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zompist bboard • View topic - The Minimal Phonology Challenge II

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PostPosted: Thu Apr 07, 2011 11:30 pm 
Avisaru
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So this was done a while ago here, and I think it'd be cool to do it again. I've also started this challenge over at the CBB. The idea is to create a language using a minimal set of phonemes. They are:

/p t k s m n ɾ ʔ a i u/

Something workable is the goal...a speedlang sketch or the like. Go wild!


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 08, 2011 12:50 am 
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 08, 2011 12:52 am 
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EDIT: Whoops, misread the challenge. Disregard post.

Oloeiata

/ t k ɸ ɬ n a e i o/

Syllable structure CV(ɸ, t, k, n)
Stable diphthongs and triphongs:
/ae ai ao ea ei eo ia ie io oa oe oi/ /aea aeo aia aie aio aoa aoe aoi oai oeo/

Allophony
/ɸ/ becomes [p] word initially, [h] medially, and [:] finally: fofaf [poha:] 'child'

/ɬ/ becomes [ʃ] next to /e i/: leoiofa [ʃewioha] 'gentle wave, language autonym'
'' '' [w] between two /o/: oloeiata [owoejata] 'nectar, language autonym'

A sequence of /VoV/ becomes [VwV]: tooi /to.o.i/ [towi] 'bird'

Likewise, /ViV/ becomes [VjV]: eiaoa [ejaoa] 'woman'


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 08, 2011 1:39 am 
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Last edited by Arzena on Fri Apr 08, 2011 10:13 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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PostPosted: Fri Apr 08, 2011 7:36 am 
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 08, 2011 8:31 am 
Avisaru
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Truuuueeeee....It's not like...11 phonemes isn't minimal, though?


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 08, 2011 8:11 pm 
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 08, 2011 10:18 pm 
Sanci
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 5:09 am 
Smeric
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Just a simple phonology. Damnit, I need that one random word generator to test things, but I can't find it anywhere. Anyone knows which one I'm talking about?

O = p, t, k, s
P = p, t, k, ʔ
N = m, n

Syllable structure: (C)(C)V(V)(C). Any single consonant is allowed in onset and coda. Onset is obligatory for non-initial syllables. Double consonants are not allowed in roots. Two of the same vowels next to eachother become a long vowel.
Allowed clusters within one syllable: mn, pn, tN, kN, ʔN, Ps, Pɾ

Allophonic rules:
{m, n} > ŋ / _k
0 > t / n_p
0 > p / {m_t, m_s, m_ɾ}
s > z / {_m, _n, _ɾ}
{ʔO, Oʔ} > Cʼ
(Don't know how realistic the following two rules are)
{ʔm, mʔ} > ɓ
{ʔn, nʔ, ʔɾ, ɾʔ} > ɗ
P[-voiced] > P[+voiced] / C[+voiced]_C[+voiced]
i > j / _V
u > w / _V
ai > eː
au > oː
V[+short] > V̥ / C[-voiced]_#

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Last edited by Qwynegold on Sat Apr 09, 2011 6:44 am, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 5:34 am 
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 6:14 am 
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 7:00 am 
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 9:30 am 
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 11:03 am 
Smeric
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Ah! I just noticed this. Okay, I have half an hour, lets see.


Segments:

/p t k s m n {r ʔ} a i u/


Phonotactics etc:

* All consonants may appear next to all vowels in either order. Vowel sequences to a maximum of 2, and consonant clusters to a maximum of 3, are permitted. Consonant clusters that break the sonority hierarchy, for instance a word-initial /nt/, will assign the peripheral segment to a syllable across a word boundary, when possible. When this is not possible, especially in utterance-initial or utterance-final position, the peripheral segment may become syllabic.

1. {r} or {R} is an underlying segment that becomes [ɾ] between vowels or in gemination, but is mainly represented by its leniting effect on preceding consonants: /p t k s ʔ/ become [ʋ ɾ ɰ ɾ ɦ] before {R}. In the environment V_C this segment has no surface representation.

2. {ʔ} is similarly an underlying segment that becomes [ʔ] between vowels or in gemination, but is mainly represented by (a) its fortifying effect on preceding consonants: /p t k/ become weakly ejective [pʼ tʼ kʼ], and (b) its low-register effect on preceding vowels: /a i u/ (whenever they would be [a i u]) are pronounced glottalized, or weakly creaky-voiced, or with low tone. [pʰ] is often substituted for [pʼ].

3. /i u/, whenever located in a C_V environment, become palatalization and labiovelarization respectively on the preceding consonant. When located #_V, they become the simple glides [j w].

4. In nasal-stop clusters, the nasal assimilates to the stop's point of articulation, and the stop gains voicing.

5. The above effects of {R} and {ʔ} also apply in liaison, i.e. across word boundaries.

6. Geminates of any segment may occur, but only as predictable outcomes of two like segments appearing in a row.

7. Except where specified above, /p t k s m n a/ are pronounced as-is, [p t k s m n a].


Root shape:

Roots are predominantly of the shape CVCVC, where both vowels are identical. Any of the C positions in this form may also be filled by any CC or by 0, and there may be extra syllables beyond the first two that need not match their vowel. But all native roots share the characteristic of having two identical vowels in their first two syllables, one of which must bear stress. Stress often moves between the two as a result of affixation, but it cannot move outside the first two syllables. We will call the two vowel positions V1 and V2, and the actual vowel that fills them for any given root will be called its tonic vowel.

Under affixation, when V1 bears stress V2 is usually elided, and vice versa. This gives the appearance of metathesis, as the root /samak/ becomes e.g. [usmak] with a prefix but e.g. [saŋgu] with a suffix - which looks like the vowel and the nasal switching places. However, both V1 and V2 are normally present when the root is in bare form, and if the medial consonant is actually a CC cluster this may block one or both elisions too.


Vowel harmony:

Many affixes are cited with only a V instead of a specified vowel. This V matches the tonic vowel of the root to which the affix is attached, simple as that. For example, the prefix kʔV- when attached to the root /piRis/ gives /kʔipRis/, phonetically [kʼiʋis].



I'm out of time to do more, but hopefully I can do so later.


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 12:26 pm 
Sanno
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Radius, I like your sketch quite a lot. Couldn't that one be a sister language to Jamna Kopiai?

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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 1:06 pm 
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 5:54 pm 
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Location: The place they say 'Ayuh'
Four tones, high, medium, rising, and low, marked as î i iî and ì, or â a aâ and à respectively.
Three vowel lengths, short, normal, and long, marked as ï i and ii, or ä a and aa. Long vowels have only one tone, and if there are two vowels next to each other the tones do not mix. Short vowels have no tone.
Vowels become nasal when followed by a nasal
Words ending with a constonant plus a short vowel instead double the constonant and drop the vowel.
The use of those diacritic marks is just for my ease typing.
If a nasal is next to a stop it adapts to that position, if it is both followed and preceeded by a stop it prefers to take the following's. Final n's are dropped and nasalize the prior vowel. All adjacent constonants are vocalized.
Intervocalic stops are vocalised.
Stops followed by ii are palatized, and sii is pronounced shi.
n and s can be vocalic, and n can be lengthened.

Ok I'm kindof cheating here, aren't I?
The result is more like
p t k s sh n
pp tt kk ss ssh nn
ä a â à ââ aâ àà aa ï i î ì ìì îî iî ii n nn s
an ân àn âân aan aân ààn in în ìn ììn îîn iin iîn

The verb and the subject of the sentance are combined, which can be fulfilled by a dummy subject if the voice calls for it.
The suffix -t on the subject is a negative verb marker.
Reduplication marks plural.
Past tense is marked by the suffix -ni on the subject.
The subject is devoid of case marker.

kaskïs - child
pittâsïs - teacher
àïs - donkey
tâtiiïs - dummy pronoun
asn-(SUBJ) - to see
nsn-(SUBJ) - to give
kâssii - white
assàn - red
kiaitn-(SUBJ) - to be angry
taapâsïkn(SUBJ) - to be happy
-ipiai- - causative
-i - adjectivizes verbs
tiia - definate article
akââ - indefinate article
Kâân - negative article

tiia asnkask assàn aì, taapâsknipiaitâtii.
The child sees the red donkey, and this makes him happy.
tiia asnkask tiia kâssii aaâ pittâsì, asntâtiit tiia assàn aì.
The child gave the white donkey to the teacher, he didn't give the red one.
tiia asnkask akââ kâssii aaâ pittâsì, asntâtiiââ kâân assàn aì.
The child gave a white donkey to the teacher, he didn't give a red one.
asna taapâsïkni tiia kaskkaskì, kiaitnipiaia.
The donkey saw the happy children, and this makes him angry.

That's uglier than Turkish put through that glytch on the old computer games that would mix up text.
Welp, I failed. Fun anyways though!

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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 9:41 pm 
Avisaru
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consonants:
/p t k s m n ɾ ʔ/
-all consonants are palatalised before /i/ and labialised before /u/, save /ʔ/.
-/t k/ are only distinguished intervocalically, where they are voiced: kaa bird and taa hammer [ka:] vs. saki blood [sagi] and sati tie, belt [sadi].
-/s/ is voiced between vowels.
-the following clusters are allowed initially and intervocalically: /kt pt kr pr sp st sk spr skr/.
-words may end only in vowels.

vowels:
/a i u/
-vowels can be short or long, and there are also short and long diphthongs /ai au ui ua ia iu a:i a:u u:i u:a i:a i:u/ which are often realised as [ɛ o y ɔ e ɨ ɛ: o: y: ɔ: e: ɨ:].

eh. more later.

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Ascima mresa óscsma sáca psta numar cemea.
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2011 11:15 pm 
Sanci
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Here's some example words (diaeresis = glottal stop, er = syllabic tap):

uku
su
kiërër
terër
ter
aperä
ermer
ninaër
piërü
paru
er
erü
ukiër

ertu
nurerra
terka
suru
ka
erna
a
nerï
pu
merüa

ura
per
uër
iäu
sukater
iti
miser
kaër
mer
erër
siärer
kupuü
nu
rerüu
erä
merkiër
raki
muërër
kauër
aër
ipa
tiër
utu
makertu
userna
apu
kerri
maï
kerra
au
ti
merïu

u
iru
manunu
namerser
ru
ker
suti
nerü
ima
i
erpi
erker
merä
erper

riïmer

rumer
pusu
rerker
kerër
uërü
serïru
niër

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PostPosted: Sun Apr 10, 2011 9:42 am 
Smeric
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PostPosted: Mon Apr 18, 2011 1:30 pm 
Smeric
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I figured I'd give my sketch some more substance. However, the language has undergone two sound changes since my previous post:

1. [+nasal +syllabic] > @~

2. a > ɛ, ɔ / if next syllable has stressed i, u

Clarification on a previous point: the vowel harmony rule happens only in prefixed morphemes, never suffixed ones.


Representation

When giving underlying forms I will use /p t k s m n r ' a i u/ and usually retain the slashes. But in actual examples, I will spell out the R-lenited phones [ʋ ɾ ɰ ɦ] with v r g h, omit /r/ and /'/ when represented on the surface only by zero, and otherwise retain simple phonemic spelling. But in bold typeface.

Capital V will continue to indicate a harmonizing vowel. Capital A will also be used to indicate an agreement vowel (see below).

Thus, with the example word previously given as /kʔipRis/, we will represent the underlying form with /k'Vpris/ and the actual resulting word with k'ivis.


NOUNS

I. Gender

There are three "genders" which have no particular semantics, they are simply a matter of what the noun's tonic vowel is. For instance nouns with a tonic vowel of /i/ are in the I-gender. Adjectives, numbers, and verbs always agree with the gender of their head nouns or their subjects by suffixing a copy of this gender vowel.

II. Number etc.

plural: -uk
diminutive: -in

The plural suffix is strictly required whenever the noun refers to multiple things. The diminutive suffix is optional and possible only in the singular; it indicates smallness, cuteness, or intimate relationship to the speaker, and is heavily employed. Much less common is an augmentative -ua that is also possible only in the singular and indicates bigness, dumbness, or clumsiness; the final /a/ becomes A in the genitive.

III. Case

direct: --
genitive: -A
oblique: -ri

Case is essentially derivational, as it is not used for distinguishing the grammatical roles of subject and direct object (or other such roles), but only for genitives and obliques. Essentially, all nouns functioning as nouns are in the unmarked or direct case, while the genitive case derives adjectives (and non-head compound elements) from the base noun and the oblique case derives adverbs. Note that the genitive and oblique cases are not used in prepositional phrases, and do not necessarily occur in all noun uses that might be called genitive or oblique.

Full table of forms for /ni'ik/, "cat"

Direct-
Sg. ni'ik
Pl. ni'kuk
Dim. ni'kin
Aug. ni'kua

Genitive- (assuming an A-gender head)
Sg. ni'ka
Pl. ni'kuka
Dim. ni'kina
Aug. ni'kua

Oblique-
Sg. ni'gi
Pl. ni'kugi
Dim. ni'kini
Aug. ni'kuari


PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns:

1sg iu
1pl nura
2sg ma
2pl mava
3sg is
3pl ira

Genitive pronouns are formed regularly, but the -A suffix replaces final -a in the plural pronouns.

Oblique pronouns also use the same suffix nouns do, but in a more fusional manner:

1sg iuri
1pl nuri
2sg mari
2pl mavi
3sg iri
3pl iri

Gender: The tonic vowels and thus grammatical genders of first, second, and third person pronouns are U, A, and I respectively.


ADJECTIVES

When used attributively, adjectives inflect only to agree with the noun's gender. This works just like the genitive suffix, and indeed genitive nouns are morphologically identical to attributive adjectives. When used predicatively, adjectives do not inflect at all - they appear in their bare forms. However, genitive nouns remain in the genitive case in both attributive and predicative uses.


VERBS

The Basic Conjugation

The basic conjugation distinguishes only past and present tenses (specifically, preterite and present-progressive), singular and plural number, and an agreement vowel. The basis of the system works like this:

Present, Past
Sg. -An, -A
Pl. -A, -Ak

Exception: the second-person singular suffixes do not match the others, and instead match the second-person plural suffixes, in both tenses.

Following is a full table of the basic conjugation for the verb /misit/, "to see". Keep in mind that personal pronouns have their own genders, so all suffix vowels in the table are just regular gender agreement. (Third-person pronouns of course have the I-gender, but nominal subjects can be of any gender so we cannot just give /i/ for the third person.)

Present Singular
1 mistun
2 mista
3 mistAn

Present Plural
1 mistu
2 mista
3 mistA

Past Singular
1 mistu
2 mistak
3 mistA

Past Plural
1 mistuk
2 mistak
3 mistAk

There are additional conjugation patterns for more complex tenses (future, past-continuous, perfect, and immediate/punctual) and for the optative and hypothetical moods. These patterns are all related to the basic conjugation, but not always in transparent ways.


Other Verb Morphology

1. Passive verbs are derived from active ones by an infix, -n-, whose position is more dependent on prosody than on morpheme boundaries: when possible, it becomes a coda of the stressed syllable. For instance, in a bare root of CVCVC, V1 usually bears stress, so the passive form is CVnCVC. This infixation is blocked in some less-common root shapes; in such cases it may instead be prefixed. A few verb roots already have a medial consonant cluster starting with /n/ - most of these historical nasals have been analogized away in the active voice, but some remain, forming a small class of deponent verbs.

2. There exist also a substantial number of derivational prefixes that may be found at the beginnings of verbs.


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