So I've decided to use the month of January for starting a conlang from scratch. I'll use each day to build some part of the grammar, and get at least 5 new lexical items. This will hopefully give me something rounded by the end of the month, perhaps with the goal of translating some short text. I don't know which one that should be yet though, so advice there would be appreciated.
I didn't have a change to post what I got done yesterday, a basic inventory sketch, so I'm doing that now. I'll work on something else later today and post it separately. Day 1- Basic Phonological Inventory
I've been having some Kartvelian-inspired phonologies bouncing around in my head lately, so I've decided to go with something akin to Georgian. So this language is going to have a complex consonant inventory with a minimal vowel inventory. The consonant inventory is given below:
p t k q
s š x χ
v z ɣ
m n ŋ
These have their IPA equivalents (š
is /ʃ/). All of the above consonants can occur as the single onset of a syllable, with the caveat that /ŋ/ can only do so internally. In addition, there are complex syllable onsets of up to 4 consonants (at this point, I may add more later). There are two broad group of consonant clusters, distinguished by what I'm calling r/l-intervention (which I'll get to in a minute). The first group consists of the harmonic and reverse harmonic clusters. Harmonic clusters consist of a non-dorsal stop followed by a dorsal stop or fricative agreeing in voicing. Reverse harmonic clusters consist of a dorsal stop or fricative followed by a coronal stop agreeing in voicing. They are shown below.
pk pq px pχ bɣ
tk tq tx tχ dɣ
Reverse harmonic clusters:
kt qt xt χt ɣd
The clusters above behave for all intents and purposes as a single consonant. They cannot be broken up, and can be followed by another consonant. Other clusters do not behave this way. These are the sibilant and -v clusters which are seen below:
pš tš kš qš xš χš
ps ts ks qs xs χs
tv kv qv
sv šv xv χv
Sibilant clusters can stack with -v clusters, so /tsv/ is a legal onset. Both types of harmonic clusters can also form clusters of the above type, as long as the second member is able to form a legal cluster of that type. So /tks/ is a fine sibilant cluster, but /dɣz/ is not.
In addition to the above groups, there is a cluster forming process that I'm calling r/l-intervention. Clusters of this type consist of a normal sibilant or -v cluster with an /r/ or /l/ inserted between the first consonant. For example, from the sibilant cluster /ts/ you get r-intervening /trs/ and l-intervening /tls/. Harmonic can still be the first member of such a cluster, so /pkrš/ is a legal r-intervening cluster. I haven't figured out other restrictions
Compared to the onset of a syllable, the coda is utterly simple. There may be at most on consonant in a coda, and any consonant may fit here. I haven't thought about the coda a lot yet so I'll have to expand the restrictions / figure out processes later.
The vowel inventory is relatively simple. There are five basic vowels and four 'broken' vowels (rising diphthongs). The nucleus of a syllable may contain one vowel of either type.
i u ia uaDay 1 Lexical Itemstsvob-i
e o ie uo
'woman' (adult female)laz-i
'man' (adult male)
A couple notes here- the nominative singular of consonant final nouns ends in -i
. Also, verb roots may consist of only consonants, like the verb -ɣ-
'go', above. There will always be a prefix and/or suffix, such as Ø-ɣ-a