Baranxeï (now with causatives!)
2. History of Baranxe'i
3.1. On Gender
3.2. Nouns and Adjectives
220.127.116.11 Noun and adjective declension
18.104.22.168 Example declensions
3.3. Pronouns and demonstratives
3.3.1 Personal pronouns and demonstratives
3.3.2 Interrogative and relative pronouns
3.4.1 Verbal conjugation
3.4.2 Verbal derivation
Let's start it off with phonology
i /i/ - ī /y/
e /e/ - ē /ɛ/
a /ɑ/ - ā /ɒ/
In a stressed position, the vowels appear long. In the word-final syllable, they are generally in a reduced form [ɪ, y̆, ə, ə, ɤ, ɯ, ɐ, ɒ̆]. What exactly substitutes a word-final syllable is somewhat irregular, though; some clitics take over the role of last syllable, whereas others don’t affect the vocalic quality in the final syllable of the stem.
[y, ɛ, ɒ] derive from historical [i:, e:, ɑ:] and still function as 'long' variants of [i, e, ɑ] in sandhi. Thus, a lengthened [ɑ] appears as [ɒ], for example, lākan horse [‘lɒ:kɐn] > acc sg *lākann > lākā̃n [‘lɒ:kɒ̃n].
Nasalisation is a peripheral feature of Baranxeï. It exists in the standard language, both in citation forms (hãmī I [hɑ̃:my̆]) and triggered (śap building [ʃɑ:p], accusative śãmp [ʃɑ̃:mp]), but most dialects and subsequently, colloquial variants, have lost nasalisation.
The native, true diphthongs are:
ai [ɑɪ] – au [ɑʊ] – ei [eɪ] – ēi [ɛɪ] – oi [oɪ]
Combinations of i+vowel are pronounced as [j]V, and often just written as j+Vowel.
Combinations of u+vowel are pronounced as [w]V.
An exception are the plural endings of vocalic stems. The official writing is <-aja, -ija, -īja, -oja, -uja>, where the j is often dropped, but pronunciation remains [ɑjɐ, ijɐ, yjɐ, ojɐ, ujɐ].
Between two other vowels, /u/ appears as /β/, written <v> (realisation varies). /i/ appears as [j], written <j>.
A hiatus between two vowels is marked with <'> and is generally pronounced with an intervening [ʔ]. Thus, <Baranxe'i> ['bɑ:rɑnxeʔɪ].
First of all, there are the main series:
p /p/ - b /b/ - f /ɸ/ - v /β/ - m /m/
t /t/ - d /d/ - þ /θ/ - ð /ð/ - n /n/
s /s/ - z /z/ - ś /ʃ/ - ź /ʒ/ - ñ /ɲ/
k /k/ - g /g/ - x /x/ - ġ /ɣ/ - ŋ /ŋ/
They are complemented by the ‘other’ consonants:
r /r/ - l /l/ - j /j/ - h /h/
In addition, there are the semi-native affricates <ts, dz, tś, dź> /ts tʃ dz dʒ/. They occur in words loaned from the Southern dialect group, where the original alveolar series shifted to these sounds instead of the /s ʃ z ʒ/ of the Northern dialect on which the standard is mainly based.
Furthermore, a number of sounds are reasonably common thanks to loans, although they are not considered fully 'native'. These include initial preaspirated stops (written <hp, ht, hk>) and initial [tⁿ] (pm- and kŋ- get simplified to m- and ŋ-, however).
Allophonic variants and sandhi developments mostly occur when two consonants stand in a cluster; the voiced/unvoiced distinction, for example, persists both intervocalically and in coda.
/h/ is [h] initially, [ɦ] between two vowels and [x] before another consonant.
/β/ only is [β] in careful, formal diction. Realisation in most colloquial variants (and dialects) varies considerably, but is often [v]. The Western dialects have an intervocalic [w].
/m/ and /n/ assimilate before labials and dentals in a cluster only in the coda. Thus, śap > acc sg śãmp [ʃɑ̃:mp], acc du śãnpu [ʃɑ̃:n.pɯ]. But ruk dream > acc sg rũŋk [rũ:ŋk], acc du rũŋku [rũ:ŋkɯ]. This is usually indicated in writing, with the exception of the superlative prefix an-.
/ɣ/ is realized as [ɣ] or [ʁ], depending on the speaker’s dialect and the sound’s environment. It shifts to [w] before another consonant. Especially in old words (as opposed to adhoc derivations), this is also indicated in writing, for example ma mother + -ġte honorific > mauta [‘mɑʊtɐ] someone else's mother.
Any combination of [k, ŋ] + sibilant results in [kʃ]. Thus, older lauksa to weave > modern laukśa, udāsa to sing > *udās-k-u > udākśu song, kazna to cook > *kaz-k-u > kakśu meal, dish.
Standard Baranxeï has no long or geminated consonants, any doubled consonants lead to compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel (thus pir pass [pi:r] > dat sg *pi-r-r > pīr [py:r]).
For monosyllabic words, there are two options: they can be clitics, in which case their vowels are always in its reduced form. -ðu your is [ðɯ].
Free monosyllabics invariably have a long vowel. tne a root vegetable is [tⁿe:].
Disyllabics usually carry stress on the first syllable, except for bare interrogative pronouns and some interjections.
Trisyllabics gets interesting. Mostly, either the first or second syllable can be stressed; an exception are compounds of the sequence disyllabic + monosyllabic, and adverbs, which are formed by adding -ú to the adjective root.
If there is one heavy vowel ([y, ɛ, ɒ]) or a diphthong, this syllable gets the stress. (harēŋa hailstorm [hɑˈɾɛːŋɐ], māneśa firstborn [ˈmɒːneʃɐ]).
If all three syllables contain light vowels with different qualities, the penultimate gets the stress. (namuki plea [nɑˈmu:kɪ]).
If two subsequent syllables contain a vowel of the same quality (using the underlying phoneme, not the actual phone), the stress shifts to the first syllable. Thus, inakā experienced (anim) [iˈnɑːkɒ̆] and inaki experienced (masc) [iˈnɑːkɪ], but inaka experienced (fem) [ˈiːnɑkɐ].
Compounds generally keep their stress.
Up next: either a short overview of its history, or diving headfirst into nominal morphology.
Edited to add some clarifications according to Drydic Guy's suggestions.