Inventory dump:

Code: Select all

```
Rotokas p b t d k g 6
Iau b t d k f s 6
Buin p t k g m n r 7
NW.Mekeo p b k g m n ŋ 7
Puinave p t k s h m n 7
Akoye p t k f s m n w 8
Hawaiian p k ʔ h m n l w 8
I'saka p b t d k s j w 8
Nasioi p b t d k ʔ m n 8
N.Marquesan p t k ʔ h m n v 8
N.Mekeo b t g z m n l v 8
Piraha p b t k g ʔ s h 8
Rurutu p t ʔ m n ŋ r v 8
S.Isl.Maori p t k h m n r w 8
S.Marquesan p t ʔ f h m n v 8
Taoripi p t k f s h m l 8
Abau p k s h m n r j w 9
AitaRotokas p b t d k g m n ŋ 9
Carib (VZ) p t k s m n r j w 9
C.Miyako p t k f s m n r ʋ 9
Desano p b t d k g s j w 9
E.Mekeo p t k ʔ f s m ŋ l 9
Gadsup p t d k ʔ m n j β 9
Girawa p t ʤ ʔ s m n r w 9
Isaka p b t d k ɸ s j w 9
Isebe p bv t d ʣ k g j w 9
Luangiua p k ʔ s h m ŋ l v 9
Namia p t k m n l r j w 9
NW.Mekeo 2 p t k g m ŋ j w β 9
Onondaga t ʤ k ʔ s h n j w 9
Pawnee p t ʦ k ʔ s h r w 9
Pukapukan p t k m n l ðʲw v 9
Rapoisi p t k ʔ s ɣ h r β 9
Roro p b t k ʔ h m n r 9
Tahitian p t ʔ f h m n r v 9
Wayana p t k h m n ɽ j w 9
Akurio p t ʧ k ʔ m n r j w 10
'Are'are p t k ʔ s h m n r w 10
Asuriní d.T p t k kʷ ʔ s h m n ŋ w 10
Au p t k s ɣ m n r j w 10
Bari b t d k s h m ɾ r j 10
Bimin b t d k f s m n ŋ l 10
Cheyenne p t k ʔ s ʃ h m n v 10
Crow p t ʧ k s ʃ x h m n 10
Edolo p t k f s h m ɺ j w 10
Ekari p b t d k m n gʟ j w 10
Gilbertese p pˠ t k m mˠn ŋ r βˠ 10
Keuw p b t d k g s l j w 10
Iñapari p t ʔ s h m n r j w 10
Ingarikó p t k ʔ s m n r j w 10
Iwam p t k s h m n r j w 10
Leti p t d k s m n l r β 10
Macuna b t d k g s h r j w 10
Makuráp p t ʧ k m n ŋ r j w 10
Makushi p t k ʔ s m n r j w 10
Mandan p t k ʔ s ʃ x h r w 10
Maori p t k f h m n ŋ r w 10
Maxakali p b t d k g ʔ ʃ h j 10
Mekeo p t k ʔ f s m n ŋ l 10
Mekeo(Blust)p k g ʔ f m n ŋ l v 10
NaskapiCree p t ʧ k s h m n j w 10
Niuean p t k f h m n ŋ l v 10
Palauan b t k ʔ ð s m ŋ l r 10
Parkateje p t k ʔ h m n r j w 10
Pemon p t k ʔ s m n r j w 10
Samoan p k ʔ f s h m ŋ l v 10
Sentani p t k f h m n l j w 10
S.Barasano b t d k g s h r j w 10
Tinputz p t k ʔ s h m n r β 10
Trio p t k s h m n r j w 10
Waimaha p b t d k g h r j w 10
Warao p t k kʷ s h m n r j w 10
W.Mekeo p b t d k g m ŋ l w 10
Wichita t ʦ k kʷ ʔ s h n j w 10
Xavante p b t d ʧ ʤ ʔ h r w 10
Yameo p t k s ʃ m n l j w 10
Ache p b t d ʧ ʤ k g m l v 11
Akuntsú p t k kʷ ʔ m n ŋ r j w 11
Ainu p t ʦ k s h m n r j w 11
Alekano p t k s z ɣ h m n l β 11
Andoke p b t d ɟ k ɸ s h ɲ r 11
Aneme Wake b d k g f s m n r j w 11
Angaataha p t k ʔ ʃ m n ŋ r j w 11
Arabela p t k s ʃ h m n r j w 11
Arára p t ʧ k m n ŋ l r j w 11
Arikapú p t ʧ k ʔ h m n r j w 11
Asmat p t ʧ k f s m n r j w 11
Auca p b t d k g m n ɲ ŋ w 11
Awiyaana p t k ʔ m m: n n: r j w 11
Awtuw p t d k m n ŋ l r j w 11
BarasanaEd. p b t d c ɟ k g h r w 11
Binandere p b t d k g m n r j β 11
Binumarien p t k ʔ ɸ s m n ŋ r j 11
Carib (FG) p t k ʔ s h m n ɭ j w 11
Cayuga t ʦ k kʷ ʔ s h n r j w 11
Cherokee t ʦ k ʔ s h m n l j ɰ 11
Cubeo p b t d ʧ k ð h r j w 11
Daga p b t d k g m n r j w 11
Dera p b t d k g m n ŋ j w 11
Fasu p t k ɸ s h m n r j w 11
Gavião Pará p t ʧ kʰk h m n r j w 11
Hewa p t k ɸ s x m n l j w 11
KarapanãSi. p b t d k g s h r j w 11
Karitiâna p t k s h m n ɲ ŋ r w 11
Karitiâna2 p t k s h m n ŋ r j w 11
Kilenge p t k s ɣ m n ŋ l r v 11
Klao p b t d c ɟ kp gb f s w 11
Koiari b t d k g f ð h m n r 11
Kokama p t ʦ ʧ k x m n r j w 11
Iquito p t k kʷ s h m n r j w 11
Irantxe p t k ʔ s h m n l j w 11
Iwam p t k s h m n ŋ r j w 11
Jarawara b t ɟ k ɸ s h m n r w 11
Maranao p t k ʔ m n ŋ l r j w 11
Matae p t ʦ k s m n l r w v 11
Maybrat p t k f s x m n r j w 11
Menominee p t ʧ k ʔ s h m n j w 11
MiamiIll p t ʧ k s ʃ h m n j w 11
Mohawk t ʦ k kʷ ʔ s h n r j w 11
Nuaulu p t k s h m n l r j w 11
Nukak p b t d ʧ ʤ k g ʔ h r 11
Oneida t ʦ k kʷ ʔ s h n l j w 11
Panará p t k ʔ s h m n r j w 11
Pisamira p b t d ʧ k g h ʝ ɰ β 11
Sabanê p ɓ t ɗ k ʔ s h m n l 11
Sanumá p tʰt ʦ k s h m n l w 11
Seimat p t k s x h m n ŋ l w 11
Seneca t ʣ ʤ k ʔ s ʃ h n j w 11
Shawnee p t ʧ k ʔ θ ʃ m n j w 11
TanimucaRe. p b t d k ʔ s h r j w 11
Tatuyo p b t d c k g h r j w 11
Tigak p b t k g s m n ŋ l r 11
Tuscarora t ʧ k ʔ θ s h n r j w 11
Tuyuca p b t d k g s h r j w 11
Wyandot t k ʔ θ s x h n r j w 11
Yagua p t ʦ ʧ k h m n r j w 11
Yabarana p t k s h m n ɲ r j w 11
Yãroamë p t ʧ k x h m n ɲ r w 11
Yurutí p b t d k g s h r j w 11
Ama p t k kʷ ɸ s h m n ɭ j w 12
Apalaí p t k ʔ s z ʃ m n r j w 12
Apiaká p t k ʔ s h m n ŋ r j w 12
Arapaho b t ʧ k ʔ θ s x h n j w 12
Araweté p t d ʧ k ʔ h m n r j w 12
AváCanoeiro p t ʧ k kʷ ʁ m n ŋ r j w 12
Awa p b t ʦ k g ʔ m n r j w 12
Bamu p b t d k g s h m n r w 12
Bandjalang p t c k m n ɲ ŋ l r j w 12
Biloxi p t d ʧ k s x h m n j w 12
Cabiyarí p ṱ t ʧ k ʔ h m n r j w 12
Cacua p t ʧ k ʔ ʍ h m n ŋ l w 12
ChanéChi. p t ʧ k kʷ s m n ŋ r ʝ β 12
Chuave b t d k g f s m n r j w 12
Comanche p t ʦ k kʷ ʔ s h m n j w 12
Cree p t ʧ k s ʃ h m n r j w 12
Dawan p b t ʤ k ʔ f s h m n l 12
Djeoromitxi p t ʧ ʤ k h m n r w 12
Doromu-Koki b t d k g f s m n r j β 12
Erave p b t d k g s m n l j w 12
Fas p t k ʔ f s m n r j w ʙ 12
Fore p b t d k g ʔ s m n j w 12
Gimi p b t d ʔ: ʔ s z h m n r 12
Guajá p t ʧ k kʷ ʔ h m n r j w 12
Gumawana p b t d k g s m n l j β 12
Huaorani p b t d ɟ k g m n ɲ ŋ w 12
Ikpeng p t ʧ k g m n ŋ l r j w 12
Irarutu b t d k g ɸ s m n r j w 12
IzoceñoChi. p b t d k g kʷ gʷ s r ʝ β 12
Jamamadi b t ɟ k ʔ ɸ s h̃ m n r w 12
Júma p t k g ʔ h m n ŋ r j w 12
Kanoé p t ʦ k x m n ɲ r j w β 12
Kapau p t k q ʔ h m n ŋ j w β 12
Karaja b d ɗ ʧ ʤ k θ ʃ h l r w 12
Katukína p b t d ʧ ʤ k h m n ɲ l 12
Kaxuiâna p t ʧ k ʔ s h m n r j w 12
Ket b t d k q s ç h m n ŋ ɮ 12
Krahô p t ʦ kʰk h m n ŋ l j w 12
Latunde p t k ʔ s h m n l j w β 12
Managalasi p t ʧ ʤ k ʔ s h m n r β 12
Nagovisi p b t d k g ʔ s m n r β 12
Nimboran p b t d k g s h m n ŋ r 12
Nukak p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ h r w 12
Oro Win p t tʙ k ʔ s m n r j w β 12
Parakanã p t ʧ k kʷ ʔ h m n ŋ r β 12
Rarotongan p t k ʔ f s h m n ŋ r v 12
S. Kiwai p b t d k g ʔ s m n r w 12
Taushiro t ʧ k kʷ ʔ x h n ɲ r j w 12
Tifal b t d k f s m n ŋ l j w 12
Tongan p t k ʔ f s h m n ŋ l v 12
Umotína p t k z ʃ ʒ m n l r j w 12
Waorani p b t d k g m n ɲ ŋ j w 12
Yanomami VZ p tʰt k s ʃ h m n r j w 12
Yekwana t ʧ k ʔ s h m n ɲ r j w 12
Yukpa Irapa p t ʧ k ʔ s ʃ m n r j ʋ 12
```

**Voicing in plosives:**

May be totally absent, as in the Polynesian languages (sometimes they have /v/ but I grouped that as a form of /w/).

May be fully present, as in Xavante or Rotokas.

May be present for only some of the plosives. Note that you can eliminate voicing contrasts for

*any*one POA, though if you eliminate it only in the labials, you'll end up with /b/, not /p/. Piraha, Awa, and Tigak have /p b t k g/ with no /d/; I'm guessing it became /r/. (Iau /d/ is notable within the Lakes-Plain languages for *not* allowing flapping of /d/ -- most of them do.)

**POAs:**

May have no labials, as with Oneida and Tuscarora -- but this is a strongly areal feature, appearing only in North America. Comanche is the only language here to have both labials and /kʷ/, but it's spoken in the general vicinity of languages with /kʷ/ and no labials.

Xavante and Tahitian have no velars. I'm guessing /k/ backed to /ʔ/ in Tahitian and /k g/ fronted in Xavante, but I don't know.

It is not necessarily the case that you need three stop POAs. Abau only has /p k/, but /r/ has a wide range of allophones, including [t]:

All stops voice after nasals, so it could also be analyzed as /t/ -- but most of its allophones aren't stops.word-initially, it is [l], after /n/ it is [d], [r] intervocalically, and [t] or [ɺ] word-finally.

Samoan merged its alveolars into velars, except /l/. Chain shift in the stops: t k > ʔ. It already had /ŋ/ when /n/ merged into it though.

**Fricatives:**

Bandjalang has the largest inventory here with no fricatives, and it's Australian.

The presence of fricatives usually implies /h/, but some have /s/ as their only fricative. If there's a fricative that isn't /s/, there's also /h/

None of these languages has more than three fricatives except Mandan (which doesn't have nasals), unless you count Polynesian /v/ as a fricative. Tuscarora has /θ s h/, Seneca has /s ʃ h/, and Koiari has /f ð h/, but the most common three-fricative inventory by far is /f s h/. /x/ doesn't appear in any of these languages except

**The glottal stop:**

Not as necessary as you might think: about a third of the languages here don't have it. Of the ones that do, some (Polynesian) got it through debuccalization of another plosive.

**Nasals:**

/ŋ/ implies /m/. /p n/ also imply /m/.

Many of the languages here with missing nasals are Amazonian languages with a full inventory of nasal vowels -- nasals are allophones of voiced stops around nasal vowels. In Piraha, nasals [m n] are allophones of /b g/ word-initially. In Keuw, voiced stops vary freely with nasals, and voiceless stops can be freely prenasalized. Rotokas and Iau really do have no nasals.

**Liquids:**

Surprisingly, /w/ (or /v/) is more common than /j/ -- the only language with /j/ and no /w/ is Maxakali.

Ekari has a velar lateral affricate /gʟ/. Matae contrasts /v w/.

/l r/ contrast is more common than you might think, even in these small inventories. It's really not that European a feature.

**Iau:**

...is worthy of special mention here for being probably the most phonologically bizarre language on the planet. It has six consonants, /b t d k f s/. /f/ is [ɸ~h] word-initially, but is [x] preceding /i/; word-medially it's [h]; and word-finally (/f/ is the only consonant that can occur word-finally) it's an unreleased stop [p]. /b d/ vary with nasals, and can be implosive before /ã/; /d/ can also be [l], but is never flapped.

There are eight vowels: /ã æ~ɛ ɪ i ɔ ʊ u/ and a fricated vowel /i̝/. /ã/ is always nasalized.

Despite all this, most words are monosyllabic -- and the reason Iau can pull this off is that, well, not only does it have

**eight tones**(two level and six contour), it has

**tone clusters**-- more than one tone can appear on a word. There is an extensive system of tone-based verbal derivation:

tai2 'pull'

tai3 'has been pulled off'

tai21 'might pull'

tai43 'land on'

tai24 'fell to ground'

tai23 'fall to ground (incompletive)'

tai34 'pull off'

tai243 'falling to ground (durative)'

tai21-34 'pull on, shake' (nb: two *different* contour tones)

tai21-3 'have pulled on, have shaken'