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PostPosted: Sun Apr 07, 2013 11:01 pm 
Sumerul
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Worked for Hanheliubl, so now time to work on my conworld's langs.

Pre-Proto-Hathic phonology:

Initials:
p t c k ʔp ʔt ʔc ʔk ʔ
b d ɟ g ʔb ʔd ʔɟ ʔg
m n ɲ ŋ
f s h
l j w ʔl ʔj ʔw
ʘ ! ǁ ǂ ʔʘ ʔ! ʔǁ ʔǂ nʘ n! nǁ nǂ

Rimes:
a e o i u + length
ai au oi eu

Two suprasegmentals: vowel retroflexion (spreading over to coronals, which turn to retroflexes) written with -r, and 'retraction' applying to a syllable as a whole, written with an underdot on the vowel.

Strict CV syllable structure.

From Pre-Proto-Hathic to Proto-Hathic:
Retraction:
In retracted syllables:
* velars retract to uvulars
* h > ħ
* labials become labial-velars
* coronals retract to retroflexes
* y w lower to e̯ o̯
* a e o i u ay aw oy ew lower to ɑ ɛ ɒ ɪ ʊ ɑɛ ɑɔ ɒe ɛo
* aa ee oo ii uu diphthongize to ɑɑ əe əo əɪ əʊ
* in syllables containing uvulars, ɪ ʊ ɒe ɛo lower further to ɛ ɒ ɑɛ ɑɔ

Loss of glottalized consonants:
p t c k > ph th ch kh
ʔp ʔt ʔc ʔk > p t c k (these two changes also apply to clicks)
ʔb ʔd ʔɟ ʔg > ɓ ɗ j ɣ (note that this /j/ doesn't change in retraction! and it retains some frication, so I'll write it ʝ in retracted syllables)
ʔl ʔj ʔw > tɬ ɕ fʷ (which merges with [fʷ] from /f/ in retracted syllables)

Loss of palatals
c ɟ ch ɲ > t d s n in retracted syllables (kept distinct: alveolar, not dental)
c ɟ ch ɲ > i̯t i̯d i̯s i̯n except initially
c ɟ ch ɲ > ti̯ di̯ si̯ ni̯ initially, i̯ metathesizes to follow the vowel

Loss of final vowels
If the final vowel was retracted, retraction spreads to the preceding syllable, but any phonetic effect on the last consonant is kept.
not yet -- palatalization first!

Proto-Hathic phonology
In what follows, there are two groups, descending from the unretracted and retracted sets in Pre-Proto-Hathic. The first group of initials can only take the first group of rimes, and the second group of initials can only take the second group of rimes.

Initials:
ph th kh p t k
b d g ɓ ɗ j ɣ
m n ŋ
f s h
l j w tɬ ɕ fʷ
ʘh !h ǁh ǂh ʘ ! ǁ ǂ nʘ n! nǁ nǂ

p̃h ʈh qh p̃ ʈ t̠ q
b̃ ɖ d̠ ɢ ɓ̃ ɗ̠ ʝ ʁ
m̃ ɳ n̠ ɴ
fʷ ʂ s̠ ħ
ɭ e̯ o̯ ʈɬ ɕ fʷ
ʘh !˞h ǁh ǂh ʘ !˞ ǁ ǂ nʘ n!˞ nǁ nǂ

Rimes:
a e i o u
au eu
ai ei oi ui
a:i e:i o:i u:i
a˞i e˞i o˞i i˞i u˞i
a˞:i e˞:i o˞:i i˞:i u˞:i
diphthongs in -i, except ai oi, can only precede coronals

ɑ ɛ ɒ ɪ ʊ ɑɛ ɑɔ ɒe ɛo
ɑɑ əe əo əɪ əʊ
ɪ ʊ ɒe ɛo don't contrast with to ɛ ɒ ɑɛ ɑɔ after uvulars


Palatalization
Coronals and velars merge as palatals before /a ɛ e ɨ i/, and any diphthong beginning in any of those.
Velars shift to palatals before /ar ɛr er ɨr ir/. (Not all of those would appear, but.)

Final vowels drop:
If it's retracted, retraction spreads to the preceding syllable.

Collapse of retracted vowels
ɑ ɛ ɒ ɪ ʊ > a ɛ ɔ ɨ u
ɑi ɛi ɒi ɪi ʊi > ɛ ɛ ɛ ɨ ɨ
ɑɛ ɑɔ ɒe ɛo > ɛɛ ɔɔ ɨɨ ɨɨ
ɑɑ əe əo əɪ əʊ > aa ɛɛ ɔɔ ɨɨi ɨɨu

Collapse of retracted consonants
Retracted alveolars merge into dentals, or palatalize.
Retroflexes retract /ɛ/ to /ə/ and merge into dentals.
Uvulars lower /ɨ u/ to /ə o/ and merge into velars, except ɢ, which merges into ɣ, and qh, which > x.

Front-back split:
ɕ shifts following high nonfront vowels to /i/.

Retraction table:
PPH form - PH unret. form - PH ret. form

p - pʰ - kpʰ
t - tʰ - ʈʰ
c - s - s̠
k - kʰ - qʰ
ʔp - p - kp
ʔt - t - ʈ
ʔc - t - t̠
ʔk - k - q
ʔ - ʔ - ʔˤ
b - b - gb
d - d - ɖ
ɟ - d - d̠
g - g - ɢ
ʔb - ɓ - gɓ
ʔd - ɗ - ᶑ
ʔɟ - j - ʝ
ʔg - ɣ - ʁ
m - m - ŋm
n - n - ɳ
ɲ - ɲ - n̠
ŋ - ŋ - ɴ
f - f - fʷ
s - s - ʂ
h - h - ħ
l - l - ɭ
j - j - e̯
w - w - o̯
ʔl - tɬ - ʈɬ
ʔj - ɕ - ɕ
ʔw - fʷ - fʷ

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


Last edited by Nortaneous on Tue Jan 30, 2018 5:51 am, edited 18 times in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Apr 07, 2013 11:31 pm 
Sumerul
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This is, of course, unstable as hell. But it'll get simplified.

Notation to keep separate vowels that go different ways in the two langs -- this way I can have a unified Proto-Hathic:
ɛ becomes ɛ in Cherun and a in Ngmwragh.
ɔ becomes a in Cherun and o in Ngmwragh.
ə becomes o in Cherun and ɤ in Ngmwragh.
ɨ becomes ɯ in Cherun and ɤ in Ngmwragh.

Palatalization
Coronals and velars merge as palatals before /a ɛ e ɨ i/, and any diphthong beginning in any of those.
Velars shift to palatals before /ar ɛr er ɨr ir/. (Not all of those would appear, but.)

Final vowels drop:
If it's retracted, retraction spreads to the preceding syllable.

Collapse of retracted vowels
ɑ ɛ ɒ ɪ ʊ > a ɛ ɔ ɨ u
ɑi ɛi ɒi ɪi ʊi > ɛ ɛ ɛ ɨ ɨ
ɑɛ ɑɔ ɒe ɛo > ɛɛ ɔɔ ɨɨ ɨɨ
ɑɑ əe əo əɪ əʊ > aa ɛɛ ɔɔ ɨɨi ɨɨu

Collapse of retracted consonants
Retracted alveolars merge into dentals, or palatalize.
Retroflexes retract /ɛ/ to /ə/ and merge into dentals.
Uvulars lower /ɨ u/ to /ə o/ and merge into velars, except ɢ, which merges into ɣ, and qh, which > x.

Front-back split:
ɕ shifts following high nonfront vowels to /i/.

_________________
Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


Last edited by Nortaneous on Sat Apr 13, 2013 5:46 pm, edited 4 times in total.

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PostPosted: Mon Apr 08, 2013 10:37 pm 
Sumerul
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Introduction to Proto-Hathic verbs

Proto-Hathic had no ditransitive verbs, and only a few transitive ones. To express transitivity and ditransitivity, serial verb constructions were used. For example:

*suʔkạạ > suka '1S'
*fene > feñ 'pick up' TR
*mʘetu > mʘet 'break' INTR
*ʔ!apa > !ap '3S'

suka feñ !ap mʘet
1S pick_up break 3S
'I broke it' -- lit. 'I picked it up and it broke'

*da > ja 'go' INTR
*mụ > m̃u 'get closer' INTR
*ǂaʔgạ > ǂhaɣ 'market'

suka da m̃u ǂhaɣ
1S go get_closer market
'I go to the market' -- lit. 'I go and the market gets closer'

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


Last edited by Nortaneous on Tue Apr 09, 2013 8:56 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Tue Apr 09, 2013 8:53 am 
Sumerul
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The typical serial verb construction is causative: N1 V1 V2 N2 normally means that N1 did V1, resulting in N2 doing V2. But serial verb constructions can also express one compound action by one agent, with the 'subjectizer' marker *lẹ > .

* moʔja > m̃oɕ 'man' N
* ʔguuhụ > ɣooħ 'spear' N
* tẹmi > tɛm 'hit' INTR
* se > ɕe 'at' PRE
* ŋuʔgo > ŋuɣ 'die'

m̃oɕ tɛm ŋuɣ lə ɕe ɣooħ
man hit die SBJZ at spear
The man hit the spear and died. (lit. The man was hit at the spear and died.)

Note that Proto-Hathic intransitive verbs usually translate as passive. They're best understood as middle voice(?): the verb happens to the argument.

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


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PostPosted: Thu Apr 11, 2013 9:02 am 
Sumerul
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Since glottalized consonants are so common, I might reanalyze them as picking up their glottalization from the following vowel. Fricatives can obviously just lose glottalization, but I don't want glottalized nasals. What can happen to them?

Alternatively, I could leave them in Proto-Hathic, have them spread creaky voice onto the following vowel in Cherun, and merge them into the plain nasals in Ngmwragh.

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


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PostPosted: Thu Apr 11, 2013 9:27 am 
Avisaru
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Is there any verbal inflection?


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PostPosted: Thu Apr 11, 2013 10:26 am 
Sumerul
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cromulant wrote:
Is there any verbal inflection?

No, although there will be some derivational morphology.

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 12, 2013 8:11 pm 
Sumerul
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Possession: Alienable/inalienable distinction. Alienable uses ɗe 'at' (note that implosives don't palatalize):

ɣooħ ɗe suka
spear at 1S
my spear

Inalienable uses compounding, but only takes the familiar pronouns:

*nʘama > nʘam 'mother'
*yani > yañ '1S.FAM'

nʘamayañ
mother-1S.FAM
my mother

Most, but not all, roots in Pre-Proto-Hathic were of the form C1 V1 C2 V1, possibly with different registers on the vowels -- and the registers, except glottalization, carried over to the first vowel when the second dropped. Proto-Hathic doesn't like consonant clusters, so it epenthesizes the first vowel between the word and the possessive affix, but as a short vowel:

*lạcû > ḷɛt 'father'

ḷɛtɛyañ
ḷɛt-ɛ-yañ
father-EPENTH-1S.FAM
my father

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 14, 2013 4:52 pm 
Sumerul
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Gonna have to edit a bunch of shit after this, but.

Locative verbs:

Proto-Hathic doesn't have prepositions for location; instead, it has transitive verbs.

ɣooħ ɗe suka
spear be_at 1S
my spear

suka da ɗe ǂhaɣ
1S go be_at market
I went to the market

Note that serial verbs imply temporality: the second verb happens as a result of the first.

m̃oɕ tɛm ɕe ŋuɣ lə ɣooħ
man hit go_at spear die
The man hit the spear and died.

The difference between ɗe and ɕe is that the latter implies motion and the former implies no motion. If I went to the market and walked around the whole time, or if, for whatever strange reason, the market was moving while I was at it, I'd say suka da ɕe ǂhaɣ. This reflects a consistent distinction in locative verbs between essive and lative, which I'll gloss as be-foo and go-foo.

Essive verbs can serialize without implying temporality:

*gûlụụ > ɣuḷɨɨw 'be under'
*!âŋâ > !añ 'tree'

suka ɗe ɣuḷɨɨw !añ
1S be_at be_under tree
I am under the tree

ɗe serialized with another essive verb adds a degree of generality: I'm not literally under the tree, the way roots are under a tree. Similarly:

*cîwî > cifʷ 'bird'
*nǁaya > nǁay 'be over'

cifʷ ɗe nǁay !añ
bird be_at be_over tree
The bird is higher in the air than the top of the tree.

cifʷ nǁay !añ
bird be_over tree
The bird is literally above the tree.

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 14, 2013 4:55 pm 
Sumerul
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Stress is irregular, but predictable from the Pre-Proto-Hathic form: it's attracted to the rightmost PPH long vowel. So:

ḷɛyañ
suka < *suʔkạạ
ɣuḷɨɨw < *gûlụụ

also: diphthongs were long in PPH, written as VVS clusters in PH, so *tai > taay

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 14, 2013 10:01 pm 
Sumerul
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Conjuctions:

Don't exist. 'And' is a verb -- or rather two verbs, one essive and one lative.

* da > ja and.ESS
* sar > sar and.LAT
* gâi > ɣaay eat in the morning (intr)

suka da ḷɛtɛyañ
1S and.ESS father-1S.FAM
me and my father

suka da ɣaay ḷɛtɛyañ
1S and.ESS eat father-1S.FAM
me and my father ate breakfast

suka sar ḷɛtɛyañ da ɗe ǂhaɣ
1S and.LAT father go be_at market
me and my father went to the market

suka da ḷɛtɛyañ ɗe ǂhaɣ
1S and.LAT father be_at market
me and my father are at the market

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 19, 2013 3:15 pm 
Smeric
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This language is beautifully exotic. Much bolder than anything I have seriously tried yet! Yet, everything seems to make sense to me.

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Tha cvastam émi cvastam santham amal phelsa. -- Friedrich Schiller
ESTAR-3SG:P human-OBJ only human-OBJ true-OBJ REL-LOC play-3SG:A


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 28, 2013 7:36 am 
Sumerul
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bump, gonna get back to this once finals season ends

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PostPosted: Wed May 01, 2013 3:36 pm 
Sumerul
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Decided to add voiced clicks, but they'll be rare and mostly on classifiers.

Classifiers.

Inflect for number: singular, dual, paucal, plural.
Classifier has to be learned with the word.
Usually pattern in PPH is:

CV = sg
CVr = du
CVgọ = pa
CVi = pl

But many are irregular, and some end in consonants. Possession is also marked this way, with CVyî sg, CVryîr du, CVgọi pa, CViyî pl.

Start on cat dialogue.

I've decided I like the pre-proto form more, since it doesn't have all the messy theoretical shit like /f_w_j/ that I need to get things working, so I'll probably use both.

Lexicon:
*nehụ :> ñɛħ = cat
*n|a :> nǂa[b] = cat.CLF
*nʘọhọ :> [b]nʘoħ
= be black
*ǁââr :> ǁaar = tail
*d!ị :> d!ɨ = tail.CLF
*!oi :> !həəy = talk
*yê :> še = together.ESS
*wâ :> fa = think of, mean (transitive)

Attributive verbs:

nǂa ñɛħ nʘoħ
CLF cat black
The cat is black.

nǂa ñɛħ nʘoħ nǂa !həəy
CLF cat black CLF talk
The black cat is talking.

So:

n!ar ñɛħ nʘoħ n!ar še !həəy
CLF.DU cat black CLF.DU together.ESS talk
Two black cats are talking.

Note that nonhigh rhotic vowels don't palatalize the preceding consonant, but instead back dental clicks to alveolars.

n!ar ñɛħ nʘoħ n!ar še fa !həəy n!arš d!ɨ ǁaar
CLF.DU cat black CLF.DU together.ESS think_of talk CLF.DU-POSS CLF tail

Tail is singular. d!ɨr ǁaar would've implied that they have two tails.

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nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei. Chei.


Last edited by Nortaneous on Sat May 11, 2013 10:10 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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PostPosted: Wed May 01, 2013 7:23 pm 
Sumerul
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Inventory and orthographies:

As is usual with my conlangs, there's a diacriticked version and a keyboard-plus-a-few-alt-codes version.

pʰ pʷʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ <ph p̃h/phʷ th ch kh>
p pʷ t c k ʔ <p p̃/pʷ t c k ʔ>
b bʷ d ɟ g ɓ ɓʷ ɗ ʄ <b b̃/bʷ d j g ɓ ɓ̃/ɓʷ ɗ ʄ>
m n ɲ ŋ <m n ñ ŋ>
f fʷ s ɕ x ħ h <f fʷ s š x ħ h>
l ʎ ɭ tɬ <l ʎ ḷ tl>
j ɰ wʲ w <j ɣ ẅ w>
ʘh |h !h ǁh ǂh <ʘh |h !h ǁh ǂh>
ʘ | ! ǁ ǂ <ʘ | ! ǁ ǂ>
nʘ n| n! nǁ nǂ <mʘ n| n! nǁ nǂ>
gʘ g| g! gǁ gǂ <bʘ d| d! dǁ jǂ> (gʘ will probably merge with ɓʷ since I can't distinguish them)
a ɛ ə ɔ e o i ɨ u <a ɛ ə ɔ e o i ɨ u>

----

pʰ pʷʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ <ph pwh th ch kh>
p pʷ t c k ʔ <p pw t c k '>
b bʷ d ɟ g ɓ ɓʷ ɗ ʄ <b bw d j g b' bw' d' j'>
m n ɲ ŋ <m n ñ ŋ> <m n ñ ng>
f fʷ s ɕ x ħ h <f fw s sh x xh h>
l ʎ ɭ tɬ <l ly r tl>
j ɰ wʲ w <j gh yw w>
ʘh |h !h ǁh ǂh <p!h t!h r!h l!h c!h>
ʘ | ! ǁ ǂ <p! t! r! l! c!>
nʘ n| n! nǁ nǂ <m! n!t n!r n!l n!c>
gʘ g| g! gǁ gǂ <b! d!t d!r d!l d!j>
a ɛ ə ɔ e o i ɨ u <a ae ë oa e o i ü u>

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PostPosted: Sat May 11, 2013 9:44 pm 
Sumerul
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Comparatives and superlatives:

The bowl is red.
n!or hwarħ xɛ ḷɨg
CLF bowl have red

The bowl is redder than that one.
n!or hwarħ xɛ ḷɨg nǁay n!orħ xɛ
CLF bowl have red be_over CLF-DIST have

The bowl is the reddest of all those bowls.
n!or hwarħ xɛ ḷɨg nǁay n!orħ dɨɨy xɛ
CLF bowl have red be_over CLF-DIST all have

This bowl is as red as that one.
n!or hwarħ xɛ ḷɨg ɗe n!orħ xɛ
CLF bowl have red be_at CLF-DIST have

Lexicon:
hwarħ - bowl
n!or - bowl classifier
nǁay - exceed, be over
ḷɨg - red
xɛ - have
-ħ on classifier - distal
dɨɨy - all

(In Cherun, nǁay grammaticalizes into a comparative verb, forcing locative constructions to use whatever the reflex of ɗe nǁay is... but in Ngmwragh, or maybe Arve, the 'metaphorical' function of ɗe kicks in and it gets grammaticalized into the comparative.)

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PostPosted: Sat May 11, 2013 9:58 pm 
Sumerul
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Obligation:

I have to go to the market.
yaʔ n!ɨɨ suka da m̃u ǂhaɣ
do_to require go get_closer market

I have to go to the market because I'm out of fish.
nǂe ŋa basɛʔ ɗe yañ yaʔ n!ɨɨ suka da m̃u ǂhaɣ
CLF NEG fish be_at 1S.FAM do_to require go get_closer market

Note that, outside the most formal of contexts, possession always takes the familiar pronouns.

Lexicon:
*yaʔe :> yaʔ do to (transitive)
*n|ẹu :> n!ɨɨ be required
*basẹʔe :> basɛʔ fish
*n|e :> nǂe fish CLF
*ŋạ :> ŋa NEG

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PostPosted: Mon May 20, 2013 2:15 am 
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Semantics of size: (using graves for glottalized retracted vowels because lazy)

large in one dimension: *yone :> yoñ
large in two dimensions: *tèku :> tɛk
large in three dimensions: *wââ :> hwaa
small in one dimension: *weyû :> hwey
small in two dimensions: *mììngu :> mɨɨng
small in three dimensions: *dìhà :> diħ

These have fossilized comparative forms in -*hù: yoñeħ, tɛkuħ, hwaaħ, weyuħ, mɨɨnguħ, weɕuħ, mɨɨnguħ, diwħ ~ juħ. Preserved in Cherun, not in Ngmwragh.

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Last edited by Nortaneous on Wed Jun 05, 2013 12:15 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sun May 26, 2013 8:07 am 
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shameless bump, going to iceland for a week and don't want this to die

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PostPosted: Sun May 26, 2013 8:22 am 
Avisaru
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Nortaneous wrote:
shameless bump, going to iceland for a week and don't want this to die

a) neither do I
b) send me a postcard and give the fish my regards

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PostPosted: Tue Jun 04, 2013 4:06 pm 
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Classifiers so far. Should be calling them articles.

*n|a n|ar n|agọ n|ayi :> nǂa n!ar n!aɣ n|ay - small animals
*d!ị d!ịr d!ịgọ d!ịyi :> d!ɨ d!ɨr d!ɨɣ d!ɨy - body parts, esp. of animals
*n!o n!or n!ogọ n!oyi :> n!o n!or n!ɔɣ n!oy - containers
*n|e n|er n|egọ n|eyi :> nǂe n!er nǂɛɣ nǂey - related to sea (fish etc)
*d|e d|er d|egọ d|eyi :> dǂe d!er dǂɛɣ dǂey - humans

How did this evolve? Presumably there were two words: n|V and d|V, that attached to following words -- or maybe one, d|V with nasalization from nasal initial consonants -- I like that better. So: the classifier morpheme was d|V -- definite article, say. And then the generic classifier would be -- give it a vowel -- *d|u d|ur d|ugọ d|uyi :> d|u d!ur d!ɨɣ d|uy (retracted u > ɨ, why not)

welp i'm bored now

edit: plenty of potential insanity to add later: could have the two elements split or only one be used in certain circumstances. also maybe add other second elements with other number marking patterns

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nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
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Last edited by Nortaneous on Sun Oct 13, 2013 12:33 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Wed Jun 05, 2013 4:55 am 
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I like it - it's refreshingly exotic, so to say. One thing caught my eye, though...

Nortaneous wrote:
Pre-Proto-Hathic


Are you really going that deep :o

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PostPosted: Wed Jun 05, 2013 9:32 am 
Sumerul
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Herr Dunkel wrote:
I like it - it's refreshingly exotic, so to say. One thing caught my eye, though...

Nortaneous wrote:
Pre-Proto-Hathic


Are you really going that deep :o

Only for phonological irregularity. I'm not making a pre-level for the grammar.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 16, 2013 2:47 am 
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Reworking sound changes since I changed the PPH phonology. Work in progress.

Before I continue, I need to clean up the phonology.

Consonants:
p t c k (ʔ)
b d j g (h)
m n ɲ ŋ
f s h
l y w
ʘ ! ǁ ǂ nʘ n! nǁ nǂ

Vowels:
a e o i u + length
ai au oi eu

Phonotactics:
Syllable structure is CV. Could be analyzed as (C)V, with null vowels ejecting ʔ if glottalized and h otherwise.
Most roots are CVCV. Some are CV. No CVCVCV or above.
Clicks can only occur word-initially.

Vowel modifiers:
1. Retroflexion [ret] of the vowel, turning preceding alveolars into retroflexes. Does not appear after palatal consonants. Written with a following <r>.
2. Retraction [RTR] on the vowel, lowering and backing it and backing (velarizing or pharyngealizing) the preceding consonant. Does not appear after palatal consonants. Written with an underdot or grave.
3. Glottalization [glot] of the vowel and the preceding consonant. Does not appear after nasals or nasal clicks. Written with a circumflex.

Diachronics:

1. First uvular lowering.
ị ụ ọi ẹu > ẹ ọ ại ạu / [vel]_

2. First palatalization.
c j > ts y
[cor] [vel] > [pal] / _{a e i ai}[-RTR][-ret], sometimes _er

3. Modifier harmony.
V[-ret -RTR -glot] > V[RTR] / _CV[RTR]
V[-ret -RTR -glot] > V[glot] / _C[-plosive]V[glot]

V[-long] > 0 / _#, with any modifier spreading to a preceding short vowel.
V[long] > V[-long] / _#.

4. Loss of glottalization.
V[glot] > ʔV
p t c k ʘ ! ǁ ǂ > pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ ʘʰ !ʰ ǁʰ ǂʰ
ʔb ʔd ʔj ʔg > ɓ ɗ y ɣ
ʔl ʔy ʔw > ɬ ɕ fʷ
ʔ > 0

5. Esh fronting.
ɕ > s / _V[ret] _V[RTR]
u > i / ɕ_

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 16, 2013 7:52 pm 
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I seem to remember, some time back, Nortaneous saying that he had difficulty with syntax (or something in that ballpark). I think we all know better now. :-D

This is very, very, very cool stuff. Perhaps some natlangs do it that I'm not aware of, but making conjunctions and prepositions into verbs is cool. The way they serialize to convey different static vs dynamic meanings is even cooler. I'm taking notes for future conlanging endeavors.

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