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 Post subject: Yiyenmore
PostPosted: Fri Aug 16, 2013 12:00 pm 
Smeric
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Yiyenmore is the language of Yiyenmenyon, from the Kool Map Game. Originally this comprised nothing more than a few throwaway place names, but as I started adding more names of places and people, I eventually decided to create the actual language, though by that time the phonology had become standardized and quite simplistic, and vaguely (stress this) inspired by Polynesian languages.

Phonology
Vowels:
high: ɘ̯i ~ i, u
mid: ɘ̯e ~ e, o
low: a

The front diphthongs are more likely to be realized in open syllables, initial syllables, or in any syllable near the end of an utterance, and as pure vowels elsewhere.

There are no phonemic diphthongs, but technically any vowel may occur next to another, including identical vowels, which results in apparently long vowels.

Consonants:
stops: p, t, k
nasals: m, n
fricatives: f, s, h
affricates: ʦ, ʨ
tap/trill: r
approximants: w, j

Syllable structure is very basic:
(C)V(/n/)

Allophony and Sandhi
/n/ is prone to assimilation to the following consonant’s point of articulation
/in/ is often realized as [ɨɲ], and /en/ as [(ɘ̯)eɲ] , though the [ɲ] may be assimilated as per final /n/.
/r/ becomes /ɺ/ after /n/
Kentawan Kusinyaye [kɘ̯eɲˈta.waŋ.kuˈsɨɲ.ja.jɘ̯e] place name
Sonro [ˈson.ɺo] place name

In the main dialect, stops and affricates are voiced after /n/. Fricatives are not.
hunti [ˈhun.di] "person"
inche [ˈɨɲ.ʥɘ̯e] "friend"
kansi [ˈkan.sɘ̯i] auxiliary particle

The following sandhi mergers take place:
e/i + ye result in e-e
e + yi results in e-i
i + yi results in i-i
o/u + wo results in o-o
o + wu results in o-u
u + wu results in u-u

Examples:
purate – kill
yenuri – bug; insect

purate-enuri – kill a bug

saro – be able
wuru – hide

saro-uru – be able to hide

The name of the culture, Yiyen, is also subject to this assimilation, often being realized as Yeen. However, due to the prominence and significance of the word, it tends to resist assimilation somewhat and is more likely to be pronounced fully in more careful speech.

Sandhi is optionally rendered in the native script across word boundaries, but always in compound words (except for "Yiyen"). I will not render it in the native script, but always render it in the Romanization, except for words containing the root "Yiyen".

Stress
Stress is realized as a simple high pitch on the accented syllable. Most commonly, stress is on the penultimate syllable. In compounds, it will often be on the final or penultimate syllable of the first element of the compound.
If the same vowel occurs in the final three syllables, stress will be on the antepenultimate syllable. Some suffixes may move the stress, while others do not.

kutumaníri
Yiyénmenyon
sákara
tári + (r)(u)npu = tarínpu
kéke + ini = kékini

Writing System
Yiyenmore is written in Yiyentochi, the native writing system. I was inspired by various Indonesian scripts, but when designing it I consulted only my incomplete memory, because I deliberately wanted to avoid copying any specific scripts or glyphs. Nevertheless, it seems like Batak had the greatest influence on the final product. Since I based Yiyentochi on Indonesian scripts, it is an alphasyllabary. It is fairly regular, but there are some irregular formations, particularly with /i/.





Pronouns and verbs are coming up later.


Last edited by clawgrip on Sat Oct 26, 2013 8:10 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Yiyenmore
PostPosted: Fri Aug 16, 2013 12:19 pm 
Lebom
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Joined: Mon Jan 21, 2013 1:55 am
Posts: 184
Location: Red Sox
I'm sort of glad I threw the tonality into Gomah now, since I used a loosely polynesian system too with a couple wrenches tossed in for good measure.

I really love the allophony on those front vowels and how they interact.

The script is lovely too. Definitely feels indonesian. My favorite is the ke character, because I thought of ponies upon seeing it.

What do you plan on basing the Grammar on? Sticking to the Pacific?

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 Post subject: Re: Yiyenmore
PostPosted: Fri Aug 16, 2013 12:26 pm 
Smeric
Smeric
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Joined: Wed Feb 29, 2012 8:21 am
Posts: 1723
Location: Tokyo
I'm not sure what all I will do with this. Nouns are entirely uninflected. Pronouns are more extensive than English, with some inclusive/exclusive, and animate/inanimate. The verbs are actually inspired by Georgian (and again, stress "vaguely inspired by", not "similar to"). I really need to stress that I don't actually know anything about Georgian; it's just that a cursory look at the concept of the screeve, which I still don't understand, inspired a kind of verb pattern system that I have created for this language. I will introduce it soon.

Thanks for your comments on the script as well. I actually was able to design it pretty quickly. Less than an hour for most of it, with some later decisions on competing forms of the irregular ones.


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 Post subject: Re: Yiyenmore
PostPosted: Fri Aug 16, 2013 4:46 pm 
Avisaru
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Joined: Wed Oct 24, 2007 7:38 pm
Posts: 285
My thread is triggering a big bang of creativity. :)


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 Post subject: Re: Yiyenmore
PostPosted: Fri Aug 16, 2013 7:34 pm 
Smeric
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Joined: Wed Feb 29, 2012 8:21 am
Posts: 1723
Location: Tokyo
It sure did. Good work. Your map has provided me with hours of fun.


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 Post subject: Re: Yiyenmore
PostPosted: Sat Oct 26, 2013 7:49 am 
Smeric
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Joined: Wed Feb 29, 2012 8:21 am
Posts: 1723
Location: Tokyo
Two months ago I said I would do pronouns and verbs. So here are the pronouns and a bit about verbs.

Pronouns
Yiyenmore has 12 pronouns. They do not decline for case in any way, as the language lacks overt case marking of any kind. Here is a table of all pronouns:



The pronouns should be fairly easy to understand, but the generic accusative will be dealt with when verbs are explained.

Verbs
Verbs are conjugated with numerous auxiliary particles that appear in front of the verb. Verbs conjugate for transitivity, tense, intent, evidentiality, voice, and definiteness of the subject.

Evidentiality
The auxiliary o is used to show that something is inferred, unconfirmed, or reported from another source.

rehoye – believe
o rehoye – seem to believe

This auxiliary interacts with other auxiliaries in unpredictable ways.

Subject definiteness
A subject can have three levels of definiteness: indefinite, definite, and inalienable definite. Inalienable definite is used for proper names, pronouns, and certain unique items such as the sun or moon, or intangible, unique concepts such as “happiness” or “justice”. Marking of definiteness is mandatory in finite verbs:
indefinite: Ø
definite: ki
inalienable definite: ti

These auxiliaries interact with other auxiliaries in unpredictable ways.

Verbs can be conjugated according to three patterns. These patterns are called kansi, sata (I & II), and teyun, after the primary auxiliary used in each pattern. Not all verbs can use all patterns: for example, intransitive verbs cannot appear in the kansi (transitive) pattern, and such verbs take the sata II pattern instead of sata I, Conversely, verbs that can take kansi can cannot take sata II. Now to explain what these patterns are and how they work.

Kansi pattern
This pattern is used with active-transitive verbs that represent deliberate, intentional, and/or willing actions. As such, inherently intransitive verbs cannot use the kansi pattern.



Because the verb is recognized as transitive by default, the object need not be indicated overtly and can be dropped.
Note that the present tense can indicate future as well.


Min ti tanke.
1 PR.DEF set.in.place
I am setting (it) in place.
The inalienable definite verb form is used here because the subject min I is a pronoun and thus always definite.


Hunti hunti onsi paho.
person person SJV-FUT.PR.INDF do
It seems like several people will do it.
The indefinite verb form is used here because hunti hunti several people is indefinite.


Chimuyi to kori kanke-etun (kanki yetun).
grandmother of 2 PST.PR.DEF eat
Your grandmother ate it.
The (alienable) definite is used here because the subject chimuyi grandmother is of variable definiteness.

Sata patterns
The sata pattern is used both for transitive verbs that are unintentional/involuntary/unwilling/reluctant (sata I) and for intransitive verbs of any kind (sata II). Intransitive verbs can be involuntary or voluntary, depending on the verb root, but adverbs also exist to clarify.

For the sake of clarity, I will explain sata II first.



You will notice that the present tense is identical to the kansi pattern present tense. This does not pose a problem, because the kansi pattern is only used for transitive verbs, and sata II only for intransitive, so there is no ambiguity or overlap.


Tunru sewu.
bird call.out
A bird is singing.


Roho sako pi tsirin.
man PST.INTR-DEF slip.fall
The man may have slipped and fallen.


Efa osato ranokan chinete.
sun SJV.INTR.PR.DEF again shine
The sun will shine again.


Wiya sati yuherun utsera.
3.ANIM.SG PST.INTR-PR.DEF purposely die
He allowed himself to die.

Sata I is used for verbs that can be used both transitively and intransitively. It is nearly identical to sata II, differing only in the present tense. As mentioned previously, the sata II and kansi patterns are identical in the present tense, so sata I provides disambiguation with two different methods to indicate if a bitransitive verb is being used transitively or intransitively.

The first method adds the auxiliary particle su to the present paradigm:




Momumomuchi suki saro nare.
animal-PL UNINT.TR.DEF can see
The animals can see it (even though they may not necessarily intend or want to, or it is something that others do not want the animals to see).


Wiya sati keke.
3 PST.UNINT.TR.PR.DEF break
He broke it (accidentally).

In these cases, the object does not need to be stated explicitly, because the use of su clearly indicates transitivity.

The second method is simply to include the object explicitly. In these cases, the verb is clearly transitive, so it places it clearly as a sata II rather than sata I verb.


Wiya ti keke hahun.
3 UNINT.TR.PR.DEF break pot
He is breaking/about to break the pot (accidentally).

The generic accusative pronoun tsa may also be employed in place of any accusative argument, animate or inanimate, proximate or distal, singular or plural. When tsa is used, su may be dropped.


Wiya ti keke tsa.
3 UNINT.TR.PR.DEF break 3.ACC
He is breaking/about to break it/them (accidentally).

Teyun pattern
The teyun pattern is used for passive voice. By default it is unintentional/involuntary. Teyun differs from kansi and sata in that the main auxiliary appears even in the present tense. The past tense is formed through contraction with sata.




Awuntu sateyun ko pi wuru.
book PST.PSV DEF-SJV PST.SJV hide.
The book may have been hidden.


Ose ose teyun kutumaniri.
picture picture PSV display
Some pictures are being displayed.


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 Post subject: Re: Yiyenmore
PostPosted: Sat Oct 26, 2013 8:56 am 
Smeric
Smeric
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Joined: Wed Mar 08, 2006 5:00 pm
Posts: 1630
Location: Braunschweig, Germany
This looks like a good start - a nice conlang with some interesting features.

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