Pronominalització del complement directe "Pronominalization of the direct object"
Pronominal forms in function of direct object
1st p. em
2nd p. et
3rd p. el, la
1st p. ens
2nd p. us
3rd p. els, les
Neuter: en, ho, es
1) The 1st p. and 2nd p. forms always refer to persons.
Et buscaré a la plaça "I'll find you in the market"
Ens avisaran a les set "They'll warn us at seven o'clock"
2) 3rd p. forms:
2.1) The pronouns el, la, els, les substitute a specific and determinated SN, and make reference to the whole. They distinguish between masculine and femenine, and singular and plural.
Has comprat el diari? No, ara el compraré "Have you bought the newspaper?. No, I'll buy it now"
No et deixis les ulleres! No, ja les duc a la bossa "Don't forget the glasses! Don't worry, I took them in the bag.
2.2) The pronoun en substitutes the core of a non-deetrminated SN, or a Sn that is preceded by a numeral, a quantitative or an indefinite. It doesn't cares about the gender.
Qui porta ulleres? Aquell xicot en porta. "Who wears glasses? That boy wears glasses"
Tens còmics antics? Oh, i tant, en tinc molts! "Do you have old comics? Oh yes, I have lots of comics!"
2.3) The form ho has as antecedent a neuter demonstrative pronoun or a proposition. Also, it can refer to an accumulation of elements that express an idea.
Veus això? No, no ho puc veure pas. "Do you see that? No, I can't see it"
Què en fem de tot això que hi ha a l'armari? Llençar-ho! What we must do with all that in the wardrobe? Throw away it!
2.4) The pronoun es is the reflexive or reciprocal form.
Ell es renta la cara "He washes his face", literally: "He to himself washes the face"
1) When a substantive already represented by the pronoun en is used pleonastically, it's necessary to place in front of it the prepositon de.
No en vull més, de macarrons "I don't want more macaroni"; literally "No it want more, of/about macaroni"
2) If a substantive, already substituted by the pronoun en, was complemented by an adjective, this adjective is preceded by the the preposition de.
Teniu vi negre? No, no ens en queda de negre, per? en tenim de blanc "Do youse have red wine? No, we don't have red wine, but we have white", literally: "Do you have red wine? No, we don't wine have of red, but we wine have of white
(The en pronoun substitutes wine)
3) If a reference to a part of the SN isn't made, but it is made to the whole of the SN, the pronouns el, la, els, les are used.
Ahir vam comprar quinze bombons i només en tastàrem un parell; avui, però, ens els hem menjat tots "We bought fifteen chocolates yesterday and we tasted only a pair of all the chocolates; today, though, we ate all the chocolates.
Un llapis mai dibuixa sense una mà.
Last edited by Izambri on Wed Oct 11, 2006 12:09 pm, edited 1 time in total.