That's neat with the plurals of the professions. So כותב kotev and כותבת kot?vet mean writer (or perhaps clerk, given the meaning of the Arabic equivalent), and so on?
"Writer" is correct.
And not all professions do it this way. There are other profession patterns than just CoCeC.
Again, with my obsession for correspondences between languages, I've noticed a pattern between Hebrew and Arabic:
(On the other hand, 'ani-'anaa. I need to find more samples.)
It looks to me like Hebrew o generally corresponds to Arabic aa. This makes the profession pattern CoCeC seem to be related to Arabic CaaCiC. I'd like to figure out what circumstances make Hebrew sh correspond to Arabic s (as in shalom/salaam, L-Sh-N and lisaan, shemesh? and shams). It's like Spanish and Portuguese, only non-Indo-European!
I've found yom-yawm, which means my observation, though still interesting (at least to me
), not very useful for guessing the Arabic or Hebrew cognate.
Of course, the two languages are fairly closely related. You'll be able to find all kinds of cognates in words and patterns as we go on. Feel free to mention whatever you may find.
When I visited Morocco last year, I loved the fact that I could guess the meanings or pronunciations of certain words by virtue of their similarity with Hebrew. I noticed, among other things, "maya" (water) for Hebrew "m?yim", and "zhuzh" (two) for Hebrew "zug" (pair). I'm not sure how the Arabic's spelled right off hand, so pardon my transcription.
And your profession pattern CaaCiC in Arabic I think may actually be related to Hebrew's CaCaC/CaCaCit profession pattern, used alongside CoCeC/CoC?Cet.
<b>Lesson 6 / השעור השישי / Hashi`ur Hashishi</b>
Negation is very simple (which makes me wonder why I didn't say anything before). All you do is add the word לא lo'
, the same as the word for "no", before the verb.
אני רואה 'ani ro'eh
אני לא רואה 'ani lo' ro'eh
"I don't see"
There's also another form of negation, but it's more formal and is a bit too complicated to be taught at this point.
2) Three More Gzarot
#1: Gizrat ל"ח (Final Ch)
The consonant /X/ always does odd things to nearby vowels. Most often, it drags nearby vowels toward /a/. When it occurs word-finally after an vowel but /a/, the previous vowel breaks and acquires an /a/ offglide. So the MascSg patterns CoCéaC is a natural, predictable variation of CoCeC. In the FemSg form, the /X/ has turned both of the nearby /e/s to /a/. In the plurals, an epenthetic /e/ is inserted to keep a gutteral cluster from forming.
With the verb פ-ת-ח P-T-Ch
"open": פותח, פותחת, פותחים, פותחות potéach, potáchat, potechim, potechot
. The infinitive is regular, but also shows the added /a/ due to the final /X/: לפתוח liftéach
. Notice how the stress always remains on the original syllable that it would have been on if the /a/ had never been inserted: earlier *pot?ch > modern pot?ach.
Nouns show this same tendency: תפוח tapúach
"apple". When pluralized, this /X/ is no longer word-final, so the /a/ is not inserted: תפוחים tapuchim
#2: Gizrat ל"ע (Final `Ayin)
This only occurs with final `ayin, not 'alef. In a related phoneminon with the above, `ayin is not allowed word-finally, so an epenthetic /a/ is added after it wherever it otherwise would be final. Notice how it causes the same /e/ > /a/ changes as chet in the FemSg form, though in the plural forms, the epenthetic vowel is /a/, not /e/.
With the verb נ-ס-ע N-S-`
"travel": נוסע, נוסעת, נוסעים. נוסעות nosé`a, nosá`at, nosa`im, nosa`ot
. The same "preserve the original stress" rule is still in effect.
Can you guess what the infinitive form of "travel" is?
#3: Gizrat פ"א (Initial 'Alef)
These verbs are completely regular in the present (as you have already seen with א-ה-ב '-H-B
"love" and א-כ-ל '-K-L
"eat". The only irregularity is in the infinitive, where the pattern is leCeCoC instead of liCCoC, to prevent a cluster with /?/: לאהוב le'ehov
, לאכול le'echol
I know that all may seem a bit dense for now, but don't worry - the first two gzarot there are very logical alterations once you get used to the Final Chet and Final `Ayin rules found throughout Hebrew.
3) Adjectives, Part 1
Hebew adjectives aren't very difficult - if you can handle nouns, you can handle adjectives. They behave almost identically. Adjectives must agree in gender, number, and definiteness
with the noun they modify.
There are two basic types of adjective patterns - those that end in /i/ in the masculine singular, and those that... don't. We'll be discussing the "don't" ones in this lesson.
The masculine singular indefinite is the basic form. Some examples to start off with:
- קטן qatan "small"
- גדול gadol "large"
- חם cham "hot"
- קר qar "cold"
- יפה yafeh "beautiful"
The feminine singular adds, you guessed it, ה -ah. If the masculine singular ends in -eh, it is replaced by the -ah (just like the verbs in Gizrat ל"ה - Final H). Many adjectives that consist of two syllables in the MascSg form to lose the first vowel entirely.
- קטנה qtanah
- גדולה gdolah
- חמה chamah
- קרה qarah
- יפה yafah
The masculine plural adds ים -im. Any vowel changes present in the FemSg are also found in both of the plural forms:
- קטנים qtanim
- גדולים gdolim
- חמים chamim
- קרים qarim
- יפים yafim
The feminine plural adds ות -ot.
- קטנות qtanot
- גדולות gdolot
- חמות chamot
- קרות qarot
- יפות yafot
So in other words, the adjectives basically take the exact same endings as nouns and present-tense verbs.
Definite adjectives just add ה ha- to the beginning of the adjective: הקטן, הקטנה, הקטנים, הקטנות haqatan, haqtanah, haqtanim, haqtanot
Adjectives only take the definite article when they directly modify a definite noun: בית גדול báyit gadol
"a big house", הבית בגדול habáyit hagadol
"the big house". B?yit, despite its looks, is masculine.
However, when on two sides of a copulative sentence, the adjective never takes the article, even if the noun is definite: הבית גדול habáyit gadol
means "The house is big", a complete sentence.
1) Another very useful verb to know is י-ד-ע Y-D-`
"know". Conjugate it in the present. The infinitive is irregular - לדעת lad?`at. This is pretty much the last truly irregular infinitive you'll have to deal with for a very long time...
2) Using the following vocabulary, translate the following from English to Hebrew.
- לילה láylah "night" (masculine!)
- רכבת rak?vet "train"
- ארוחה 'aruchah "meal"
- מכונית mechonit "car" (remember the rule for pluralizing feminine nouns ending in -t)
- ביצה beytzah "egg" (feminine, but plural: ביצים beytzim)
- חדש chadash "new"
- טוב tov "good"
- חזק chazaq "strong"
- רך rach "soft" (note the final consonant is a lenited kaf, so the other forms are rakah, rakim, etc, not rachah, rachim)
- כשר kasher* "kosher"
- שחור shachor* "black"
Adjectives marked with an asterisk (*) above lose their first vowel in all forms but the masculine singular.
- A cold night.
- The night is cold.
- The strong man.
- A new train.
- Kosher meals.
- The black cars.
- Soft-boiled eggs. (lit. "soft eggs")
I realize this is a lot of information, and relatively few exercises. The next lesson, which will finish up adjectives and teach a few more useful forms, will be the start of the trickier themed
lessons, with more texts of multiple sentences. Get ready!