לקרוא את העברית הייה מעניין! י
זה טוב! י
I think it’d be a bit easier to practice reading the Hebrew if you put the transliteration after the vocabulary.
Alright, I'll do that in the next lesson. I wasn't sure if it would be too
confusing if the transliteration were that far away...
Is hif`il transitive or intransitive? A causitive makes it seem like the first, but it also seemed like you used machlishim intransitively. (Unless I’m not parsing it right, or it is transitive and I don’t see it, or adjectives aren’t necessarily made transitive, or it works like English and can be either intransitive or transitive based on the number of arguments you give it. . . )
Hif`il is (always?) transitive, as is required by the causitive nature. However, you're not quite parsing the sentence the right way. Remember how the masculine plural form can be used to form an impersonal/de-agentive structure (a quasi-passive)? That's what it is in that sentence. What I did forget was the direct object marker 'et: 'et ha`itzur harishon veha`itzur hashlishi tamid machlishim.
It's like saying "[They] always lenite the first and third consonants" (though you'd never actually translate it that way). This impersonal structure is common when describing "the way things are", if that makes any sense...
Alternatively, you could use a passive binyan (in this case, huf`al
), making it מוחלשים muchlashim
"are lenited", but I'm trying to avoid using forms you don't know yet...
I was able to recognize beyn from its Arabic cognate bayna, which made me happy. ^_^
Nice! Cognates are always a good way to help remember vocabulary, too.
Zohar, perhaps it’d be easier if you printed out the lessons. I don’t think I could follow them myself if I didn’t have a hard copy. ^_^
While I wouldn't be opposed to a copy of this thread in the museum (
), that's not up to me. Besides, it would be kind of weird, I guess, to have to post each lesson twice...
I’d guess that it also means “to blush.”
Yup. I hope you're beginning to see how a small set of roots can yield such a wide variety of meanings (and you haven't seen the half of it yet!)
להגדיל lehagdil to make something grow; to grow
Yes, in the sense of "enlarge" or "increase". The transitive "grow" (as in, to grow plants) is handled by pi`el: לגדל legadel
להטעים lehat`im to make something be delicious
Correct. It also means "give something to somebody to taste".
להאכיל leha'achil to make something eat; to feed
להקטין lehaqtin to make something small; to shrink
Yes. Also "reduce".
להפעיל lehaf`il to make someone do; to force; to cause
Mhmm. More commonly it's use for "to set in motion", "put to work", or "activate [a machine]".
להצריך lehatzrich to make someone need (There really should be a verb for that in English)
Indeed there should. In Hebrew, this verb can also mean things like "oblige" or "require". (Think about it - if tzarich
is "have to" (roughly-speaking), lehatzrich
means something like "to make something into a 'have-to'".
And for fun, I’ll try to write sentences with them!
Unexpected, but it's great that you did them!
אי אפשר להגדיל חתול בגינה. י It’s not possible to grow a cat in a garden.
Well, like I said, you can't use להגדיל in this sense. You'd want לגדל legadel
סוכר מטאים עוגה. י Sugar makes cake delicious.
Good. Although I personally'd pluralize `ugah.
למה את לא מאכילה לכלב? י Why don’t you feed the dog?
Hmm. You made a very understandable mistake here. You're thinking in an IE perspective - the direct object of "feed" is the food, and the thing the food is being fed to is indirect.
Not so in Hebrew. If you simplify the meaning of להאכיל , you get "to cause something to eat". So what's the direct object? You cause the dog to eat, not the dog food.
If you want to mention the food, you have to use the preposition ב be-
: אני מאכיל בבשר את הכלב 'ani ma'achil bebasar 'et hakélev
"I'm feeding some meat to the dog" (lit. "I am feeding the dog in meat").be-
is the so-called "governing preposition" of the verb leha'achil
. The purpose of a causitive verb is usually to turn a transitive (valence-2) verb into a valence-3 verb. The governing preposition (in Hebrew, מילת יחס מוצרכת milat yachas mutzréchet
- "required word of relation", or מ"י מוצרכת for short) is used to mark the third argument of the verb. Despite its name, it's not required
Different hif`il verbs have different governing prepositions. We'll talk about these more later on.
הים מקטין כשהוא קר. י The sea shrinks when it is cold.
Eh, don't try to do sentences dealing with weather or temperature yet. Those are weird in every language.
However, remember that hif`il verbs must be transitive.
This sentence should read הים קוטן כשיש קור hayam qoten ksheyesh qor
, literally "The sea becomes smaller when there is cold."
(The intransitive "become small" is handled by לקטון liqton
, the pa`al form)
האיש מפעיל מלחמות. י The man causes wars.
מבחנים מצריכים לה ללמוד. י Tests make her need to study.
, not לה lah
. Hif`il verbs always need a direct object.
Yes, they’re fairly random. ^_^ I’m afraid I messed the valencies and noun cases up completely.
Hey, it's good that you're trying! And that one sentence you made about feeding reminded me a very important thing I forgot to mention earlier!
The best way to learn, after all, is by doing.
גם יש לי מבחנים סופים החודש. אני מבין שאתה צריך ללמוד. י
זה נכון! מצד שני, סגורים את בית הספר מוקדם
- נכון nachon* "true, correct"
- צד tzad "side" (and the expression מצד שני mitzad sheni*)
- ס-ג-ר S-G-R "close, shut (pa`al)", "hand over to authorities, quarantine (hif`il).
- מוקדם muqdam "early"
Except that I too have some exams, including a couple of university entrance examinations… And I'm lazy. But I'll try to try. :Þ
Ouch. Well, מזל טוב!