,u}
iN → æ / {P,C}r_%
iN → i / T_%
i → ɯ / {T,R}_%
i → v̩ / m_%
u o → v̩ u
B → o / {qʰ,(N)q}_
V% → ˩
{Np,mb} → b / _V (the paper implies that similar developments occurred with consonants at other POAs)
{r,s}p(ʰ) {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → f v / _V (the paper implies that similar developments occurred with consonants at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → f w / _V
S{b,g} Sk → v h / _V
{r,s}l {r,s}n → ɬ h / %_V
n̥ → l̥ / %_V
{r,s}l {r,s}N → l̥ N̥ / %_V
N̥V → hṼ
l̥ → ɬ / %_V

Tonal Developments of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu

(From Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), "Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze". Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468–498; citing Matisoff 2003:186, 248–249, 314)

-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ

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PostPosted: Thu May 08, 2014 1:36 am 
Avisaru
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This was a huge pain to write up, but…

Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal
(From Grandgent, Charles Hall (1905), "An outline of the phonology and morphology of old Provençal", Revised Edition)

NB: Use at your own peril. Trying to put a chronology to this is sort of like what I imagine undergoing a root canal would be like, as is figuring out the conditioning on a lot of these things because of the convention Grandgent uses. Nevertheless, I have tried…and probably largely failed. In any case the sections regarding the development of the vowels are placed first, because the source does that and other Romance changes posted here do similarly, and the grouping of the consonants is in large part informed by the surce. Also, I use % here to denote a syllable boundary because I didn't want to have to open yet another window so I could throw a sigma into my document.

Stress shift: Secondary stress shifts to two syllables away from the penult. If the secondary tonic precedes the tonic, that vowel is considered stressed for the purpose of subsequent sound changes, and at some point the intervening vowel drops. Vowel changes assume the changes in Vulgar Latin as listed elsewhere in this thread.
VN → Vː / _S (except for the prefixes con-, in-); I'm assuming this change happened in Vulgar Latin and then vowel length went to quality

STRESSED VOWELS

ɪ → e
ʊ → o (this change seems to have happened later, hence is listed separately)
ɔ → y / _{u,P,k,g,i} (in northwestern dialects)
ɔ → ɥe / _{u,P,k,g,i} (in western dialects, Limousin, and Auvergne)
ɔ → ɥo / _{u,P,k,g,i} (in Languedoc)
ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,g,i} (in southern dialects)
a → a / _N (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
a → a / _# in monosyllables and oxytones (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
a → å (I have no idea what is going on here. Grandgent seems to distinguish an open and close /a/, and I have listed his open a as /å/, which seems to have been distinct from /ɔ/, but beyond this section it doesn't really seem to matter very much)
å ɛ ɔ → a e o / _N (in Limousin and neighboring regions)
ɛ ɔ → jɛ wɔ (intermittent, "least common in the southwest")
e → i / _V (V_?)
e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}
ɛ ɔ → e o / _N (Limousin, Languedoc, Gascon; this change may have been blocked when _ɲ)
ɛ → jɛ / _{u,i,ʎ,rʲ,ʃ,ʒ,j,tʃ,dʒ} (except in some northern and western dialects, or if this u ← l or i ← ð)
ju → jeu
o → y / _{tʃ,dʒ,it,id} (did not occur in Dauphiné)
o → y / _ɲ (in northern and western dialects)
o → y / _i# (in Bordeaux, Auvergne, and some Languedoc)
ɔ → {ɔ,we} (in southwestern dialects)
u → y
o → u (during literary period)

UNSTRESSED VOWELS

E → Ø / _e
B → Ø / _o
E → j (presumably in the vicinity of another vowel)
V → Ø (/a/ seemed to resist this)

INITIAL SYLLABLE

{a,œ,e,i} → e
u → o
au → a / _(C…)u
V → Ø / _r (seemed to be an intermittent change)
Lots and lots of analogical formations

INTERTONIC

V → Ø (again, /a/ seemed to resist this change, though it was in general often blocked by analogy)

PENULT

V → Ø / "penult of proparoxytones", though /a/ often remained "as an indistinct e", probably /ə/
V often retained when {tʃ,dʒ,j}_, especially if CC_, or when {(k)s,sː,sj}_
V is retained when P_C[+dental]
CVK → CVj (intermittent if C was a liquid or a nasal)
V → Ø / lv_r (dialect-dependent)
e → i / _(C…)i(C…)#

FINAL (again, /a/ seems to be a persistent exception to this)

V → Ø / R_(C…)
Grandgent remarks that /i/ was probably the last vowel to drop out
a → o in most dialects (except Gascon and Languedoc; final -as remained in "Limousin and some others")
/i/ and /u/ remain when "V_ (then u → y, &c.)
e u → e o / _nt#
-os remains "in the extreme east"
final -i remains "as late as the 12th century" in some regions (Aude, Tarn, Aveyron, Corrèze, some speakers of Haute-Garonne)
Epenthesis of e in 2SG "of some verbs"
V → "indistinct e" (again, probably /ə/) if dropping it would create ugly consonant clusters:
— C_L, P_C[+dental], C_tʃ, C_k, C_m, Cn where "originally separated by the vowel of the penult" (proparoxytones)
— Ḱ_r (paroxytones)
— Where the cluster would be unwieldy otherwise, apocope happened
Final /(m)bj mnj pj rnj/ "required a supporting vowel" (dialect-dependent)
V → e "in many late words"

K → Ø / _l (not always, but this was a general change)
v → b / r_ (sporadic)
h → Ø
b d g → β ð ɣ / V_V
βj → j (in forms of habeo and debeo)
k g → tʃ dʒ / _E
tʃ → ts (sometimes)
g → Ø / V_(VC…)"V
j → Ø / V_"E
N → Ø / _#, in polysyllables
kʷ gʷ → k g / _B
rs → sː
sː → s / Vː_
d → Ø / V_V (seems to have happened in the north and northeast at some point)
p t k s → b d g z / V_V (this b → v?)
Ø → i / #_sC
w → v → Ø / _u ("restored by analogy in many words")
w → v → Ø / _"o
w → v → β
β → w / V_C
w → Ø / C_B (when from earlier B?)
k → Ø / _s{C,# in polysyllables}
{d,g} → Ø / _j
Loan phonemes:
— Loaned /b/ did not lenite
— Loaned /k/ did not palatalize
— Loaned w → gw
Original z (/ts/?) → dj → j
Greek /k/ shows up as variously /k g/
pʰ → f
Some reanalysis of initials as medials depending on how the prefix was considered; if it lost its prefixal consideration it was treated as a medial
(s)k g → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
tʃ → ts → s / #_
j → dʒ / #_ (but not in Béarn)
f → h (in Béarn and Gascon)
β → b (in Béarn, Gascon, and Languedoc)
β → v (though sometimes → gw instead by analogy)
kʷ gʷ → kw gw (in western dialects)
kʷ gʷ → k g (else)
Ø → k / #s_l
i → e / #_sC
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ g → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
tʃs → {tʃ,ts} (varies)
j → i / _(s)#
ð → Ø / _#
ð → t / _s#
β → u / V_(s)#
β → {Ø,f} / C_(s)# (latter is rare)
n → Ø / V_# (did not occur in extreme western areas, some northern areas, the southeast, and the east)
n → Ø / _s# (except for eastern and southeastern dialects)
n → Ø / r_(s)#?
kː → tʃ / _a (in the east and northeast)
lː → l (in the south)
rː~r stuff, not sure what was going on there, but it seems like this distinction lingered on into the literary period but the two may have been in the process of merging
mn → mpn → nː (dialectal)
Cː → C
g → k / B_ (your guess is probably better than mine)
g → {k,j} / V_ (if /j/ resulted it dropped after /i/; forms with k are "most persistent in the west" and more common overall)
l → w / V_s
ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)
{p,b} → Ø / R_s# (unless analogy wins out)
ts → s / _# (Provence, Limousin, some Languedoc and Gascon)
β → Ø when pretonic and immediately adjacent to a back vowel
β → b / V_V (in western and some central dialects)
β → v (otherwise)
tʃ → i / _C
tʃ → i / C_
tʃ → jdz → jz / V_V (the southern and northwestern development)
tʃ → dz → z / V_V (otherwise)
ð → i / C_
ð → i / _C ! _s#
ð → z (except in some northern & eastern dialects where → Ø)
g → j / _a (in the north and east; further → dʒ in the north)
g → g / _{o,u/y}
g → j → dʒ "[b]etween the last two vowels of a proparoxytone", though it dropped early in some dialects
dʒ → j
l → u / _s# (in many dialects)
s → r / _n (in a few dialects)
j → dʒ / _"E (in the west)
j → Ø / _"E
j → i / _C
j → dʒ / V_V (not in the northeast and some northern dialects)
βl → ul
{t,d}l → lː
{k,g}l → ʎ
Ø → b / m_l
p j → b i / _l
b → {b,u,u→y→i} / _r
β → {u,u→y→i} / _r
p k tʃ → b g i / _r
{t,d} → ð → i / _r
ð → Ø / au_
g → Ø / _r
Ø → d / z_r
Ø → d / {l,n}_r (in a few dialects)
Ø → b / m_r
Ø → t / s_r
j → i / _r
βw → wː → gʷ → g
tw → dw → gʷ → g
{d,k}w → gʷ → g
(kʷ → gʷ → g?)
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋg}w → lgʷ ŋgʷ → lg ŋg
pw → upw → up → ub
sw → s ?
βj → {udʒ,uj} (in northern dialects)
β → u / _j (in western dialects)
β → {b,v} / _j (in southern and eastern dialects)
ktj klj → is ʎ
{tʃ(:)j,kʷj} → ts
dVg n(d)Vg → dʒ(?) ndʒ
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
lː{j,Vdʒ} lnj → ʎ ɲ
lnj → ɲ
lvj → lbj → ubj
j → Ø / n_# (in many dialects)
nj → ɲ
mbj → {mbj,mdʒ,ndʒ}
mnj → ɲ (Limousin, extreme E & SW)
mnj → ndʒ
mj → {mj,ɲ}
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
{ndj,ndʒj} ndʒ → ɲ {ɲ,ndʒ}
p → b / _rj
ptj → ts → s
pj → ptʃ → tʃ (except in western and some southern dialects)
rtʃj → rts (→ rs?)
rdj rVg → rdz rdʒ
rdʒ → {rdʒ,rdz(→ rz)}
rːVg → rdʒ
rːj → ir
rtVg → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
rtj → rts → rs
v → {v,b} / r_j
rj → rʲ → ir / V_V
rj → rʲ → r / _#
{ssj,stʃj,stj} → ʃ → is (except in the west or in the extreme east, where the outcome was some flavor of (i)(t)ʃ)
sj → ʒ → (i)(d)ʒ (some northeastern, northern, and western dialects), iz (the usual outcome), j (rare), z (rare)
tVg → dʒ
trj → ir
tːj → ts → s
tj → tʃ → dj → djʒ (?) → dz (in the north and west) or idz (in the south and east)—medial (i)dz became (i)z; i-less forms "prevail in the literary language" and seem to have become common if dz follows the stress
l → u / _{t,s} (in Languedoc)
l → u / _{d,s} (in Rouergue)
l → u / _{t,d,s} (othrwise)
ntʃ → n(t)s
ndt → {nd,nt}
nf → {nf,fː(→f)}
nkt ndtʃ → {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nts,ndz(→nz),ndʒ}
nt nd → {Ø,n} Ø /_# (some Languedoc & Gascon)
nd → n / _# (in western dialects and for some Limousin)
nd → nt / _#
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→rz),rts,rdʒ}
rdg → r{g,dʒ} / _a
t → Ø / rd_
t → Ø / r_m (sometimes)
stʃ → s (in some northern and northeastern dialects)
stʃ → (i)(t)ʃ (for western and extreme eastern regions)
stʃ → is
k → Ø / s_b (sporadic?)
{p,t} → Ø / s_m (sporadic?)
p → Ø / s_t
stg → {sg,sdʒ}
bk → pts / _a
b → {Ø,u} / _rg
b → Ø / _s{t,k}
b → {Ø,b} / _t
b → Ø / _ts
β → u / _k
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
βt βd → pt bd (in the west)
βt βd → ut ud (everywhere else)
ktʃ → (i)tʃ (in western and extreme eastern dialects)
ktʃ → its → is
k → {Ø,k} / _m
tʃ → {i,s} / _m
kt gd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
{k,tʃ}t gd → tʃ dʒ
dtʃ → ts (in Auvergne and some western areas)
dtʃ → dʒ (for some southeastern and southwestern speakers)
dtʒ → dz → z
g → Ø / _m
gn → ŋn → ɲ
gn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
ksk → stʃ / _a (in the north and northeast)
k → Ø / _sk
ks → ʃ → s / _m
ksː → is
p → Ø / _f
pk → ptʃ / _a)
The outcome of ps varied: Some dialects left it unchanged, (i)ʃ in W, us in E, or is
pt → {ut,it} ("in a few words")
pt → t "(except in parts of Languedoc and Gascony)"
td → tː → t
jd → {dʒ,id}
Some dialects lost all final k, some only dropped it B_#, with → i / {a,E}_#
{d,l} → Ø / _#
t → Ø / _# ! "in the preterit of verbs", though it tended to drop "in strong preterits"
The outcome of final nt was usually n, but this was kept in the ending -ant in extreme northern and some southern areas; further, "in some dialects the n fell after o, u"

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PostPosted: Tue May 13, 2014 10:12 pm 
Avisaru
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Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romance

(From Wikipedia contributors (2014), "Rhaeto-Romance languages". Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <>)

NB: These are probably very incomplete and too general, but they seem to be the key distinguishing features of Rhaeto-Romance

ɛ e → ej je
a → e / stressed, usually Ḱ_
uː → y (→ i in most descendants, except Engadine)
a V → e Ø / in U# (except the ending -is survives in Friulian)
k g → tʃ dʒ / _a (note the similarity to some varieties of Old Provençal)
/pl kl fl/ preserved
Germanic /w/ in loans preserved
C[+voiced] → Ø / V_V (only obstruents?)
C[-voiced] → C[+voiced] / V_V
Final /s/ preserved

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PostPosted: Wed May 14, 2014 3:11 am 
Avisaru
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The below is from Firespeaker.org Wiki contributors (2014), "Turkic sound changes". <>

Proto-Altaic to Pre-Proto-Turkic

{ʒ,dʒ} > j / #_
{d,n} > j / #_ (?)

Pre-Proto-Turkic to Proto-Turkic

{N,l,r,ʃ,z} > Ø / #_
p > ɸ > h / #_
d g > k t (may have been part of a more sweeping merger; Firespeaker calls it "lenis-fortis")
{d,n}ʲ sʲ > j ʃ / #_
rʲ > z

Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchak

V̆ > Ø (shared with Old Turkic)
h > Ø / #_ (shared with Old Turkic)
nʲ > j
b…n > m…n
d ɣ > t x / _#
d > t / #_ ("kind of", something about evidence from borrowings)
V > V[- round] / U_
b > v / V_
v > w
gm rg > mg rg (? this second one might actually be gr, but I'm not sure if it's a typo)
rd > dr (possibly sporadic and/or confined just to Kazakh)
ɣ > w / {a,u,i,o}_
{e,æ}b ub > ew uw
{d,g} > j / ø_
d > ð > j / V_
g > w / V_
ew (> øj) > yj
æ > e
s > tʃ / _Vtʃ
s > ç / _Vç
a > æ / ! _V[+ back]
f > w / _V
f > p / else
ŋ > g / syllable-initial

Proto-Kypchak to Kazakh

NB: Most likely incomplete; all changes listed are stated as being "[s]hared with Nogay and Karakalpak"

s tʃ > s ʃ
j > dʒ / #_ (did not occur in Qara Nogay)
dʒ > ʒ (did not occur in Qara Nogay or Central Nogay)
w > Ø / ɯ_

Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz

j > Ø / _l (sporadic?)
b > m / V_V (sporadic?)
{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w > uː yː oː øː
ɣ > Ø / V_V
æ Vh {ʕ,h} > ɑː Vː Ø (seem to have been largely confined to loanwords from Persian)
j > dʒ / #_
x > q
nj > jn
Ø > U / #_{l,r} (not sure what <U> represents here; maybe just some sort of back vowel?)
e > i / _g
e > i / k_y (k_j?)

[size=125]Proto-Turkic to Sakha

{e,ɤ}ː > je (the second one is conjectured based on my admittedly sparse knowledge of Turkish; I can only guess that <ė> is some sort of back unrounded vowel)
o og ø øg ig > wo ɥø oː øː iː
a{ğ(ɯ),b} {o{ğ,b},ağu} u{ğ,b} > ɰa wo uː
iğ > ɯː > iː (but original ɯː unaffected?)
eg > {je,iː,ji}
d s {ʃ,z} > t Ø s / V_V
s > Ø / #_
{z,ʃ} > h
j > s (possibly only initially?)

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PostPosted: Thu May 22, 2014 7:06 pm 
Lebom
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I'd like to request sound changes for Proto-Mongolic to modern Mongol.


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PostPosted: Sat May 24, 2014 2:03 am 
Niš
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EDIT: Found it:

Note: -ay and -aw changed through A and B, with the same sound correspondence in the different languages (e.g. In A. 'ay' respectively turns to 'i' and 'ey' in PM an PBSS, while in B. respectively turns to 'ay' and 'e')

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic

j > d
j > t /_#
z > j
w > 0 /#_
R > r
q > h
h > 0 (sometimes changes to a glottal stop at the end of a word)
iw > i /_#
uy > i /_#

A.
ay > i /_#
aw > u /_#

B.
ay > ay /_#
aw > aw /_#

-CxCy- > -Cy- (e.g. PMP 'gilgil' > PM 'gigil' -ie. 'Reduction of consonant cluster to their last component')

Heterorganic consonant clusters (involving a nasal + stop) became homorganic (e.g. PMP 'diŋdiŋ' > PM 'dindiŋ')

C(+VOICE) > C(-VOICE) /_#

[ʔh]əS > (h)əNS /#_ (e.g. PMP 'həpat' > PM 'əmpat')

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamic

j > d
z > j
w > 0 /#_ (with following *a turning into u)
R > r
q > h
h > 0
u > ɔw /_#
i > ɔy /_#
iw > ? /_# (unsure)
uy > uy /_#

A.
ay > ay /_#
aw > ? (unsure) /_#

B.
ay > ay /_#
aw > aw /_#

-CxCy- > -Cy-

Heterorganic consonant clusters (involving a nasal + stop) became homorganic

C(+VOICE) > C(-VOICE) /_#

l > r /#_ (sometimes)
n > l /#_ (sometimes)
d > r (sometimes)
j > ḷ (sometimes)

Sometimes a reduction of penultimate vowel
Lengthening of some *a's in closed final syllables

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan

j > d
j > [d,t] /_#
z > j
w > 0 /#_
R > r
q > 0 ('h' at the end of the word)
h > 0
iw > i[?] /_# (unsure)
uy > i /_#

A.
ay > ey /_#
aw > ow /_#

B.
ay > e /_#
aw > ow /_#

-CxCy- > -CxCy- (e.g. PMP 'gilgil' > PBSS 'gilgil')

Heterorganic consonant clusters (involving a nasal + stop) remained heterorganic (e.g. PMP 'diŋdiŋ' > PBSS 'diŋdiŋ')

C(+VOICE) > C(+VOICE) /_#

[ʔh]əS > [(h)əS,(h)əNS] /#_

Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinese

r > [r,h] > [0,h]
[h-, -h-, -h] > [0,h]
iw > ib
ow > u
ey > i
ə assimilated to the following vowel after the loss of *-r-
a > ə

Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasak

h > [0,-q]
iw > i /_#
ow > o /_#
ey > e /_#
*i and *u often become mid-vowels
V(h) > [V,Vq] /_#
a > ə /_# (only in Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku dialects)
-d- > -r- (only in Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku dialects)
r > h /_# (only in Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku dialects)

Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawa

h > [0,-q]
iw > i /_#
ow > o /_#
ey > e /_#
*i and *u often become mid-vowels (but not necessarily in the same cases as in Sasak)
V(h) > [V,Vq] /_#
ə > ɑ (last syllable)
Clusters containing homorganic nasal + voiced stop were reduced to their nasal
u(l,n,r,s,t) > i(l,n,r,s,t) /_# (this change didn't happen in Pusu dialect)
contraction of adjacent vowels (this did not take place in Sumbawa Besar dialect)
*-b- sometimes became lost

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic

j > ḷ
z > z
w > w /#_
R > R
q > h
h > 0
iw > iw /_#
uy > uy /_#

A.
ay > əy /_#
aw > əw /_#

B.
ay > ay /_#
aw > aw /_#

-CxCy- > -CxCy-

Heterorganic consonant clusters (involving a nasal + stop) remained heterorganic

C(+VOICE) > C(+VOICE) /_#

Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese

ḷ > r
d > r
z > d
b > w (except in clusters, where it remains b)
ə > u (before final h)
R > 0
h > 0 /#_
h > [o,h,w] / V_V
iw > yu /_#
uy > i /_#

A.
əy > i /_#
əw > u /_#

B.
ay > e /_#
aw > ó /_#

-CxCy- > -Cy-

Heterorganic consonant clusters (involving a nasal + stop) became homorganic

[ʔh]əS > (h)əNS /#_

Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese

ḷ > r
j > r
z > j
w > [0,c] /#_
R > [0,r,y]
iw > [yu,i] /_#
uy > oy /_#

A.
əy > e /_#
əw > o /_#

B.
ay > ay /_#
aw > o /_#

-CxCy- > -CxCy-

Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Madurese

ḷ > l (+ glottal stop in final position)
z > jʰ
Fortition of non-final semivowels *w and *y
w > [b,0] /#_
R > r (or glottal stop if at the end of the word)
h > 0 (except between like vowels where it appears as a glottal stop)
Aspiration of initial and intervocalic voiced stops and *z
Final *k, *p and *t become glottal stop
Devoicing of final *b, *d and *g
iw > uy /_#
uy > [uy,òy] /_#
Gemination of vowels (usually) following schwa

A.
əy > [i,è] /_#
əw > [u,ò] /_#

B.
ay > ay /_#
aw > [u,ò] /_#

-CxCy- > -CxCy-

C(+VOICE) > C(-VOICE) /_#

[ʔh]əS > (h)əNS /#_

Source:

Note: There's probably a few mistakes and a few things that I have missed out, since I'm a beginner to linguistics, so if anyone can see any mistakes please tell me to correct me.


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PostPosted: Sat May 24, 2014 11:31 pm 
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CONLANG Code: C:S/G v1.1 !lafh+>x cN:L:S:G a+ x:0 n4d:2d !B A--- E-- L--- N0 Id/s/v/c k- ia--@:+ p+ s+@ m-- o+ P--- S++ Neo-Khitanese


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PostPosted: Sun May 25, 2014 3:29 am 
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PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 8:42 pm 
Avisaru
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All information in this post comes from these two sources: , . These changes are probably incomplete, just so y'all know.

Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italic

p → {p,kʷ}
ḱ ǵ → k g
ǵʰ gʷʰ → gʰ xʷ
bʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ kʰ → ɸ θ x
s → z / medial (I'm assuming between vowels or when *s voiced to *z in PIE)
eu → ou

Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsican

x → h
gʷ → w
gʰ → f / #_
gʰ → {d,h,g}
{ɸ,θ} → f / #_
ɸ θ → b {d,b} / V_V
z → r
xʷ → f / _#
xʷ → {w,gʷ} / V_V
l̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
m̥ n̥ → em en
e → {e,i}

Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellian

t → f
ḱ ǵ kʷ gʷ → k g p b
{ǵʰ,x} {ɸ,θ,gʷʰ} → h f
r̥ → er / _#
eu → ou

Proto-Sibellian to Oscan

z → r

Proto-Sibellian to Umbrian

d → rs / V_V

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PostPosted: Wed Jun 18, 2014 7:37 pm 
Avisaru
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The information below is sourced from page in Wikipedia user Petusek's userspace, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), "The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences", in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207–251 (though the citation for the paper itself is adapted from that given ). Petusek also notes that *b is a rather messy phoneme when it comes to the historical correspondences, saying "[n]o cognate set preserves *b everywhere; there are always some tokens of *m (Nichols 2003:249)"

Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Avar-Andic

l → {l,r}
*b is "[p]rone to change to *m"

Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh

p → h
dz dʒ → {tsːʼ,z} {tsːʼ,dʒ}
{ts,st} → tʃ
tɬː dɮ → tɬ(ː) tɬː
kː ɢ → xʲ {qːʼ,ɣ}
{l,r} → Ø (sometimes, only from original *l)

Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi

{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}
stː → sː
dʒ → {tʃːʼ,dʒ}
tɬ tɬː(ʼ) dɮ → ɬ tɬ(ː)(ʼ) tɬː
q ɢ → x {qːʼ,ɣ}

Proto-Avar-Andic to Avar

ts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
st(ː) → ts
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ
tɬ tɬʼ tɬː tɬːʼ → ɬ tʼ tɬ tɬ(ː)ʼ
q qːʼ ɢ → x {q(ː)ʼ,gh} (not sure if that last gh should be ɣ)
s ʃː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x
m → {m,n}

Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi

*b is "[p]rone to change to *m"
{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {tsʼ,tʃʼ} ʒ ts
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʼ {g,q}(?)
qːʼ → ʕ
ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː → {s,ʃ} ʃ xʲ {xʲ,ʃ}

Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug

b d → {b,v} z
The development of *tsʼ is unclear; in the user page there's a slash but it may be a typo for an apostrophe
{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ
{tʃ(ː),dʒ} → tʃʼ
tɬ tɬːʼ tɬ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,g} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
kː kʼ g → k {kʼ,g} {kʼ,kː}
{qːʼ,ɢ} → qʼ
sː ɬ(ː) xː → h xʲ x
r → n / _C
r → {r,Ø}

Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lak

b d → {pː,b} {tː,d} (but *b is "[p]rone to change to *m")
{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} {tʃ(ː)ʼ}
tɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
g → kː
qʼ qʼ ɢ → {qʼ,j} qʼ {qː,ɣ}
ʃ ɬ ɬː → s {xʲ,ʃ} xː
m l → {m,n} {l,Ø}

Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Lezgic

[i]NB: These changes here probably aren't "proper" sound changes, whatever that means, but there doesn't seem to be any particular sound change or set thereof that cleanly defines this family, so I've elected to go with something that seems to nearly work and note the exceptions.

q ɢ → {x,q} ɣ

Proto-Lezgic to Agul

b d → {b,w} {d,z}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
tʃːʼ → tʃː
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {j,xʲ}
qːʼ → qː
ɬ(ː) xː → xʲ x
m → {m,b}

Proto-Legzic to Archi

d → r / _#
d → {d,tː}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
tʃ(ː) dʒ → ʃ tʃ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː
kː g → x {kː,g}
ɣ → q (more likely, *ɢ → q instead of → ɣ)
q qːʼ → x q(ː)ʼ
sː xː → {sː,h} x

Proto-Lezgic to Lezghi

b d → {pː,b} {tː,d}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} z t(ʼ) {tsː,dz}
tʃ tʃːʼ dʒ → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,g} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
kː g → ɣ kː
ɣ → {qː,ɣ} (again, probably a difference in the development of *ɢ rather than this strict sound change)
qːʼ → q(ʼ)
ʃː ɬ ɬː x xː → ɣʲ j ʃ ɣ x

Proto-Lezgic to Rutul

b d → {b,w} {d,z}
{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} ʃ tʃ
tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ qʼ q(ʼ) {w,xʲ,j}
kː → x
qːʼ → q(ʼ)
sː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
m → {m,b}

Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran

b d → {b,w} {d,z}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} {tʃ,dʒ} {tʃː,tʃʼ}(?)
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,g} k kː ɣʲ
kː → q
ɬ {ʃː,ɬː} xː → xʲ ʃ x
m → {m,b}

Proto-Lezgic to Udi

ts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {Ø,s} tʃ {Ø,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
t → Ø / s_
tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {Ø,ʃ} tʃ Ø tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {Ø,x} q {Ø,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}
kː → q
q qʼ qːʼ ɢ → Ø(?) Ø qʼ ɣ
{ɬ(ː),xː} → x

Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakh

st stː → st(ʼ) st
tsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_
tsːʼ → tːs
{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
tɬ(ː) tɬʼ tɬːʼ → x qʼ ʕ
kː qːʼ → xk(?) qʼ
ʃː ɬː xː → ʃ ɬ x
l → r / _#
r → d / #_

Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic

*b is "[p]rone to change to *m"
{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts
tʃ {tʃːʼ,dʒ} → ʃ tʃ (the change of *tʃːʼ is conjectured for Bezhta, as the change is only listed in Tsez, but given the development of *tsːʼ I don't find it unreasonable to put it here)
tɬ tɬːʼ → ɬ tɬ
ɢ → q
s xː → z x
l → {l,r}

Proto-Tsezic to Bezhta

*ɬ may have remained ɬ
*r remained when intervocalic

Proto-Tsezic to Tsez

tsː tɬː → z l / V_V
tsː tɬː → s ɬ
kːʼ g → k kʼ
q qːʼ → x(?) q
sː ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː x → s ʒ ʃ l ɬ ɣ
r → {r,l,Ø}

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PostPosted: Thu Jun 19, 2014 4:11 am 
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 20, 2014 4:53 am 
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 27, 2014 7:30 am 
Niš
Niš

Joined: Sat Nov 30, 2013 6:06 am
Posts: 14
Finally found some more stuff!:

Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malay

Source: Comparative Austronesian Dictionary (1995)

Antepenultimate vowels merged to ə
ə > a / last syllable
n > ɲ / in the environment of i (sporadic)
h > 0 / non-final (sometimes)

Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau

Source: Comparative Austronesian Dictionary (1995)

(not chronologically ordered):

n > ɲ (palatal nasal?) / in the environment of i (like Malay)
h > 0 / non-final (generally)
a > o / final
high vowels were occasionally lowered to mid-vowels (e.g. PM *hituŋ 'to count' > etoŋ)

(chronologically ordered):

I.

ə > a (first in last syllables, later on elsewhere)

II. after high vowels, final labials merged with dentals:

-(u,i)p, -(u,i)t > (u,i)t
-(u,i)m, -(u,i)t > (u,i)n

III. final syllable vowels were coloured by following consonants:

-a(t,s) > e(t,s)
-u(t,s) > -uy(t,s)
-i(t,s) > i(t,s) (retention I guess)
-ap > op
-u(k,ŋ,h,l,r) > -uə(k,ŋ,h,l,r) (NOTE: The schwa is supposed to be in superscript, though I have no idea what that means)
-i(k,ŋ,h,l,r) > -iə(k,ŋ,h,l,r) (NOTE: Superscript schwa supposed to be here as well)

IV. final stops and disappeared in fricatives were reduced to glottals, and final linguals absolute-final position:

-p, -t, -k > -ʔ
-h, -s > -h
-l > 0 (-l- on morpheme boundaries)
-r > 0 (-r- on morpheme boundaries)

Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak

Source:

NOTE: I'm really unsure with this, since the sound changes are based on the phoneme inventory by Dyen from 1965, so it's probably out of date, considering that the more recent reconstructions, such as Blust's reconstruction, doesn't have a few of the sounds as in the 1965 version, such as the (voiceless) velar fricative. There are also three symbols for the voiced palatal stop (j/z/Z) so I didn't know what to use for PAN *z > PB *j.

-i, -iw > -i
-aw, -ew > -ow
-aj, -ej > -ej
ts, t, ʈ > t
r, ʀ > r
ɟ͡ʝ, d, ɖ > d (unsure)
lʲ, ɲ, n > n
ʔ, x (?), s, h > 0
*q is lost in initial positions in some cases, but maintained in others; it is represented by *h in PB


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PostPosted: Fri Jun 27, 2014 9:37 am 
Smeric
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 27, 2014 9:49 pm 
Avisaru
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Location: Ohio
Can you name the author(s)/editor(s) of the Comparative Austronesian Dictionary? Google seems to throw up a few different names.

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 28, 2014 12:34 am 
Smeric
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oh also, does anyone have Proto-Austronesian to Malagasy?


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PostPosted: Sat Jun 28, 2014 2:00 pm 
Niš
Niš

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 08, 2014 9:28 am 
Niš
Niš

Joined: Sat Nov 30, 2013 6:06 am
Posts: 14
Proto-Batak to Toba Batak (part of Southern Batak)

PS: I might've missed a few things

ej > e
{ow, e} > o
uj > {i, e}
/o/ developed through 'contraction of *w and *a from proceeding or following syllable'
u > o / 'in an ultima with final velar or liquid' e.g. SB gaol from PB *galuh (in SB, metathesis of +l and +h took place in some earlier stage, and subsequently +u changed to /o/ and +h was lost)'
{o, i} > e / 'through vowel harmony, under the influence of other vowels' eg. Toba parumaen: /pa/- + /ruma/ -/on/
/e/ developed through 'vowel assimilation'
j > 0 / a_u
j > 0 / contracted through 'preceding or following vowel'
w > 0
Final voiced stops devoice
k > h ! C_ or _ #
h > 0 / _#
tʃ > s
'No two different liquids ever occur in the same word -> regressive assimilation e.g. PB *luar to TB ruar


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PostPosted: Fri Jul 18, 2014 2:12 am 
Avisaru
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What's the source on this?

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 18, 2014 3:30 am 
Niš
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 18, 2014 4:15 am 
Avisaru
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Location: Ohio

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