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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 12:43 am 
Lebom
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Here's a bit of Latin -> French; might as well, since I've already done most of the work.

Vulgar Latin
h > 0
VV > V:, where VV is a sequence of identical short vowels
n > 0 / _(f,v,s)
rs > ss
m, n > 0 / _# in polysyllables
m > n / _#
u > 0 / CC_V
w > gu (w from Germanic loanwords)

V > "V / "V(stop)r_
V > "V / _C*"(i,e)V
(i,e) > j / _V

Stressed vowels
a, a: > a
e, ae > è
e:, i, oe > é
i: > i
o > ò
o:, u* > ó
u: > u

*u stays u before i:

Judging from their reflexes, è/é and ò/ó had an open/closed distinction, something like SAMPA ɛ/e, ɔ/o.

Initial vowels (first vowel of a word)
a, a: > a
e, e:, i, ae, oe > e
i: > i
o, o:, u > o
u > u

Final vowels
a, a: > a
e, e:, i, ae, (oe) > e
i: > i
o, o:, u, u: > o (u remains u after another vowel)



k > tj / _F (F = front vowel)
g > dj / _F

è > iɛ / free (e.g. when the vowel ends the syllable; I wonder if a following stop + r doesn't also counts as a free syllable (petra > pièrre, palpebra > paupièvre, though that should have a v); also, before a final consonant
è > ɛ / checked (when a consonant ends the syllable)
ò > uo > uɛ / free (but not before a nasal)
ò > ɔ / checked

dj > dʒ / r_
dj > j
j > 0 / V_"F
j > dʒ / #_
j > dʒ / V_V (sometimes, but it usually stays j)
tj > ts / #_
tj > tsj
stj > ssj

gn, nj > ɲ
nkt > ɲt

V > 0 / when V is unstressed and in the penultimate syllable
V(!a) > 0 / when V is intertonic, i.e. immediately precedes the primary stress but is not in the initial syllable (!a = except for a)
a > ə / intertonic

0 > b / m_(r,l)
0 > d / (n,l,J,z)_r
sr > str
k > t / (n,r)_r
g > d / (n,r)_r
n > r / (g,p)_
<!--[αvcd, +obs][βvcd, +obs] > [βvcd][βvcd] (that is, two obstruents in contact with different voicing assimilate to the voicing of the second)-->
C > 0 / C_C(!l,r)
t > s / _(n,m)

gl, kl, lj > ʎ

b > v / V_(V,r)
v > 0 / V_B (B = back vowel)
p > v / V_(V,r)
p > b / _l
t, d > ð / V_(V,r)
ðr > r
ts > dz / V_V
s > z / V_V
ks > jss / V_V
ks > js / _#
k, g > 0 / V_B
k, g > 0 / B_a
k, g > j / _(a,C)
kʷ > v or u / V_F
kʷ > jv or ju / V_a

kkj, kj > ts
gj > j
pj > tʃ
bj, vj > dʒ
mɲ, mj > ndʒ

(note that the above clusters are the only case where a consonant does not receive intervocalic treatment before /j/)

V"e > "Vi
VV (identical vowels merge)
? > e / #_sC

k > tʃ / _a
g > dʒ / _a
tʃ > ʃ
dʒ > ʒ
ts > s
dz > z

ɛ > iɛ / _(Cj, jC)
ɔ > uɛ / _(Cj, jC)

0 > j / (ʃ, ʒ, sj, zj)"(a,é)_ (only in a free syllable)

ssj > jss
zj > jz
rj > jr
sj > s

ɛ > ɛa / _l(C,#)
l > u / _(C,#)
l > 0 / (i,u)_
lle, llo > u / (e,o)_# [this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]

au, ɛau > ɔ
é > ɛi / free
é > ɛ / checked
ó > ou > ɛu / free
ó > ɔ / _[+nas]
ó > ou / checked

e > ə / #C*_..." (free)
e > ɛ / #C*_..." (checked or before another vowel)
o > ou or ɔ (the outcome fluctuates, but ɔ is often the result of analogy rather than strict sound change; always ou before another vowel)
a > ə / #(tS,dZ)_..." (free)

a > ai / _[+nas] (free)
a > ɛ / free (but a following ʎ creates a checked syllable)

kʷ > k
gʷ > g
CC > C (geminates simplify)
t > 0 / V_#
ɛ > i / _CC*i#

V(!a) > 0 / _# (except in monosyllables or after another vowel)
a > ə / _#
V > ə / _(CC(!nt, mp, ng, rt, rd), dʒ, tʃ)

s > 0 / _C
p, b > 0 / _(t, d)
v > 0 / _C, C_
ð > 0

uɛ > ɛu
u > y

ai > e / _#
ai > ɛ
ɛu > œ
iɛi > i
uɛi > yi
ou > u
ei, ɔi > oi / _[-nas]

ɔ > u / _"V
V[-high] > ə > 0 / _V (except that a is kept before o)

ɲ > in / _(C,#)
V(n, m) > V~ / _(C,#)
ɛ~ > a~
ai~, ei~, i~ > ɛ~
y~ > œ~

obs[+vcd] > [-vcd] / _#
t, s > 0 / _#
k > 0 / V~_#
n, m > 0 / C_#
j > 0 / (ʃ,ʒ)_V[-nas]

ʎ > j
r > ʁ
oi > wɛ > wa
oi~ > wɛ~
(I've omitted the loss of ə in various contexts, since it often resurfaces)

V = vowel
C = consonant
F = front vowel
B = back vowel
X* = zero or more X
" = primary stress


Last edited by pharazon on Mon Jun 21, 2004 6:04 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 6:58 am 
Avisaru
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Posts: 491
Location: Maryland

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 11:23 am 
Niš
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 5:11 pm 
Lebom
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 7:35 pm 
Avisaru
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Posts: 491
Location: Maryland
I'll need the Latin > Romanian changes too...







Anyways, I found a really useful book at my local college library, and I made a bunch of photocopies of some sound changes listed in it. I'll post 'em here whence I type them all up. But for now, here's PIE > Armenian:

C = consonants
V = vowels
N = nasals
L = liquids
S = sonorants
? = nasalized vowels

Proto-Indo-European > Armenian

[u:, u, o:] > u
[ej, oj] > Ej
Ew > ow
o > a (rare)
[a:, a] > a
e > a (rare)
e > E
[e:, i, i:] > i
E > i / _N
o > u / _N
ej > e / _
ia > Ea
[i, u] > @ (in some unstressed syllables)
e > i (in unstressed syllables)
oy > u (in unstressed syllables)
Ea > E (in unstressed syllables)

b > p? > p / _
d > t? > t / _
g_j > k_j? > tS? > c / _
g > k? > k / _
g_w > k_w? > k / _
bh > b / #_
bh > w, v / _
dh > d / _
g_jh > g_j > Z > j / #_
g_jh > g_j > Z > z / _
gh > g > g / _
g_wh > g_w > dZ / #_[e, i]
g_wh > g_w > g / #_
g_wh > g_w > Z / _
p > h, ? / #_
p > w, v / _
t > t? / #_
t > t? / [aw, ow]_
t > d / [N, L]_
y > w / _o
y > ? / _
k_j > tS > s / _
k > g / [N, L]_
k > k? / _
k_w > tS? / _[e, i]
k_w > g / [N, L]_
k_w > k? / _
[sk, ks] > c? / _
kj > tS? / _
[sr, rs] > r: / _
r > r: / _N
l > 5 / C_#, C_, V_V, lV_
Ns > s / _
sN > N / _
N > w / S_S
VN > ? > V > ? / _# (in polysyllable words)
N > n / _# (in monosyllable words)
N= > n / _#
m= > am / _
n= > an / _
r= > ar / _
l= > a5 / _
V > ? / _(C)#

(I'm using _j for the palatal stops here)

I don't guarantee that these are all perfectly acurate, though... Although the book had very good info, the organization was crappy...


When I get around to it, I'll post PIE > Latin, PIE > Common Celtic, PIE > Albanian, and PIE > Tocharian.

_________________
http://www.veche.net/
http://www.veche.net/novegradian - Grammar of Novegradian
http://www.veche.net/alashian - Grammar of Alashian


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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 1:32 am 
Lebom
Lebom
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Joined: Thu Sep 04, 2003 1:51 am
Posts: 192
Location: Ann Arbor
Latin > Romanian

Vulgar Latin
h > 0
VV > V:, where VV is a sequence of identical short vowels
n > 0 / _(f,v,s)
rs > ss
m, n > 0 / _# in polysyllables
m > n / _#
u > 0 / CC_V
s > 0 / _# in polysyllables
s > i / _#

V > "V / "V(stop)r_
V > "V / _C*"(i,e)V
(i,e) > j / _V

Stressed vowels (note the difference from the French development)
a, a: > a
e, ae > E
e:, i, oe > e
i: > i
o, o: > o
u, u: > u

Initial vowels
a, a: > a
e, e:, i, ae, oe > e
i: > i
o, o:, u > o
u > u

Final vowels
a, a: > a
e, e:, i, ae, (oe) > e
i: > i
o, o:, u, u: > o (u remains u after another vowel)

s > i / #C*V_#
s > 0 / _#
t > 0 / _#
ks > s / _#

kw > p / V_a
gw > b / V_a
gn > mn
kw > k
gw > g

k > tS / _F
g > dZ / _F

E > ie
t > ts / _i
d > dz / _i
s > S / _i

o > u / _[+nas]
e > i / _[+nas]
a > 1 / _[+nas](!nn,mn)

ie > e / [+obs][+liq]_
ie > ia / _C*(a,e)#
E > ea / "_C*(a,e)#
o > oa / "_C*(a,e)#
i > 0 / (ts,dz,S)_V

li > lj / _V
l > lj / _i
ll > 0 / _i
"ella > e"a / _#
b, v > 0 / V_(V,t)
l > r / V_V
mn > un / a_V
b > u / V_(l,r)
ps > s
c > p / _(s,t)
sc, st > St / _F
skl > Skl
nct > nt

kj > tS
gj > j (sometimes 0)
[+lab]j > j[+lab]
stj, sj, ssj > S
tj > ts
dj > dz / r_
dj > Z / _"B
dj > z / V_V
nj, lj > j
rja > re / _#
rj > r

dz > z
kl > kj
gl > gj

a > e / [+pal]_#
o > u / "..._#
a > @ / "..._#
e > @ / "...[+lab]_C*V(!i)#
oe > oue
e > @ / ou_#
u > 0 / (![+obs][+liq], "V)_#

a > e / #C*V...[+pal]_..."
a > @ / #C*V..._..."
o > u / #C*V..._..."
e > i / #C*V..._n..."
e > @ / #C*V...(t,d,n)_..."

e > @ / [+lab]"_C*B
ea > a / [+lab]_
e > @ / #(r, [+lab])_..."
o > u / #C*_..."
a > @ / #CC*_..."
au > @u / #CC*_..."

nt, nd > n / _#
i > _j / _# (unless preceded by a C(sonorant) cluster)

This is probably missing some minor changes, and maybe some are out of order, because I didn't spend nearly as much time on these as the French one. They should be pretty accurate though.

If people are wondering, my (main) source for these is Jensen's A Comparative Study of Romance.


Last edited by pharazon on Mon Jun 05, 2006 8:42 am, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 9:00 am 
Niš
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Ooh thanks...I wanted those for ages! :)


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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 12:55 pm 
Avisaru
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Posts: 491
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 4:53 pm 
Avisaru
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Joined: Thu Jul 24, 2003 2:40 pm
Posts: 491
Location: Maryland
*sigh*

I've finally finished typing up the PIE > Latin sound changes. Here you go:

C = consonants
V = vowels
P = labials
A = diphthongs
T = stops
F = fricatives
N = nasals

Proto-Indo-European > Latin

e > i / _N (as in -nk, -ng, -kn)
e > o / _5
o > u / _N
o > u / _mb, _mk, _5
o > e / w_[r, s, t]
o: > u: / _r
aj > ai > ae / _ (or > e: in rustic dialects)
ej > e: > i: / _ (but stays at e: in rustic dialects)
oj > oi > oe > u: / _
aw > au / _ (or > o: in rustic dialects)
[ew, ow] > ou > u: / _
V > i / $(C)(C)_$ (short vowels to i in unstressed medial syllables)
V > o / $(C)(C)V_$ (short vowels to o in unstressed medial syllables when preceded by a vowel)
V > e / $(C)(C)_$r (this change has some exceptions; syllables are always unstressed)
V > i, u / $(C)(C)_$P (unstressed)
a > e / $(C)(C)_C(C)$ (unstressed)
o > u / $(C)(C)_C(C)$ (unstressed)
a > e > i / $(C)(C)_N (unstressed)
a > e > u / $(C)(C)_5 (unstressed)
e > u / $(C)(C)_5 (unstressed)
ai > ei > i: / $(C)(C)_ (unstressed)
ei > i: / $(C)(C)_ (unstressed)
oi > e: / $(C)(C)_ (unstressed)
ou > u: / $(C)(C)_ (unstressed)
i > e / _#
o > e / _#
[i, e] > ? / _# (sometimes)
a > e / _C(C)#
e > i / _[s, t]#
o > u / _C(C)# (unless preceded by u or w)
[ai, ei, oi] > ei > i: / _(C)(C)#
V: > V / _[m, t, nt, l, r]#
V: > V / _#
j > i / C_
w > u / t_
e > o / _w, w_
w > ? / s_o
m= > em / _
n= > en / _
n:= > n / _ (eg, PIE gn:tos > Latin gn?tus)
l= > ol / _
l:= > l / _ (eg, PIE wl:na > Old Latin wl?na > Latin l?na)
r= > or / _
r:= > r / _ (eg, PIE grnom > Latin gr?num)
bh > f / #_, (> h in rustic dialects)
bh > b / _
tl > kl / _
t > ? / C_#
t > d / V_
dw > b / _
d > ? / V:_#
d > ? C_
d > l / _ (in many dialects) (eg, PIE dnghum > Old Latin dingua > Latin lingua)
dh > f / #_
dh > b / rV_, _Vr, _l, u:_
dh > d / _
k_j > k / _
g_j > g / _
gh > g / N_
gh > h / _
kw > ? / C_C
kw > k / _[o, i, C]
[gw, gwh] > gu / N_
gw > g / _V[l, r]
gw > v / _
gwh > f / #_
gwh > f / _r
gwh > v / V_V
s > z > r / V_V
sr > Tr > fr / #_ (/T/ in Latin!?)
sr > Tr > br / _
s > z / _C[+vcd]
V > V: / _zC[+vcd]
z > ? / _C[+vcd]
p > kw / _ ? kw
V1 > V2 / _ ? V2 (sometimes)
V > V: / _T[+vcd][T[-vcd], F[-vcd]] (i, e, and o sometimes bypass this)
T[+vcd] > [-vcd] / _[T[-vcd], F[-vcd]]
T[-vcd] > [+vcd] / _N
s > z / _N
s > z / _[l, r]
V > V: / _z[l, r]
z > ? / _[l, r]
T > f / _f
[t, d] > s / _s
[p, b] > m / _[n, m]
[t, d] > n / _[n, m]
[k, g] > N / _n
mm > n / [A, V:]_
[d, n, r] > l / _l
n > r / _r
s > z > l / l_
s > z > r / r_
n > l / l_
V > V: / _[dt, tt]
[dt, tt] > tst > ss / _
ssr > sstr / _
ml > mpl / _
ms > mps / _
mt > mpt / _
ss > s / _#
ss > s / [A, V:]_
l > r / _Vl
l > r / lV_ (in suffixes with l if root already has l) (eg, *milit-alis > militaris)
r > ? / r ? _
n > r / _ ? r
d > r / _ ? r
V: > V / _C(C)# (irregular: often before -m, -t, -nt, but never before ?s)
V > V:, V~ / _[nf, ns]
n > ? / V~

Nasalized vowels in Latin! Apparently, they were treated as the same as long vowels. This also explains early changes in Latin such as OLat. *lupons > Lat. lup?s, or OLat. puppins > pupp?s. It also explains early spelling variations, such as c?sul ~ c?nsul, or c?sor ~ c?nsor. Apparently the orthographic N was re-introduced in order to "standardize and maintain... analogical and etymological regularity." The preceding vowel, though, seems to have kept its new length.

C1C2C3C4 > C3C4, C4 / _
C1C2C3 > C1C3 / _

Cluster simplifications. For example, *?rds? > ?rsi, *fulgmen > fulmen, *lowksna > l?na, *stl?tis > l?s

There are also some haplology, analogy, and metathesis changes that I can't really explain...

If you're curious, my sources are mostly from "The Indo-European Languages", edited by Anna Giacalore Ramat and Paolo Ramat.

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Dang, I never realized that sound changes could be so complicated... :o

Now that I think about it, I should modify some of the sound changes that Kahrhtehlahrhno went through to evolve into its daughter languages. A whole lot of them are generic (e. g. a set of sounds changes in certain environments, like vowels shifting before liquids) instead of specific (e. g. a specific sound shifts in a precise environment, like a changing to e before r). :roll:

Does anyone know if there are any good resources (preferably on the internet) on the history of Japanese, Tagalog, Thai, and/or Hindi? I'm looking for lists of changes in particular, like the ones given here. I've tried looking for them on Google, but apparently I haven't found anything real useful. :|

~Tayanrai


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