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zompist bboard :: View topic - Mekoshan, an English descendant
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Mekoshan, an English descendant
http://www.incatena.org/viewtopic.php?f=15&t=38221
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Author:  TaylorS [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 12:14 am ]
Post subject:  Mekoshan, an English descendant

I think I have the sound changes and phonology for this down, I'm slooooowly slogging through the verb morphology right now, but working out the future development of the English TAM system is giving me a migraine. This language is spoken in what is now the Midwestern US, including the High Plains, but excluding the eastern Great Lakes and upper Ohio River valley.

Phonology

Mekoshan has a large consonant inventory, including uvular and pharyngealized consonants.

Plosives: /p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ q qʰ qʷ qʷʰ/ ( b p d t g k x q rb rp )
Affricates: /ʦ ʦʰ ʦˤ ʦˤʰ ʧ ʧʰ/ ( ds ts jr cr j c )
Nasals: /m m̥ n n̥/ ( m mh n nh )
Fricatives: /f v s z sˤ zˤ ɮ ʃ ʒ x ɣ χʷ ħ ʕ h/ ( f v s z rs rz lh sh zh kh rf rh r h )
Approximants: /w l j/ ( w l y )

Short Vowels: /a e i o u y ø/ ( a e i o u ü ö )
Long Vowels: /aː eː iː oː uː yː øː/ ( aa ee ii oo uu üü öö )
Diphthongs: /ɑi̯ au̯ ɛi̯ ɔu̯/

Unaspirated plosives are voiced when between vowels or adjacent to voiced consonants.
voiced fricatives are devoiced when adjacent to aspirated plosives and voiceless nasals.
/j/ > [ɰ] when following uvular, pharyngeal, and pharyngealized consonants.

The vowels are affected thusly when adjacent to uvular, pharyngeal, and pharyngealized consonants:
/i iː y yː u uː/ > [ ɪ ɪː ʏ ʏː ʊ ʊː]
/e eː ø øː o oː/ > [ ɛ ɛː œ œː ɔ ɔː]
/a aː/ > [ɑ ɑː]
/ɑi̯ au̯ ɛi̯ ɔu̯/ > [ɑɘ̯ ɑo̯ æɘ̯ ɔʊ̯]

Sound changes from English to Mekoshan


AD 1950-2500

---Flag-Plague Merger---
/æg æŋ/ > /eg eŋ/

---Northern Cities Vowel Shift---
/æ/ > /eə/
/ɑ/ > /a/
/ɜ/ > /ʌ/
/ɛ/ > /ɐ/
/eə/ > /ɛ/

---Retraction of sibilant-rhotic clusters---
/tɹ dɹ / > /ʧɹ ʤɹ/
/stɹ / > /ʃɹ/

Initial and intervocalic /θ ð/ > /t d/
Intervocalic /st zd/ > /s: z:/
Intervocalic /nt nd/ > /n/

/ŋ/ > /n/ in unstressed syllables

---Diphthong shift---
/aɪ/ > /a/
/aʊ ʌ/ > /ɔ/
/ɔɪ/ > /oʏ/

---U-Fronting---
/ju ʃu ʒu ʧu ʤu/ > /y ʃy ʒy ʧy ʤy/

Intervocalic /b/ > /v/
oʏ/ > /ø/

---Rhotic Shift---
/ɹ ɚ ɝ/ > /ʁ/
ʁe ʁo eʁ/ > ʁɛ ʁɔ ɛʁ/
/ʁɪ ʁʊ iʁ uʁ/ > /ʁe ʁo eʁ oʁ/

---Lax Vowel Shift---
/ɪn ɪŋ/ > /ɛn ɛN/
/ʊ/ > /o/
/ɪ/ > /je/

---loss of flapped alveolar consonants---
/ŋ/ disappears, preceding vowels are nasalized
Intervocalic /n/ disappears when preceding an unstressed vowel, preceding vowels are nasalized
Intervocalic /t d/ disappear when preceding an unstressed vowel

AD 2500-3000

Final /ts dz/ > /s z/
/θ ð/ > /h/

---Final Fortis Plosive Lentition---
Final /p t ʧ ʤ k/ > /f h ʃ ʒ x/


/l/ > /ɣ/ when following back vowels
Intervocalic /g/ > /ɣ/
Syllabic /l/ > /u/


/p t ʧ k/ > /pʰ tʰ ʧʰ kʰ/
/b d ʤ g/ > /p t ʧ k/

---Formation of long vowels---
/a.i a.e a.ɛ/ > /ai/
/a.u a.o a.ɔ a.y a.ø/ > /au/
Vowel-hiatus-unstressed vowel > long vowel

Phonemic /ə/ disappears, [ə] becomes epenthic vowel

AD 3000-3500

/ɐ/ > /a/

---Nasal Vowel Simplification---
/ẽ ø̃ õ/ > /ĩ ỹ ũ/
/ɛ̃ ɔ̃/ > /ẽ õ/

---Rhotic Pharyngealization---
/ʁ/ > /ʕ/
/pʕ tʕ ʧʕ kʕ/ > /pˤ tˤ ʧˤ q/
/pʰʕ tʰʕ ʧʰʕ kʰʕ/ >/pˤʰ tˤʰ ʧˤʰ qʰ/
/hm hn hl/ > /m̥ n̥ ɬ/
/sʕ ʃʕ/ > /sˤ/
/zʕ ʒʕ/ > /zˤ/
Syllabic /ʕ/ > /a/

AD 3500-4000

---Loss of Nasal Vowels---
/ã ẽ ĩ ỹ õ ũ/ > /aː eː iː oː uː/

---Mid Vowel Simplification
ye/ > /i/
/yɛ/ > /e/
/wo/ > /u/
/wɔ/ > /o/
/ɛː ɔː/ > /ɛi ɔu/
/ɛ ɔ/ > /e o/

---Cluster Simplification---
/ps ts ks/ > /ʦ/
/pʰs tʰs kʰs/ > /ʦʰ/
/pʃ tʃ kʃ/ > /ʧ/
/pʰʃ tʰʃ kʰʃ/ > /ʧʰ/
/ʧˤ qs qʃ/ > /ʦˤ/
/ʧˤʰ qʰs qʰʃ/ > /ʦˤʰ/

After AD 4000

---Pharyngealized Labials Shift---
/pˤ pˤʰ/ > /qʷ qʷʰ/
/fʕ vʕ/ > /χʷ w/

Author:  Aurora Rossa [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 12:19 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  Nannalu [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 6:03 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

Because he wanted it to be there.

Author:  Chuma [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 8:08 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

Some examples would be nice. Even if you haven't worked out the specific words and morphology, maybe you could give some preliminary example sentences, to show what it might actually sound like.

Author:  WeepingElf [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 9:18 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  roninbodhisattva [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 9:45 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

What's time time depth for this? And what's the etymology of the name?

Author:  Jipí [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 10:30 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

AFAIK [ʁ] is pretty rare among languages (if that's wrong half-knowledge, please tell!). Is there French or German, or heck, Hebrew influence by any chance, that led you to adopt it?

Author:  Nortaneous [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 12:00 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  Mr. Z [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 12:18 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  Astraios [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 12:26 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  roninbodhisattva [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 1:02 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  Cathbad [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 1:27 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  TaylorS [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 10:27 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  TaylorS [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 10:50 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

Cleaning up the sound changes so they are easier to read.

Author:  vec [ Wed Jun 01, 2011 11:52 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

Purty cool, I have to say. Looking forward to seeing some words and some morphology.

Author:  TaylorS [ Thu Jun 02, 2011 12:14 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  Mr. Z [ Thu Jun 02, 2011 12:34 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

It's much easier to understand the sound changes now. Looking forward to morphology!

Author:  TaylorS [ Thu Jun 02, 2011 8:10 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

Here is what I have so far:

Mekoshan is VSO. The English indefinite article has been lost and the definite article has become the accusative marker. The demonstratives function as definite articles when disambiguation is necessary

Nouns

For Noun phrases there are 4 primary case-prepositional clitics that occur at the start of a noun phrase:

Accusative: d- (derived from "the")
Genitive: v- (derived from "of")
Dative: t- (derived from "to")
Benifactive: fa- (derived from "for")

The plural is marked by -s, -z, or by stem change depending on the noun

de-dez (day-days)
wagh-waghz (world-worlds)
stekh-stekhs (stack-stacks)
hos-hoz (house-houses)
keh-kets (cat-cats)

Personal verbal inflection

Mekoshan has polypersonal agreement and marks the subject, direct object, and the indirect object. The placement of the inflections is thus:

S-stem-IO-DO

Note that the Indirect object inflection is derived from the bare dative construction ("he gave me it") and can only be use in ditransitive verbs, otherwise the clitics t-or fa- are used.

here is "you should've given me it" as an example:

üshodgimmii
ü-shod-giv-mi-i
2SG.NOM-MODAL.PFV-give-1SG.DAT-3SG.N.ACC



The odd complexities of the TAM system, as well as person marking in interrogative sentences, later.

Author:  The Hanged Man [ Fri Jun 03, 2011 2:23 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

How did "the" stopped being used with nouns in nominative and other case roles? I read sometimes about changes like that (demonstrative/def. article > some case), but I don't know, what can cause them...

Author:  TaylorS [ Fri Jun 03, 2011 8:36 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  äreo [ Fri Jun 03, 2011 9:37 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  TaylorS [ Fri Jun 03, 2011 10:57 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant


Author:  vec [ Sat Jun 04, 2011 12:43 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

Kewl. I wants samplez.

Author:  Zumir [ Sat Jun 04, 2011 6:15 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

This is awesome! I look forward to more.

Author:  TaylorS [ Sat Jun 04, 2011 8:27 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Mekoshan, an English descendant

Here is a TC that shows syntax, non-polar questions, and relative clauses:

Who says my poems are poems?
My poems are not poems.
When you know that my poems are not poems,
Then we can speak of poetry.

Husedeh derm ma poomz d'poomz?
Dernm ma poomz d'poomz.
Wan ünodeh dernm ma poomz d'poomz,
Dan wikembisbikhi v'poochre.

[ˈhusedeh tɛʕm ma pʰoːmz tpʰoːmz
tɛʕnm̩ ma pʰoːmz tpʰoːmz
wan ˈynodeh tɛʕnm̩ ma pʰoːmz tpʰoːmz
tan ˈwikʰembispiçi ˈfpʰɔːʦˤʰɛ]

hu-Ø-se-deh der-m ma poom-z d=poom-z
der-n-m ma poom-z d=poom-z
wan ü-Ø-no-deh der-n-m ma poom-z d=poom-z
dan wi-kembi-sbikh-i v=poochre.

Q.NOM-IMPFV-say-REL.ACC be.3PL.NOM.IMPFV-3PL.ACC my poem-PL ACC=poem-PL
be.3PL.NOM.IMPFV-NEG-3PL.ACC my poem-PL ACC=poem-PL
when 2SG.NOM-IMPFV-know-NEG-REL.ACC be.3PL.NOM.IMPFV-3PL.ACC my poem-PL ACC=poem-PL
then 1PL.NOM-ABILITIVE.IMPFV-speak-3SG.N.ACC GEN=poetry


Note the VSO word order and the marking of questions and of relative clauses on the verb.

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