|The Yup'ik Thread [Lesson Two, slowly but surely]
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|Author:||Lethe [ Fri Feb 25, 2005 8:53 pm ]|
|Post subject:||The Yup'ik Thread [Lesson Two, slowly but surely]|
Yes, I realize it's been too long in the coming, and it'll probably grow slowly as well. Small talk aside, I'll toss out some basic stuff to keep you occupied for the time being.
Briefly: The Yu'pik language as taught here (as best as possible) is spoken in south-western Alaska, in the areas of Bristol Bay and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Approximately 20,000 as of 1995 speak the language, with 10,500 speaking the language as their only or first.
As I don't speak the language myself, and am only a 14-year-old kid with a grammar and a want to teach, if I happen to make up a sentence I can't guarantee its accuracy. To err on the safe side, the majority will be straight out of the book, paraphrasing where needed.
Lesson 1/2: Yup'ik Orthography and Phonology
I'm not going to present the orthography and phonology in table form as presented in the book - I believe that it's in the Wiki if you're interested. Since each letter is a practical one-to-one correspondence anyways, I'll just list it as... well, a list.
c /ts, tS/
l /l/ (this is probably more of a /K\/ than anything else)
e /@, 1/
There aren't many notable things about the orthography, except the doubling of consonants to indicate voicelessness. Please note, however, that in writing /ug/, /ur/, and /urr/ have ligature marks over the first two letters. Note also that the ` over /m`/, /n`/ and /ng`/ are acute accents in writing which indicate voicelessness (for the curious, nasals are not doubled in writing due to the existence of a rule which permits two nasals differing only in the feature of voicing to appear adjacent to one another).
Yep, that's your first half-lesson. The other half will feature the dreaded apostrophe and introduce the rules of (de-)voicing, rhythmic length, gemination, and how to form the absolutive form of a word from its stem. Nothing to be biting your nails about, but it's going to be there. <3
EDIT: Minor Sampa fix.
|Author:||Whimemsz [ Fri Feb 25, 2005 10:37 pm ]|
|Author:||Matt [ Fri Feb 25, 2005 11:39 pm ]|
Awesome! Phonemic voiceless nasals!
|Author:||Echobeats [ Sat Feb 26, 2005 1:20 pm ]|
You rock. I can't wait for the next instalment.
|Author:||Trebor [ Sat Feb 26, 2005 1:48 pm ]|
|Author:||Echobeats [ Sat Feb 26, 2005 5:45 pm ]|
|Author:||gach [ Sun Feb 27, 2005 12:41 pm ]|
|Author:||Nuntar [ Sun Feb 27, 2005 1:11 pm ]|
|Author:||Echobeats [ Sun Feb 27, 2005 10:04 pm ]|
|Author:||Nuntarin [ Mon Feb 28, 2005 5:54 am ]|
|Author:||Lethe [ Thu Apr 07, 2005 1:36 am ]|
Here you go.
Lesson One: The Apostrophe Marking Gemination; Automatic Devoicing; Rhythmic Lengthening; Double Vowel Length with Automatic Gemination and Rhythmic Length; Review of Uses for the Apostrophe; Automatic Gemination Due to ?hatted e?; and Enclitics. (Sorry - absolutives and simple verbs will have to wait until the next installment due to time constraints [read: bedtime].)
1. The Apostrophe Marking Gemination
The apostrophe in Yup?ik orthography has about five or six uses, but the most common is indicating gemination. Since doubling of letters is already taken (indicating voiceless frictives), the consonant to be geminated has an apostrophe written after it. Compare the word Yup?ik [jup:ik] ?Yup?ik? with pupik [pu.pik] ?skin sore?.
2. Automatic Devoicing
In Yup?ik, consonant clusters rarely have a combination of unvoiced and voiced consonants. There are four main rules outlining automatic devoicing:
1. A fricative written next to a stop is written single (i.e. in its voiced form) and pronounced voiceless. (For example, compare qilugaa [qi.lu.Ga:] ?it ?s barking at her? with qilugtuq [qi.lux.tuq] ?it?s barking? and ekvik [@k.fik] ?riverbank?.)
2. A fricative following a voiceless fricative is written single and pronounced voiceless. (Compare asriq [az.Riq] ?naughty child? with issran [is.Xan] ?grass tote bag? and inarrvik [i.naX.fik] ?sleeping bag?.)
3. Initial <s> and final <r> are written single but pronounced voiceless. (as in necuar [n@.tSu.aX] ?little house? and suugiuq [su:.Gi.uq] ?she?s scrubbing the floor? with luusitaq [lu:.zi.taq] ?horse?)
4. A nasal following a stop or voiceless fricative is written without an accent mark but pronounced voiceless.
When consonant clusters do vary in voicing, the constituents are separated by an apostrophe to indicate this. For example, compare tep?lek [firstname.lastname@example.org@k] ?one having an odor? with tepluni [t@p.Ku.ni] and at?nguuq [at.Nu:q] ?he?s getting a name? with cavutnguuq [tSa.vut.N_0u:q] ?it?s an oar?.
3. (Syllabification and) Rhythmic Lengthening of Vowels
Yup?ik syllables have a nucleus consisting of one or two like or unlike vowels, always begin with a consonant (excepting word-initial syllables, which may begin with a vowel), and may optionally end in a consonant. Thus, a syllable may take the shapes CV, CVV, CVC, or CVVC anyplace in a word and the shapes V, VV, VC, or VVC at the beginning of a word only. Syllable division points fall first between adjacent consonants (C/C) and second between adjacent vowels and consonants (V/C).
For example, the word arnaq [aR.naq] ?woman? is divided ar/naq; nuna [nu.na] ?land? is divided nu/na; and talliq [ta.Kiq] ?arm? is divided ta/lliq (NOT tal/liq ? remember, doubled consonants are unvoiced fricatives and not geminates!). Words with media or final syllables containing two vowels as their nuclei are syllabified thus: ukatiini [u.ka.ti:.ni] u/ka/tii/ni ?on this side of it?; ikamrapialiciqnilua [i.kam.Ra.pia.li.ciq.ni.lua] i/kam/ra/pia/li/ciq/ni/lua ?saying that I will make an authentic sled?. Words with a (virtually) silent initial e count that as a syllable, even if it?s not pronounced ? see elituq [li:.tuq] e/li/tuq ?he is learning? and elaturraq [la:.tu.Xaq] e/la/tu/rraq ?enclosed porch?.
Rhythmic lengthening of vowels occurs in what the grammar aptly terms simple open syllables (those of CV or V [word-initial only] form). (It says that the ?simple? in the term refers to the single-vowel nucleus, and the ?open? because they don?t end in a consonant.) Rhythmical lengthening isn?t explicitly indicated orthographically. About all you need to know pronunciation-wise is that rhythmically lengthened syllables are pronounced a bit longer and louder than adjoining syllables.
The rule for rhythmic lengthening is:
In a sequence of simple open syllables, every second one receives lengthening unless it ends the word.
Given nalluyagucaqunaku ?don?t forget it?, you would syllabify it na/llu/ya/gu/ca/qu/na/ku, and pronounce it [na.Ku:.ja.Gu:.tSa.qu:.na.ku] (remembering that rhythmic lengthening never applies to the last syllable of a word). Pay attention to breaks in the pattern, though: observe qayalitaraqama [qa.ja:.li.ta:.Ra.qa:.ma] ?whenever I?m going to make a kayak?; angyalitaraqama [aN.ja.li:.ta.Ra:.qa.ma] ?whenever I?m going to make a boat?; and qayaliciqngatuten [qa.ja:.li.tSiq.N_0a.tu:.t@n] ?it seems like you will make a kayak?.
4. Double Vowel Length with Automatic Gemination and Rhythmic Length
Consider the words tekituq [t@.ki:.tuq] ?he came? and tekiituq [email@example.com:.tuq] ?she doesn?t have earwax?. Both [i:]s are pronounced the exact same ? the only difference between the two words, in fact, is the geminate [k] in the second. Quoth the book: ?[It may seem perverse to] ?show a difference in consonant length (gemination) by writing a difference in vowel length [?].?Although it?s not explicitly stated in the book, the rule for automatic gemination seems to be:
Consonants are automatically geminated before a cluster of like or unlike vowels.
In the rare case that a consonant cluster doesn?t cause gemination of the preceding consonant, an apostrophe is written separating the two vowels to indicate this. See pika?antuq [pi.ka:n.tuq] and apa?urluq [a.pauR.luq]. (NB: Apparently, it doesn?t matter if the vowel cluster is in an open or closed syllable ? it will still cause gemination unless marked as an exception by the dreaded apostrophe.)
5. Review of Uses for the Apostrophe
1. between consonants, separating [n] from [g] to avoid confusion (compare tan?gurraq [tan.Gu.Xaq] ?boy? with tang! [taN] ?look!; over there!?), or to separate a voiced fricative or nasal from a stop or voiceless consonant which otherwise would devoice it
2. between a consonant and a vowel to indicate gemination
3. between two vowels to indicate that a preceding consonant is not geminated
4. at the end of a word in which a segment has been optionally deleted (in qaill? [qaiK], a shortened form of qaillun [qai.Kun] ?how??)
5. in transcribing speech in which a final stop [k] or [q] is spirantized to [G] or [R] when followed by a vowel-initial word (arnar? una [aR.naR.u.na] ?this woman?, arnag? ukuk [aR.naG.u.kuk] ?these women?)
6. Automatic Gemination Due to Retention of ?hatted e?
I?ve diverged from the book in that in transcribing this chapter I?ve not marked rhythmically lengthened vowels with ?hats? (circumflexes) over them. However, to avoid making up a new term, the term ?hatted e? refers to an e [@] in rhythmically lengthened position (although the vowel e [@] itself is never pronounced lengthened).
As we shall see, a hatted e is generally deleted in constructing a word. However, if a hatted e separates two identical or nearly identical consonants, it is retained and the second of the two consonants is geminated (tumemi [tu.m@m:i] ?in the footprint?). This is in line with the observation that e cannot be doubled; in general, e doesn?t lengthen, either rhythmically or by being doubled.
Enclitics are particles which attach to the end of a word. They don?t follow normal pattern of stress or rhythm, and I?ll have to cover that more in-depth later, when I?ve got time. Enclitics are written with an equals sign separating them from the word (as on nuna=qaa [nu.naq:a:] ?the land? (yes/no question)? and kuigpagmi=llu=gguq [kuix.paG.mi:.Ku.xuq] 'and in the big river, they say'), and are always written with voiceless initial fricatives (doubled letters instead of single).
8. Hypenation in English Words
A hyphen is used to separate an English word with English spelling from a Yup?ik suffix: call-aqsaituq [ka.laq.sai.tuq] ?she hasn?t called yet?, vote-artuq [vo.taX.tuq] ?she?s voting?.
I'll try not to take six or seven weeks to post the next part, in all seriousness. Do enjoy! <3
Oh, and if you find an error in the SAMPA or you need something clarified, tell me and I'll attempt to rectify the problem.
|Author:||gach [ Wed Apr 13, 2005 2:30 am ]|
I looked at the vowel lengthening rules and noticed how well your examples show how a closed syllable blocks the lengthening and begins a whole new "lengthenable" sequense. However what didn't come clear was that do syllables with inherently long vowels act as such blocks as well or what? Another thing I'm interested to know is that does the lengthening rule have anything in common with the stressing pattern?
EDIT: [continues the original post, I had to leave it half way so that I wouldn't have been late from my English oral test]
What I mean with the connection to the stress is that are the lengthened syllables always the stressed ones or are they perhaps foot final and preciding a stressed syllable? At lest the lengthening of /@/ by geminating the following consonant (essentially making the syllable closed and thus long) would suit to that.
|Author:||Lethe [ Thu Apr 14, 2005 1:47 am ]|
|Author:||gach [ Fri Apr 15, 2005 3:07 am ]|
|Author:||chris_notts [ Fri Apr 15, 2005 3:34 am ]|
|Author:||Nuntarin [ Fri Apr 15, 2005 1:10 pm ]|
|Author:||Lethe [ Sat Apr 16, 2005 5:37 am ]|
|Author:||Lethe [ Sat Apr 30, 2005 6:11 pm ]|
Hurrah for Lethe being a lazy freshie! While I'm here, I might as well update these. The next lesson is fairly short and somewhat simple -
Lesson Two - The Present Intransitive Indcative and Forming the Verbal Stem; Velar Dropping; and Absolutive Nouns and Their Stems
qaang / qang'a 'no'
cakneq 'very much'
cali 'more, still'
Yugcetun 'in the Yup'ik language; like a Yup'ik'
alinguq 'he is scared'
an'uq 'he is going out'
aquiguq 'he is playing'
assirtuq 'it is good'
aurruq 'he s crawling'
ayagtuq 'he is leving; he left'
caliuq 'he is working'
cenirtuq 'he is visiting'
cukauq 'it is slow'
elituq 'he is learning'
inartuq 'he is (in the act of) lying down; he lay down'
iqauq 'it is dirty'
iqvartuq 'he is picking berries'
itertuq 'he is coming in, entering'
kaigtuq 'he is hungry'
kuimartuq 'he is swimming'
kuuvviartuq 'he is drinking coffee'
naulluuguq 'he is sick'
ner'uq 'he is eating'
pissurtuq 'he is hunting'
qalartuq 'he is talking, speaking'
qavartuq 'he is sleeping'
qiaguq 'he is crying'
taiguq 'he is coming over (to the speaker); he came over'
taq'uq 'he s finishing, quitting; he quit'
tuquuq 'he is dying, dead'
yurartuq 'he is dancing Yup'ik-style'
Deriving Verb Stems
The boldface part of verbs in the vocab list is the actual base of the verb; to convert the citation form of a verb into its stem, simply remove the bolded part (adding e in certain cases).
Summarized in columnar form:
termnation of citation form > termination of stem
gtuq > g-
rtuq > r-
'uq > e-
Cuq > Ce-
VVguq > VV-
Vuq > V-
ayagtuq > ayag-
itertuq > iter- (itr-)
an'uq > an-
alinguq > alinge-
taiguq > tai-
tuquuq > tuqu-
Attaching the Present Intransitive Indicative to the Stem
This ending takes a few diferent forms depending on the termination of the base it's attached to.
1) If the base ends in g or r, the stem takes the ending -tuq.
2) If the base ends in e, the e is dropped and -uq is added. However, for 'short' (of the shape (C)VCe-) bases, the consonant before e is geminated.
3)-uq is added to stems ending in a single prime vowel; -guq is added to stems endng in two prime vowels.
In symbols, this ending is represented +'(g/t)uq. The plus indicates that base-fina consonants are retained, the apostrophe that base-final consonants of stems ending in short e are geminated, and the (g/t) that g and t are used between base and ending with certain base-terminations and not others. Although base-final e is dropped this isn't indicated because all suffixes which are vowel-intial (such as the one in question, which is basically uq) drop a base-final e.
Dual- and Plurality
The fnal consonant of +'(g/t)uq changes to k in the dual and t in the plural.
Duals wil be indicated with a subscipt two (or closest to that): ^2. Thus: caliuq 'he works', caliut 'they work', and caliuk 'they^2 work'.
The first person singular ending is +'(g/t)u:nga (for example caliunga 'I am working'). The colon before ng indicates that it wil be dropped when in constructing the word it falls between two single prime vowels. This process will crop up frequently later into the lessons.
Ataching +'(g/t)u:nga to the base cali- yields caliunga - since ng isn't flanked by single vowels, it isn't dropped; however, attaching this ending to nere- and inarte- gives first *ner'unga and *inartunga, then the correct forms nerua [n@R\:ua] and inartua as the conditions for velar dropping are met and the process applies.
(NB: If I recall correctly, velar dropping only applies to g, r, and ng, meaning that velars like k and q are not to be dropped in endings such as +'(g/t)ukuk.)
The Rest of the Present Intransitive Indicative Paradigm
The beginning of this ending (+'(g/t)u)is unchanging; the ending changes to indicate person.
To +'(g/t)u- you add
q for third singular
t for third plural
k for third dual
:nga for first singular
kut for first plural
kuk for first dual
ten for second singuar
ci for second plural
tek for second dual
Deriving Stems from Absolutive Nouns
Again summarized in columnar form:
termination of citation form > termination of base
k > g-
q > r-
Vn > Vte-
Cta > Cte-
i > i-
u > u-
a^e > e- (the e is a subscript in the book, merely there to indicate that the base terminates in e- instead of a-)
a > a-
kuik > kuig- 'river'
arnaq > arnar- 'woman'
angun > angute- 'man'
qimugta > qimugte- 'dog'
ui > ui- 'husband'
epu > epu- 'shaft'
neqa^e (otherwise written neqa) > neqe- 'fish'
nuna > nuna- 'land'
Nouns in their absolutive forms may serve as the subject of a verb in the third person.
That's all for today's leson - hopefully next should be a set of exercises for this lesson, then another lesson with more vocabulary, some basic verbal and nominal postbases, another process involvng hatted e (specifically the dropping of such), and the ablative-modalis case.
If you find any typos (there should be a whole bunch), don't hesitate to say something. This keyboard sucks.
|Author:||dhok [ Mon Dec 08, 2008 3:56 pm ]|
My aunt Linda, who lives in Alaska, speaks Yupik. I'd like to learn, but as an amerindian language it's probably really complicated.
|Author:||Radagast [ Tue Dec 09, 2008 2:37 am ]|
Yupik is not a part of the socalled amerindian languages - which isnt a valid linguistic grouping anyhow. It is an Eskimo-aleutian language. And yes it is complicated but not more complicated than you can learn it just as you can learn any other language.
|Author:||dhok [ Tue Dec 09, 2008 8:00 am ]|
|Author:||Vijay [ Sun Feb 07, 2016 1:09 pm ]|
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