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PostPosted: Fri Jul 18, 2014 10:24 am 
Niš
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You forgot to put the change from Proto-Batak to Toba Batak though.


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PostPosted: Sat Sep 20, 2014 5:33 am 
Avisaru
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All information from Pawley, Andrew (2012). "". In Language & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨ

t k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
p k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
{p,t} → Ø / _#
e u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmat

p → f / #_ (?)
t → s / #_i
k s → Ø {t,s} / #_
ᵐb ᵑg → p k / V_V
p t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandere

t → j / #_i
ŋ ᵑg → Ø g / #_
nj → s / #_ (?)
t → {r,s} / V_i
ᵐb ⁿd ᵑg nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
a → {a,o}

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaeti

{p,ᵐb} ᵑg → b g / #_
ⁿd ᵑg → d k
ᵑg → g / V_V
a u → {a,o} {u,o,y}

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalam

t → {t,Ø} / _#
l → ɽˡ (retoflex lateral flap)
Frequent insertion of "epenthetic vowels, often realised as very short [ɨ], but in some contexts as a copy of a neighbouring full vowel. In some cases the epenthetic vowels appear to be, historically, reductions of full vowels"

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâte

k ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
ᵐb ⁿd → {ᵐb,p} s / V_V
p k → t ʔ / _#
p → f
u a → {u,ɔ} {ɔ,a}

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwai

t k ᵐb → {s,t} {g,Ø} {b,p} / #_
t ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑg} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} g r / V_V
s → {s,t} / #_ (?)
u i → {u,o} {i,e}

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepet

ᵐb ⁿd s → b {s,t} {t,s} / #_
t ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
t → t / _# (?)
ŋ → {m,ŋ} / _#
ᵑg → g
a e o u → {a,ɔ} {e,o} {o,ɔ} {u,ɔ}

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefol

{p,ᵐb} → f / #_
s → s / #_ (?)
ᵐb ⁿd ᵑg → b n k / V_V

Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgi

n ŋ → m n / #_
ᵑg → {ᵑg,ŋ} / V_V
i → {i,e}

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PostPosted: Thu Jan 15, 2015 3:53 am 
Smeric
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A very small update:

The list of Vulgar Latin -> Spanish sound changes is missing the first great loss of unstressed inter-tonic vowels.

{i,e,ɛ,ɔ,o,u} → Ø / C_{r,l,sometimes s}, {r,l,sometimes s}_C when unstressed in word-medial position

Chronologically, place it between the "{t,k} → Ø / _#" and the "{k,g} → x → j / {t,s,n,l}" changes.



Also, the "d → {Ø,ð} / _V" sound change should be presumably d → {Ø,ð} / V_V.

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PostPosted: Thu Jan 22, 2015 6:46 pm 
Avisaru
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 01, 2015 5:09 pm 
Avisaru
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Information from this post is from Hedinger, Robert (1987), The Manenguba Languages (Bantu A.15, Mbo Cluster) of Cameroon.

Hedinger seems to follow Leynseele and Stewart (1980) in accepting a fortis-lenis contrast for both voiced and voiceless stops; sounds with a preceding apostrophe are apparently lenis.

Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Bantu

'p 't 'd 'ɟ 'k 'g → p t d ɟ g k / C₁
'm 'n 'ɲ → m n ɲ / C₁
m 'm n 'n ɲ 'ɲ ŋ → ᵐb m ⁿd n ᶮɟ ɲ ᵑg / C₂
d₂ ('c?) → d / C₂

Proto-Bantu to Tunɛn (citing Leynseele and Stewart (1980); most of the changes in lenis stops are probably for C₂)

p {'p,'b} b t {'t,d} 'd k 'k → f h b t l n k Ø

Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba

'p 't {'d,d₂} c 'ɟ 'k g 'g → f l ɟ s Ø {w,Ø} {k,w} Ø / C₁
'm 'n 'ɲ → m n ɲ / C₁
p t 't {'d,d₂} c k 'k → b d l {l,Ø} ɟ g Ø / C₂
m 'm n 'n {ɲ,'ɲ} N → {ᵐb,m} m {ⁿd,n} n ɲ {ᶮg,ŋ} / C₂
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a (noun roots), C_(a) (verb roots), C_- (noun class prefixes, before vowel-initial roots)

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PostPosted: Thu Apr 02, 2015 10:46 pm 
Avisaru
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So via the Internet Archive I have a copy of Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston's 1919 book . For a long time I've wanted to take the comparative vocabulary lists and try to find out some of the sound changes that happened to the various languages. This has the advantages of both more natlang correspondences and me gaining experience in trying to do comparisons from actual, messy data. The below changes mostly concern consonants and general tendencies, and may be inaccurate for various reasons including my inexperience and problems with the source data. I'm also unsure as to the exact quality of what Johnston transcribes as <Ѡ ω>; it's some sort of rounded back vowel, and I'm tentatively assuming it's [o]. Actual names of languages will be transcribed using an ad-hoc romanization that probably won't make all the phonological distinctions Johnston's notation makes.

I welcome and request feedback or assistance on these endeavors, as it is virtually certain that there will be errors in what I come up with.

Proto-Nyanza to Olukonjo
S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / N_
kʷ → k (based on some k : f(w) correspondences among other languages)
l → d / n_
p → h
Cː → C
ɲ → n / _i (No, this is not backwards)
e → ɛ
u → w / _V#
z → r
tʲ dʲ → t d
d → z / V_VCV#?
ai → ɛ
wa → o / _#
g → ɣ / V_V
Somehow, *l *r seem to have become flip-flopped with respect to their reflexes in Urunyorow
N → N[+ same POA] / _C ! _w

Proto-Nyanza to Urunyoro
kʷ → p
p → h / ! m_
t → tʃ / _w
b d → w r / V_V
w → Ø / b_
dʲ → dʒ / N_
e → i
ŋg → ɲ / _E
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / V_V#
z → l / V_V ?
tʲ dʲ → s z
a → Ø / _i
V → Ø / V_#
Somehow, *r *l seem to have become flip-flopped with respect to their reflexes in Olukonjo
N → N[+ same POA] / _C / ! _w

Proto-Nyanza to Rugungu
o u → u i (Maybe only sometimes? Would explain some u : i correspondences)
t → tʃ / _i (? Maybe only word-finally?)
V → Ø / #_
b → {v,w} / V_V
ɲ → n / _i
n → m / _w
E → i / _#
e → ɛ
ŋg → ɲ / _E
tʲ dʲ → tʃ dʒ
z → l
r → l
V → Ø / V_#
N → N [+ same POA] / _C ! _w

Proto-Nyanza to Rukyopi
o u → u i (Maybe only sometimes? Might explain some u : i correspondences)
VCː → VːC
kʷ → p
(kʷ →) p → f / ! m_
tʲ → s
ŋg → ɲ / _E
r → l
e → i
VV → Vː / _#
N → N[+ same POA] / _C

Proto-Nyanza to Urutoro
b → w / V_V
t → tʃ / _w ? (I have this written in my notes but I'm wondering why I wrote it)
kʷ → p
(kʷ →) p → f / ! m_
tʲ → tʃ / _(V)i? _V[+ high]?
tʲ → s
ŋg → ɲ / _E
i → j / _V#
l → r
e → i
(a)i → ɛ / _#
a → ɛ / _i
VV → Vː / _#

Proto-Nyanza to Oruhoma
Cː → C
kʷ → p
(kʷ →) p → f / ! m_
tʲ dʲ → (t)s? z
k ŋg → tʃ ɲ / _E
b → Ø / _w
s → z / n_ (and V_V?)
ts → (d)z / V_V
h → s / _iV
l → r
e → i
ai → ɛ / _#
ai → ɛː
VV → V(ː)Ø / _#
N → N[+ same POA] / _C ! _w

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PostPosted: Fri Apr 03, 2015 4:30 am 
Avisaru
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More from Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1919), A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages. The previous disclaimers still apply.

Proto-Nyanza to Urukaragwe

k → ts / _i
tʲ dʲ → s z
ns → z / #V_
ns → dz
r → l
d → l / $_
i → Ø / _V
b ts → v dz / V_V
v → Ø / a_o#
f → h (sometimes? not sure of the conditions or chronology here)
kʷ → f
e → ɛ / _#
Cː → C
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_
N → N[+ same POA] / _C

Proto-Nyanza to Urukerebe

ki → c
tʲ dʲ → s z
d → l / $_
f → h (sometimes? not sure of the conditions or chronology here)
kʷ → f
u → w / _E
n d → l r / V_V (seems to have happened at least once)
S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / N_
ai → ɛ / _C
e → ɛ / _#
l → r
Cː → C
N → N[+ same POA] / _C

Proto-Nyanza to Luziba

tʲ dʲ → ʃ ʒ ?
ndʲ → ɲ
f (→ h?) → s / _i
kʷ → f
s → ʃ / i_ (there were some weird [ʃ] marked in the source in a few places; it looked like I could condition it here, but I'm not sure if this is correct, and if it is then it looks like some consonant harmony began to work wherein a word could only have one of [s] or [ʃ] in it)
a e → o ɛ / _#
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_
l → r
b → m / _VN ?
Cː → C
N → N[+ same POA] / _C

Proto-Nyanza to Urunya-Ruanda

tʲ → ts (maybe → s / _VCV(C)# ?)
k → tʃ / _i
ns → ts
dʲ → z / n_
g → r / V_VCV# (I'm not entirely sure of the conditioning here but the words appeared to be cognate)
g → ɣ / b_
a → o / _i
i → Ø / V_
e → i / #_
e → i / _#
V → Ø / V_#
mu → mwɛ / _#
l → r
N → N[+ same POA] / _C

Proto-Nyanza to Rututsi

k → ts / _i
dʲ → z / n_
b → m / _VN ?
b ts → w dz / V_V
e → ɛ / _#
l → r
u → w / _V#
Cː → C
N → N[+ same POA] / _C

Proto-Nyanza to Luganda

ki → {ki,tʃ} / _V
n → {l,r} / V_V (sporadic? allophonic?)
n → Ø / _dʲ
tʲ dʲ → tʃ dʒ / n_
tʲ dʲ → s z
g → Ø / #VN_
b → w / V_V
f (→ h?) → s / _i
V → Vː / _V#
V → Ø / Vː_
h → Ø / V_V
kʷ → f
h → w / V_B ?
we → i / _#
e → ɛ / _#
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_
N → N[+ same POA] / _C / ! _w
Cː → C
n → m / _w

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PostPosted: Fri Apr 03, 2015 9:07 pm 
Avisaru
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More from Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1919), A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages. The previous disclaimers still apply; this is probably going to be the last major set of sound changes we see from the Nyanza subfamily and I feel less sure about these changes than the others.

Proto-Nyanza to Lunyara

k → ʃ / _i#
k → (t)s / _i
ŋk → s / _i (?)
gi → j / _E
b → Ø / _w
t → s / V_i#
tʲ dʲ → tʃ dʒ
kʷ gʷ → {f,x} wː
d → l ?
t k → {d,r} x / V_V
t → d / #_
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_

Proto-Nyanza to Luwanga

t → s / V_i#
g → ɣ / i_i
t → r / {#,V}_V
tʲ dʲ → ts dz
ŋk → s / _i (?)
k → ʃ / _i
k → x / _ɛ
kʷ → ʃ / #_i
kʷ gʷ → {f(w),xw} wː
d → r / ! n_
t k → d x / V_V
u → w / _V#
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_

Proto-Nyanza to Lugishu

Possible dissimilatory process where n → l / _Vn?
t → s / V_i#
t → r / V_V
tʲ dʲ → s z
gi → j / _E
(ŋ)k → s / _i (?)
kʷ → s / #_i
kʷ → p / #N_
kʷ → {f,xw}
d → l ?
k → {x,g} / V_V
i → Ø / V_#
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_

Proto-Nyanza to Lukonde

k → g / #_ (seemingly in one prefix)
s → z / V_V#
t → s / V_i#
tʲ dʲ → {ts,tʃ} {dz,dʒ}
gi → {j,h} / _E
ŋk → nz / _i
k → tʃ / _i
kʷ → {p,b} / #N_
kʷ → {f,xw}

Proto-Nyanza to Kiguzii

tʲ dʲ → tʃ dʒ
ŋk → s / _i (?)
kʷ → p
p k s → b g r / V_V
Nkʷ → ɲ / #_i
ɛ → Ø / i_#
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_

Proto-Nyanza to Kikoria

tʲ dʲ → tʃ dʒ
g → h / _iE
s → r / V_V#
iE → iː / _#
Nkʷ → n / #_i
kʷ gʷ → k {gw,hw}

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PostPosted: Sat Apr 04, 2015 2:07 am 
Avisaru
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More from Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1919), A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages. The previous disclaimers still apply.

Proto-Wunyamwezi to Kisukuma

ɲ → n
w → Ø / b_
s → z / V$_V
b d → w z / V_V
si → ʃ / _V
tʲ dʲ → tʃ dʒ / _i (?)
tʲ dʲ → ts dz
n → Ø / _tʃ
g → z / V_E
g → Ø / ŋ_w
S[- voice] → h / N_
p → h / V_V#
V → Ø / V_#
n → Ø / _s
t → s / _i
e → i / _#

Proto-Wunyamwezi to Shisumbwa

ɲ → n
s → z / V$_V
p → f
l → r
n → Ø / _s
{tʲ,dʲ} → z / n_
s → r / V_V#
si → ʃ / _V
{d,s} → z / V_V
t → {tʃ,s} / _i
g → z / V_E
k → ʃ / _i
k → g / #kV_V (? dissimilation?)
f → h / V_V#
u → w / _V#
e → ɛ / _#

Proto-Wunyamwezi to West Nyamwezi

p → f (?)
f → v / #_
ʃ → s
n → Ø / _C[+ fricative]
{tʲ,dʲ} → z / n_
dʲ → j (?)
k → g / #kV_V (? dissimilation?)
V → Ø / _VC
u i → w j / _V
l → n / V_V#

Proto-Wunyamwezi to East Nyamwezi

ɲ → n
p → h
b d z → v z l / V_V
S[- voice] → h / N_
{tʲ,dʲ} → z / n_
tʲ dʲ → tʃ dʒ
g → dʒ / V_i#
t → s / _i
t → l / V$_V
w → v
n → Ø / _s
S[- voice] → h / #_
a → ɛ / _(C)ɛ
p k → h g / V_V#
u → w / _V#
k → g / #kV_V (? dissimilation?)
{ɛ,e} → i / _#

Proto-Wunyamwezi to Kinyaturu

b → v / V_V
z → d / n_
Vr → Vː
n → Ø / _{tʲ,dʲ,s}
k → j / N_E (?)
k g → x ɣ / V_E
k → g / V_V#
S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / N_
tʲ dʲ → t d / _i (?)
tʲ dʲ → s z (?)
s → h / V_V (?)
o → a / #_ (?)
o → wɛ / _# (?)

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PostPosted: Sun Apr 05, 2015 6:01 am 
Avisaru
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More from Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1919), A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages. We move on now to the British East Africa languages. In this batch, we have Kikuyu, Kamba, Pokomo, Taita, Taveita, and Nika. The previous disclaimers still apply.

Proto-British East Africa to Kikuyu

d → r / ! N_
ki → tʃ / _V ?
h → Ø / V_V
ts → s / n_ (? Some conflicting data but it might be analogical given that I think it might be after a prefix)
p ts → h θ
S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / N_
{l,z} → r
i → Ø / u_#
A lot of intervocalic voicing, but not every item—not sure if there's conditioning or if it's something with the data; it might be a relic of that fortis-lenis thing mentioned in Hedinger (1987)

Proto-British East Africa to Kamba

d → r / ! N_
h → Ø / V_V
p b → {v,h} v / V_V
z → r
ts → θ
Vr → V(ː)
r → Ø
wi → uj / C_
gV → Ø / V_#
Looks like some dissimilation may have gone on where if there were two [θ] in a word, the first one changed to [s]
u → w / _a#
i → Ø / u_#
A lot of intervocalic voicing, but not every item—not sure if there's conditioning or if it's something with the data; it might be a relic of that fortis-lenis thing mentioned in Hedinger (1987)

Proto-British East Africa to Pokomo

ni → ɲ / _V
p b → pf bv / i_ ?
p → f / #_
S[- voice] → h / V_V#
{p,b} → w / V_V
ts → s / N_
t → Ø / w_
g → Ø / V_V#
g → j / V_V
r → j
s ts → Ø tʃ / _w
uju → wi / _#
u → w / _V#
k → tʃ / _i#
i → Ø / _B#
A lot of intervocalic voicing, but not every item—not sure if there's conditioning or if it's something with the data; it might be a relic of that fortis-lenis thing mentioned in Hedinger (1987)

Proto-British East Africa to Taita

t d → tʃ dʒ / _i
d → r / #_
p → f
ts → tʃ / _i
z → (d)ʒ / _i ?
ts dz → s z / N_
Stem-initial consonants seem to have voiced, but not prefix-initial ones
t s → {s,ʃ} ʃ / _i
t → d / V_V#
ts → t / _w
ts → Ø / w_
ts dz → {s,tʃ} {z,dʒ} (?)
S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / N_
V → Ø / V_#
ndʒ → ɲ
r → l
i → Ø / u_#
si → ʃ / _B
A lot of intervocalic voicing, but not every item—not sure if there's conditioning or if it's something with the data; it might be a relic of that fortis-lenis thing mentioned in Hedinger (1987)

Proto-British East Africa to Taveita

{p,b} → w / V_V
p → f
g → {ɣ,j} / V_V
si → ʃ / _B
t s → s ʃ / _i
ts → t / _w
ts → s / #_
S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / N_
s → h / #_
ua → au / _# ?
r → l
a → i / w_#
u → w / _V#
A lot of intervocalic voicing, but not every item—not sure if there's conditioning or if it's something with the data; it might be a relic of that fortis-lenis thing mentioned in Hedinger (1987)

Proto-British East Africa to Nika

ni → ɲ / _V
p → f / V_V
d → z / #_ ?
k t → {ts,tʃ} s / _i
k → tʃ / _E#
N → Ø / _S[- voice]
t → h / V_V#
ɲ → n / #_
u → w / _a#
i → Ø / _u#
i → Ø / u_#
r → l
uju → wi / _#
A lot of intervocalic voicing, but not every item—not sure if there's conditioning or if it's something with the data; it might be a relic of that fortis-lenis thing mentioned in Hedinger (1987)

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PostPosted: Sun Apr 05, 2015 2:03 pm 
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 05, 2015 8:01 pm 
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PostPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2015 12:01 am 
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More from Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1919), A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages. The previous disclaimers still apply; there were very few tokens in the vocabulary list for Kimrima.

Proto-Usambara to Shambara

r → l
Ø → u / #m_$ ! _w
w → Ø / u_V#
s → ʃ / _i
s → ʃ / i_ ! _#
g → ɣ / V_V
ts dz → tʃ dʒ / N_
ts dz → s z
m → ŋ / _w

Proto-Usambara to Bondei

ʃ → s / _w
w → Ø / u_V#
g → j / E_E
ʃ → s / _V#
ts dz → s z / ! N_
l₁ l₂ → l Ø / V_V (I'm assuming one of these is *r and one is *l, but I'm not sure which one's which)
r → l

Proto-Usambara to Zigula

ʃ → s
ɔ → u / _Ci
u → w / #C_V
Ø → b / m_w
t → l / V_V#

Proto-Usambara to Kimrima

u → w / #C_V
l → r
ts dz → tʃ dʒ / _i
p → h / V_V
l…l → l…Ø

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PostPosted: Thu Apr 09, 2015 8:48 am 
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Good work. The fortis-lenis contrast for both voiced and voiceless stops as well as for nasals sounds like diachronic hand waving above all else when there isn't enough evidence to posit a more naturalistic interpretation of the proto-language phonology. But as long as you give all the sources you've used, there isn't any harm done.


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 12, 2015 10:59 pm 
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PostPosted: Mon Apr 13, 2015 12:19 am 
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I thoguht Id posted this comment long ago, but maybe i just posted it in the chatroom. I think /t/ > /f/ unconditionally and /d/ > /rs/ between vowels are the most bizarre sound changes Ive ever seen. Not saying I dont bvelieve it, but maybe the speakers of those languages were using symbols for sounds that arent quite the same as what we use them for today. (It was in the Faliscan / Oswco-Umbrian post viewtopic.php?p=1076713#p1076713 ).

Also saw /b d g/ > /bʰ dʰ gʰ/ in one of the SE Asian ones, which could help PIE save itself from being the only language with voiced asps and no voiceless ones.

Anyway thank you for all of these useful lists of information.

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PostPosted: Mon Apr 13, 2015 12:41 am 
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Pogostickman: It's surprising that they include Shingazidja but they don't include the other Comorian language varieties (Shimaore, Shimwali and Shindzuani). Anyway, in these language varieties, <ndr> represents /ɳɖʐ/, like in Malagasy.


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PostPosted: Mon Apr 13, 2015 3:05 am 
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PostPosted: Mon Apr 13, 2015 9:40 pm 
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More from Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1919), A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages. This installment looks at the development of the Upper Rufiji languages. The material was a bit sparse for some of these languages (Bena and Gangi in particular). The previous disclaimers still apply.

Proto-Upper Rufiji to Hehe

s → h / V$_ (root-initial after a vowel)
S[- voice] → {h,Ø} / N_ (occasionally it voices but that seems to have only happened in a handful of cases)
tʲ dʲ → s z
u i → w j / _V
ɛ → i / _#
The first consonant of the root tends to voice if voiceless, though this appears like it might been blocked after a nasal
g → Ø / _w
kj → tʃ
l → d / n_

Proto-Upper Rufiji to Pogoro

tʲ dʲ → {ts,tʃ} {dz,dʒ} / N_
tʲ dʲ → s z
k g → tʃ dʒ / _i
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / N_
*ɲ seems to become n sometimes
N → Ø / #_{s,z}
kj → tʃ
v → w ?

Proto-Upper Rufiji to Sango

ntʲ ndʲ → {ɲ,ns} {ɲ,nz}
tʲ dʲ → {s,tʃ} {z,dʒ} ?
k → {s,ʃ,ç,x} / V_i
k → x
Ø → V / #_NC (typically /i/)
S[- voice] → h / n_ (*mp remains)
w → v
u i → w j / _V
kj → {ç,tʃ}
There may be some voicing dissimilation going on if the same consonant appears twice in the root (e.g., *kuku → guku)

Proto-Upper Rufiji to Bena

t → h / n_ (may have happened for other voiceless stops too; *mp seems to have remained)
tʲ dʲ → s z / n_
tʲ dʲ → {ts,tʃ} {dz,dʒ} ?
s → h
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / V_V
w → Ø / V_V (possibly lengthening the first vowel?)

Proto-Upper Rufiji to Gangi

tʲ dʲ → ts dz ?
u i → w j / _V
ɛ → a / w_#
j → Ø / k_
There may be some voicing dissimilation going on if the same consonant appears twice in the root (e.g., *kuku → guku)

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PostPosted: Sat May 02, 2015 6:15 pm 
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PostPosted: Sun May 03, 2015 7:09 am 
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Shiangazija is the language variety of Grand Comore. The other islands have similar language varieties. I was earning a bit of Shimaore, the language variety of Mayotte, recently but lost contact with the people I know who speak the language.


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PostPosted: Thu May 07, 2015 3:46 pm 
Smeric
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From "Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen north Vanuatu languages" and "Phonotactics and the prestopped velar lateral of Hiw", both by Alexander François:

Proto-Oceanic to Hiw

Consonant and vowel changes are pretty much independent of each other so I'll do them separately.
Consonants:

p pʷ c j k q > β βʷ s s ɣ ∅
β b m > βʷ bʷ mʷ irregularly; usually adjacent to *u
dr R > d r
C > ∅/_#
ñ > n
b d g > p t k
βʷ bʷ mʷ > w kʷ ŋʷ
l > y
s > t in one example: *saŋapuluq > taŋəwiy
s > (h >) ∅ sometimes
r > g͡ʟ
ɣ and g͡ʟ then become quite confused, as they metathesize, dissimilate, and assimilate in various ways when they both appear in a word.
see *kaRupe > g͡ʟəg͡ʟʉwə
occasional metathesis occurs; e.g. *bakewa > pəweɣə, *lima-gu > *lmɔg > myɔ-k

Vowels: (an apostrophe ' indicates stress)
V1'CV2 > CV2 if V1 is higher than V2 or both are high vowels
V1'CV2 > əCV2 if V1 is not higher than V2
ə'CV1 > V1CV1 sometimes; e.g. *kasupe > ɣʉsʉwə
+Let H M = high and mid vowels respectively
a > e/_C{i, e, o} sometimes
aCH aCM aCa > ɔC aC {aCə ɔCə}
eCH eCM eCa > eC eC eCə
iCH iCM iCa > iC iCə {iCə eCə}
oCH oCM oCa > ɵC oC ɔCə
uCH uCe uCo uCa > {uC iC} uCə ɵCə {uCə ɵCə}
u > ʉ/!Cw_
{i e} > ɪ sometimes
V1V1 > V1 (double vowels lose length)

+when pretonic u was lost, its labialness was usually absorbed onto the previous consonant so we get correspondences like *guRio > kʷg͡ʟɪ.
+none of the previous vowel changes require an intervening consonant but I figured parentheses would make it even messier than it is now.



I might try to do some other NCV languages but that depends on how much data is available.


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PostPosted: Tue May 26, 2015 12:26 pm 
Avisaru
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All information from .

Old Norse to Early Faroese Vowel Shift

iː → yː (that's what the page says; reflexes seem to bear this out)
y → i
ɔ ɛ → o e
aː eː → ɔː ɛː
au øy ei → ɔʉ œy æi

Early Faroese to Old North Faroese Vowel Shift

Wikipedia had all the monophthongs in Old North Faroese marked as long so I've not written the reflexes long here.
ɔ a → ø ɛ
oː → ɜu
uː yː → ʉu ʊɪ
ɔʉ œy æi → ɛɪ ɔɪ aɪ

Old North Faroese to Late Old North Faroese Vowel Shift

Slashes indicate long/short reflexes, respectively.
u o ɔ ø ɛ e i → uː/ʊ oː/ɔ ɔːa̯/ɔa̯ øː/œ ɛːa̯/ɛa̯ eː/ɛ iː/ɪ
ʉu ɜu ʊɪ → ʉu/ʉʏ ɜu/ɜ ʊɪ/ʊɪ̯ (not sure what the difference is between that last one)
ɔɪ aɪ ɛɪ → ɔɪ/ɔɪ̯ aɪ/aɪ̯ ɛɪ/ɛɪ̯

Late Old North Faroese to New North Faroese Vowel Shift

ʉʏ → ʏ
ʊɪ ʊɪ̯ → ui ʊɪ̯
ɔːa̯ ɔa̯ ɛːa̯ ɛa̯ → ɔa ɔ ɛa a
{ɔɪ,aɪ} {ɔɪ̯,aɪ̯} ɛɪ ɛɪ̯ → ɔi ɔ ɛi ɛ

Early Faroese to Old South Faroese Vowel Shift

u o ɔ ø a e i → uː o øː ɛː ø eː iː
uː oː ɔː yː ɛː → ʉu ɔu ɔːa̯/ɔa̯ ʊɪ eː
ɔʉ œy æi → ɛɪ ɔɪ aɪ

Old South Faroese to Late Old South Faroese Vowel Shift

uː o ø(ː) ɛː eː iː → uː/ʊ oː/ɔ øː/œ ɛːa̯/ɛa̯ e/ɛ iː/ɪ
ɔu ʉu ʊɪ → ɔu/ɔ ʉu/ʉʏ̯ ʊɪ/ʊɪ̯
ɔɪ aɪ ɛɪ → ɔɪ/ɔɪ̯ aɪ/aɪ̯ ɛɪ/ɛɪ̯

Late Old South Faroese to New South Faroese Vowel Shift

{œ,ʉʏ̯} → ʏ
ɔːa ɔa ɛːa̯ ɛa̯ → ɔa ɔ ɛa a
ʊɪ ʊɪ̯ → ui ʊɪ̯
ɔi ɛi → ɔ ɛ
aɪ aɪ̯ → ai aɪ̯

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 01, 2015 6:25 am 
Avisaru
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Data in this post from Himes, Ronald (2006), "The Kalamian Microgroup of Philippine Languages". Paper presented at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. 17­ – 20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. <http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/papers.html>

Proto-Philippines to Proto-Kalamian

{h,ʔ} → Ø
{z,j} → d
R ɲ → l n
e → u / _Cu
e → i / _Ci
e → u / uC_
e → a / _C̥#
d → r / V_V
Contrastive stress lost

Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynen

O̥ → ʔ / _C
k → Ø / _{V,#}
q → k
aɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if a long vowel here or two vowels in hiatus)
t → s / _i
s → t / _V ! _E
s → t / _#
Ø → ʔ / #_
Ø → ʔ / V_#

Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen

{t,k} q → ʔ k / _C
s → ʔ / _C
k → Ø / _{V,#}
q → k
aɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if a long vowel here or two vowels in hiatus)
t → s / _i
s → t / _V ! _E
s → t / _#
s → c& / _i (I'm not sure what that represents; the paper doesn't explain what it is)
b → β / V_V
β → w / [V +high]_a
g → h / V_V
Ø → ʔ / #_
Ø → ʔ / V_#

Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa

{t,k,q,s} → k / _C
k → Ø / _{V,#}
q → k
aɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if a long vowel here or two vowels in hiatus)
b g → β V / V_V
Ø → ʔ / #_
Ø → ʔ / V_#

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PostPosted: Tue Jun 09, 2015 11:54 am 
Smeric
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Cobbled together, again from "Unraveling the Vowels..." by Alexander François. All future posts I make in this thread for languages in the NCV family will likely also be taken from this text, but other sources will be specified later if I need them.

Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlap

q > 0
VV > V (only if the vowels are the same)
ndr > d
R > r
d > r (sometimes)
p pʷ k > β w ɣ
bʷ g > kpʷ k
mʷ > ŋmʷ
ñ > n
c j > s s
s > h (often)
r > y

iCV[-high] > ɪC
eCV[-high] > ɛC
oCV[-high] > ɔC
oCV[+high] > ɪC (sometimes)
aCa > ɔC (sometimes)
aCV[+high] > ɛC
uCV[-high] > ʊC
uCV[+high] > iC (sometimes; common in uCi)
e o > ɪ ʊ
aCV[+high] > ɪ (only when secondarily stressed)

(C)V1CV2[+stress] > (C)V2CV2
V1V2[+stress] > V2[+stress]
...(C)VCVCV[+stress] > (C)VCCV[+stress] (i.e. pretonic vowels delete if there is a syllable before the pretonic syllable)
b β d > m p n/_C ; _#
kpʷ > k/_C (sometimes)

Notes:
+Not a strictly phonological change, but like many languages of the area, all nouns in Mwotlap gain a prefix n(V)- from POc *na. This occurs before the final set of changes, so e.g. *panua becomes na-pnʊ.
+When the vowels *o and *u shift to other vowels and a labial occurs before them, they sometimes offload their labialization onto the previous labial consonant. e.g. *na molis > nɪ-ŋmʷɪl, *boŋi > nʊ-kpʷʊŋ. The mechanics of this change weren't entirely clear but it seems fairly frequent. A similar change happens in other NCV languages from what I can tell.


Last edited by ---- on Fri Jun 19, 2015 1:20 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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