/pʲʰ pʲ pʼ pʰ p m b̰ tʲʰ tʲ tʼ tʰ t d̰ kʲʰ kʲ kʼ kʰ k ɡ̰ kʷʼ kʷʰ kʷ ɡ̰ʷ qʼ qʰ q ɢ̰/
/m n ŋ/
/ɸʲʰ ɸʲ ɸʰ ɸ sʰ s çʰ ç xʷʰ xʷ χʰ χ/
/p͡ɸʼ p͡ɸʰ p͡ɸ t͡θ̱ʼ t͡θ̱ʰ t͡θ̱ t͡ʃʼ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ k͡xʼ k͡xʰ k͡x k͡ʷxʷʼ k͡ʷxʷ k͡ʷxʷ/
Palatalised unaspirated stops are actually partially voiced. The creaky voiced consonants are referred to as glottalic or glottalised consonants, as their origin and function is similar to such, but this is phonetically incorrect. /çʰ ç/ act as the palatalised equivalents of /χʰ χ/ and /sʰ s/. /t͡ʃʼ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ/ act as the palatalised equivalents of /t͡θ̱ʼ t͡θ̱ʰ t͡θ̱/.
/i u ä/
Vowels are voiceless after ejectives.
Vowels after various sounds:
Palatalised bilabial: [i ʊ̝ ɶ]
Plain bilabial: [ɪ̝ u ɒ̈]
Palatalised alveolar/palato-alveolar: [i ɯ̝̈ a]
Plain alveolar: [ɪ̝ ɯ ä]
Palatalised velar/plain velar/uvular: [i u ɑ]
Labiovelar: [y u ɒ]
Stress is phonemic. There are two levels of stress. Secondary stress is realised by some speakers by pharyngealising the vowels. Secondary stress always and only appears in words with at least four syllables. Primary stress always appears in words with two or more syllables.
Syllables are C(C)V(C). Initial syllables are C(C)(C)V(C). The vast majority of syllables have only one consonant or one consonant followed by a lateral in their onsets. Other clusters are especially rare in non-initial syllables. If one sound is palatalised, all sounds following it within the same cluster are palatalised. Allowed onsets:
Mutations affect only the first phoneme of a word. Postpositions and clitics are “invisible” to mutations, meaning that the next word or word the clitic is attached to undergoes the mutation while the particle does not. Particles never trigger mutations. Monosyllables and pronouns do not go through mutation, but are not “invisible” to it. Mutations do not occur when the affected phoneme is followed by a sound other than a vowel or lateral. They never carry over sentences or quotes. A sound may undergo multiple mutations at once. The final mutation is written preceding the mutated consonant in brackets. Depalatalisation before /i/ is indicated by adding <[o]>. The mutations are listed in the order that they are applied:
Hard mutation turns fricatives and nasals into stops. It is triggered by a preceding ejective stop. Uvular fricatives are turned into plain velars if followed by /u/.
Glottalic mutation causes ejectives and aspirated stops to become plain stops and plain stops to become glottalised. It is triggered by a preceding glottalised stop.
Palatal mutation causes all consonants which contrast with palatalised versions of themselves to become palatalised. It is triggered by a preceding palatalised consonant or /i/.
U-mutation causes consonants which are palatalised to become palatalised. It is triggered by a preceding /u/.
Nasal mutation causes palatalised aspirated stops to lose their aspiration and palatalised unaspirated stops as well as glottalised stops to become nasals. It is triggered by a preceding nasal.
Soft mutation causes all stops to turn into fricatives. It is triggered by a preceding tenius affricate. The plain velars turn into uvular fricatives.
Uvular mutation causes non-uvular consonants to shift to their POV towards uvulars. It is triggered by a uvular stop.