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PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2010 6:51 pm 
N'guny
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The first post couldn't fit the whole article, so here's the rest of it.

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS

PPCM has a set of personal pronouns, which may be used largely like any other free-standing nominals; however, these occur seldom in their free-standing forms, only in cases of special emphasis. They are ordinary words built from the initials **-hɛtʊŋɔ- 'live or be alive or living (biologically or spirtually)', for any that may refer to an animate, and **hɛhʊŋɔ- 'not live or be non-living (biologically or spirtually)', for inanimates. Where 4=obviative, 5=farther obviative, S=singular, P=plural, A=animate, Ia=inanimate, E=exclusive, Ic=inclusive, I=informal, F=formal and In=indefinite, the pPCM personal pronouns are:

1S: **hɛtʊŋɔkɩtɛ
1PE: **hɛtʊŋɔpɩtɛ
1PIc: **hɛtʊŋɔsɩtɛ
2SI: **hɛtʊŋɔsʊtɛ
2PI: **hɛtʊŋɔsʊnɔtɛ
2SF: **hɛtʊŋɔsʊmatɛ
2PF: **hɛtʊŋɔsʊmanɔtɛ
3SAI: **hɛtʊŋɔmɛtɛ
3PAI: **hɛtʊŋɔmɛnɔtɛ
3SAF: **hɛtʊŋɔmɛmatɛ
3PAF: **hɛtʊŋɔmɛmanɔtɛ
3SIa: **hɛhʊŋɔhɔtɛ
3PIa: **hɛhʊŋɔhɔnɔtɛ
4SI: **hɛtʊŋɔkʊtɛ
4PI: **hɛtʊŋɔnɔkʊtɛ
4SF: **hɛtʊŋɔmakʊtɛ
4PF: **hɛtʊŋɔmanɔkʊtɛ
5SI: **hɛtʊŋɔmʊtɛ
5PI: **hɛtʊŋɔnɔmʊtɛ
5SF: **hɛtʊŋɔmamʊtɛ
5PF: **hɛtʊŋɔmanɔmʊtɛ
In: **hɛtʊŋɔsɛhɩtɛ

The free-standing forms, like other nominals, yield incorporable forms, which are usable as incorporable non-participant nominals. The incorporable forms are more commonly seen than their free-standing counterparts.


DIECTICS/DEMONSTRATIVES

PPCM's diectics/demonstratives must be used in conjunction with free-standing nominals; they are not usable as free pronoun words, and do not yield incorporable forms. They are ordinary words built from the initials **-ŋɛsʊ- 'be here (a specified proximal spatial or temporal location) or be now (this point in time)', for proximals, and **-ŋasʊ- 'be there (a specified distal spatial or temporal location) or be then (some specified past or future point)', for distals. Where 4=obviative, 5=farther obviative, S=singular, P=plural, A=animate, Ia=inanimate, I=informal, F=formal, Pr=proximal and D=distal, the pPCM diectics/demonstratives are:

3SAIPr: **ŋɛsʊmɛ
3PAIPr: **ŋɛsʊmɛnɔ
3SAFPr: **ŋɛsʊmɛma
3PAFPr: **ŋɛsʊmɛmanɔ
3SIaPr: **ŋɛsʊhɔ
3PIaPr: **ŋɛsʊhɔnɔ
4SIPr: **ŋɛsʊkʊ
4PIPr: **ŋɛsʊnɔkʊ
4SFPr: **ŋɛsʊmakʊ
4PFPr: **ŋɛsʊmanɔkʊ
5SIPr: **ŋɛsʊmʊ
5PIPr: **ŋɛsʊnɔmʊ
5SFPr: **ŋɛsʊmamʊ
5PFPr: **ŋɛsʊmanɔmʊ

3SAID: **ŋasʊmɛ
3PAID: **ŋasʊmɛnɔ
3SAFD: **ŋasʊmɛma
3PAFD: **ŋasʊmɛmanɔ
3SIaD: **ŋasʊhɔ
3PIaD: **ŋasʊhɔnɔ
4SID: **ŋasʊkʊ
4PID: **ŋasʊnɔkʊ
4SFD: **ŋasʊmakʊ
4PFD: **ŋasʊmanɔkʊ
5SID: **ŋasʊmʊ
5PID: **ŋasʊnɔmʊ
5SFD: **ŋasʊmamʊ
5PFD: **ŋasʊmanɔmʊ


PARTICLES

PPCM's particles are short, uninflected words of various root and pseudo-root origins; they are primarily function words, and may peform a variety of functions, including conjunction and disjunction of words, phrases and sentences, help in the formation of certain questions, etc. Particles always act as free words and do not appear as affixes or clitics; but most must appear in conjunction with other, free-standing (inflected) words, to which they are attached.



NUMBERS

PPCM/PCM distinguishes two types of numbers: times numbers and counting numbers. The latter are ordinary cardinal numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.), as used in counting or enumeration, while the former express the number of times an act is performed.

PPCM/PCM uses a base-20 number system, though it is clear that such evolved from an earlier base-5 system. The initials for the lower pPCM times and counting numbers are as follows:

Times (transitive)

**-nɩ- 'commit an (unspecified) act zero or no times upon someone/something' (< root **nɩ 'zeroness or zero times, nothingness, none')
**-tɔ- 'commit an (unspecified) act once or one time upon someone/something' (< root **tɔ 'oneness, one time, once, alone, single')
**-nɔ- 'commit an (unspecified) act two times or more than once upon someone/something' (< root **nɔ 'twoness, two times, not alone, more than one, more than one time')
**-ŋʊ- 'commit an (unspecified) act three times upon someone/something' (< root **ŋʊ 'threeness or three times')
**-nɛ- 'commit an (unspecified) act four times upon someone/something' (< root **nɛ 'fourness or four times')
**-pa- 'commit an (unspecified) act five times upon someone/something' (< root **pa 'fiveness or five times')

**-tɔpa- 'commit an (unspecified) act six times upon someone/something' (1+5)
**-nɔpa- 'commit an (unspecified) act seven times upon someone/something' (2+5)
**-ŋʊpa- 'commit an (unspecified) act eight times upon someone/something' (3+5)
**-nɛpa- 'commit an (unspecified) act nine times upon someone/something' (4+5)
**-papa- 'commit an (unspecified) act ten times upon someone/something' (5+5)
**-tɔpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act eleven times upon someone/something' (1+5+5)
**-nɔpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act twelve times upon someone/something' (2+5+5)
**-ŋʊpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act thirteen times upon someone/something' (3+5+5)
**-nɛpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act fourteen times upon someone/something' (4+5+5)
**-tɔnɛpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act fifteen times upon someone/something' (1+4+5+5)
**-nɔnɛpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act sixteen times upon someone/something' (2+4+5+5)
**-ŋʊnɛpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act seventeen times upon someone/something' (3+4+5+5)
**-nɛnɛpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act eighteen times upon someone/something' (4+4+5+5)
**-tɔnɛnɛpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act nineteen times upon someone/something' (1+4+4+5+5)
**-nɔnɛnɛpapa- 'commit an (unspecified) act twenty times upon someone/something' (2+4+4+5+5)

Counting

Dynamic forms

**-nɩŋɔ- 'become zero or none, become nothing or nothingness' (< pseudo-root **nɩŋɔ 'zero, none')
**-tɔŋɔ- 'become one, alone or single' (< pseudo-root **tɔŋɔ 'one, alone, single')
**-nɔŋɔ- 'become two, more than one or not alone' (< pseudo-root **nɔŋɔ 'two, more than one, not alone')
**-ŋʊŋɔ- 'become three' (< pseudo-root **ŋʊŋɔ 'three')
**-nɛŋɔ- 'become four' (< pseudo-root **nɛŋɔ 'four')
**-paŋɔ- 'become five' (< pseudo-root **paŋɔ 'five')

**-tɔŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become six' (1+5)
**-nɔŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become seven' (2+5)
**-ŋʊŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become eight' (3+5)
**-nɛŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become nine' (4+5)
**-paŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become ten' (5+5)
**-tɔŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become eleven' (1+5+5)
**-nɔŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become twelve' (2+5+5)
**-ŋʊŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become thirteen' (3+5+5)
**-nɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become fourteen' (4+5+5)
**-tɔŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become fifteen' (1+4+5+5)
**-nɔŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become sixteen' (2+4+5+5)
**-ŋʊŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become seventeen' (3+4+5+5)
**-nɛŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become eighteen' (4+4+5+5)
**-tɔŋɔnɛŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become nineteen' (1+4+4+5+5)
**-nɔŋɔnɛŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'become twenty' (2+4+4+5+5)

Stative forms

**-nɩtʊŋɔ- 'be zero or none, be nothing or nothingness'
**-tɔtʊŋɔ- 'be one, alone or single'
**-nɔtʊŋɔ- 'be two, more than one or not alone'
**-ŋʊtʊŋɔ- 'be three'
**-nɛtʊŋɔ- 'be four'
**-patʊŋɔ- 'be five'

**-tɔtʊŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be six'
**-nɔtʊŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be seven'
**-ŋʊtʊŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be eight'
**-nɛtʊŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be nine'
**-patʊŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be ten'
**-tɔtʊŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be eleven'
**-nɔtʊŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be twelve'
**-ŋʊtʊŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be thirteen'
**-nɛtʊŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be fourteen'
**-tɔtʊŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be fifteen'
**-nɔtʊŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be sixteen'
**-ŋʊtʊŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be seventeen'
**-nɛtʊŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be eighteen'
**-tɔtʊŋɔnɛŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be nineteen'
**-nɔtʊŋɔnɛŋɔnɛŋɔpaŋɔpaŋɔ- 'be twenty'


The initials for both times and counting numbers 6-10 are built from 5, while 11-14 are built from 10, 15-18 are built from 14, and 19-20 are built from 18. This suggests that the initials for 6-20 were constructed in successive stages, though a clear pattern runs through them all.

Stems for pPCM times and counting numbers above 20 are constructed by compounding the initials for 1-20 with the morphological conjunction **-na-. Initials are compounded in ascending order and added together to express the final numerical value.



SYNTAX AND PRAGMATICS

PPCM/PCM syntax serves a largely pragmatic role, indicating definiteness or indefiniteness of nominals or emphasis or relative importance of the various words in a phrase or sentence. Any inflected word may function syntactically as a verb or as a nominal; and the basic constituients of the sentence--agent nominal, verb, patient nominal--may come in any order without affecting the general meaning of the sentence. Order of the basic nominal constituients relative to the verb can show definiteness or indefiniteness: an agent and/or patient nominal appearing before the verb is indefinite (new information), while an agent and/or patient nominal following the verb is definite (old or established information). Generally speaking, if there are multiple agents or patients, these words are joined by conjunctive particles (or disjunctive particles) and appear together, with their order relative to one another indicating their relative importance and their order relative to the verb indicating definiteness/indefiniteness. Multiple verbs that share the same participant(s), too, may be joined by conjunctive or disjunctive particles, with their agent(s) and/or patient(s) appearing only once, and with their order showing relative importance.

Some syntatic verbs, when used in conjunction with another verb, can function adverbally--i.e., they modify the other verb they appear alongside; such an adverbial must appear on either side of the verb it modifies, with the relative order of the verb and adverbial showing emphasis or importance. Likewise, some syntactic nominals can function adjectivally, modifying the other nominals they appear with; such an adjectival must appear on either side of the nominal it modifies, with relative order of nominal and adjectival also indicating emphasis or importance. Multiple adverbials and/or adjectivals may be used in a sentence, with some appearing before the words they modify and some after, depending on what the speaker wishes to emphasize; when multiple adverbials and/or adjectivals appear on the same side of the verb or nominal they modify, their order shows relative importance, and they typically appear sequentially, without conjunctive particles between them.

Diectics/demonstratives typically precede the nominals or nominal phrases they are attached to, and interrogative particles likewise typically precede the question words or phrases they help form.

Morphologically, emphasis or relative importance of ideas can be shown in a number of ways. Nominals may be "backgrounded" (reduced in importance, pushed "out of focus") by obviation or incorporation. When two animate third persons or two inanimate third persons appear in the same discourse segment, one of them (most typically the patient) is perforce obviatived, becoming fourth person; and when two fourth persons appear in the same discourse segment, one of them obligatorily becomes fifth person (farther obviative). The farther obviative is a further reduction in importance from the obviative. Multiple fifth persons may appear in the same segment, though these are not morphologically distinguished. Irrespective of these rules, any third person may be obviated (or farther obviated) at will by the speaker, to background the person or reduce him/it in importance. Incorporation as an incorporable participant nominal or an incorporable non-participant nominal also backgrounds a person in a similar fashion to obviation. Obviation/farther obviation and incorporation are often used in conjunction with one another; most typically, incorporated nominals are fourth or fifth person (i.e., they are obviated or farther obviated). All non-participant nominals are perforce incorporated, and therefore backgrounded. Generally speaking, incorporating a nominal makes it definite (or generalizes it) in addition to backgrounding it.

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PostPosted: Sat Jul 31, 2010 1:38 pm 
Avisaru
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Awfully long words for such frequently-expressed concepts. Wouldn't frequent use erode these to a more compact form?


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PostPosted: Sat Jul 31, 2010 1:58 pm 
Smeric
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Quote:
Awfully long words for such frequently-expressed concepts. Wouldn't frequent use erode these to a more compact form?


I think that's the plan. These are the earliest proto-forms, before such condensation has taken place. The daughter languages will no doubt have more contracted forms.

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PostPosted: Sat Jul 31, 2010 2:49 pm 
Avisaru
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Cool, as always.

Eddy wrote:
Quote:
Awfully long words for such frequently-expressed concepts. Wouldn't frequent use erode these to a more compact form?


I think that's the plan. These are the earliest proto-forms, before such condensation has taken place. The daughter languages will no doubt have more contracted forms.


Yeah, pPCM > PCM changes involve a lot of vowel syncopation, and aggressive deletion of *ŋ in a lot of environments.

So you can expect half as many syllables, on average.


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