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 Post subject: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Wed Jun 18, 2014 12:52 pm 
Avisaru
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I've had a bit of time to conlang recently and have pushed one of my projects forward -- TEST for purposes of this post. Incidentally, have any of you noticed that separate projects seem to evolve towards a mean?

I specifically wanted to work several themes into my current project:

(1) Clusivity outside of the normal first person plural inclusive/exclusive distinction;
(2) An unusual but natural number system;
(3) A distance contrast expanding beyond third person pronouns/demonstratives;
(4) Differential (quirky) case marking of subjects and objects; and
(5) After reading Aikhenvald, use of non-numeral classifiers.


(1) & (2) Clusivity and Number.



EDIT: Further notes on minimal-augmented number systems.



EDIT: Further notes on minimal-augmented number systems -- pt. 2.



(3) Spatial Deixis.



(4) Differential ~ Quirky Subject (and Object Marking).



(5) Classifiers.



EDIT: rant of mine about noun classifiers and some other stuff for future reference.



Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Thu Jan 19, 2017 4:24 pm, edited 10 times in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Wed Jun 18, 2014 5:48 pm 
Sanno
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You probably know this, and it needn't mean anything for your conlang, but real-world possessive classifiers (certainly in Austronesian, and iirc elsewhere also) don't tend to classify things by their kind, but by the nature of the relation. Iirc some systems do this by the kind of possession ('mine by right', 'mine naturally', 'mine that I'm borrowing', etc), but the Austronesian languages do it by the purpose of possession - the most fundamental distinction is have-for-eating/drinking vs have-for-other-reasons, with the next most common being a tripartite for-eating/for-drinking/for-other-reason split. This can sometimes be lexical, but usually at least some words can be put with different classifiers to reflect the semantics of the actual situation - so a coconut that you want to drink out of has a different classifier from the one you're going to eat.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Wed Jun 18, 2014 11:29 pm 
Avisaru
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Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sun Jan 31, 2016 9:35 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sat Jun 28, 2014 3:09 pm 
Avisaru
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Dyadic Kin and Relationship Terms, Etc..

As discussed above, TEST has both possessive and comitative classifiers, which classify various humans. These are related to an extensive set of dyadic (and triadic) terms.

Dyadic Relations



Polyadic Relations



"Homogenous and Heterogeneous" Body Part Terms -- Dyadic, polyadic, and Otherwise



.



Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sun Jan 31, 2016 1:34 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sat Jul 05, 2014 3:31 pm 
Avisaru
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Morphosyntactic Alignment.

Case Marking.



Verb Agreement. Now with edits for clarity.



Differential A/S Case Marking.



Expressives: Sound Symbolism, Ideophones, &c.



The verbs are dead! Long live the light verbs! Now with edits for the new phonology.



Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sun May 03, 2015 10:39 am, edited 5 times in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Jul 06, 2014 9:08 am 
Smeric
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This is nice and complex, and has the potential of growing into a truly terrffic conlang. Keep it up and rock on!

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ESTAR-3SG:P human-OBJ only human-OBJ true-OBJ REL-LOC play-3SG:A


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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sat Aug 09, 2014 7:02 am 
Avisaru
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I am at it again.

Recently I have been tackling my conlanging nightmare, verbs. In an attempt not to re-lex English, I have been using Levin's English Verb Classes and Alternations to isolate certain classes and patterns of verbs. With the understanding that her book, of course, covers classes of English verbs, I have come up with a rough draft of a number of classes and how they will be handled by TEST. These classes roughly line up with Levin's classes, which I am still not entirely pleased with. I am still changing this section, and, as you will notice, I have not actually added any actual lexical items yet.

As discussed above, TEST has a limited set of light verbs, which form verb complexes together with either a noun, adjective, or expressive. Additionally, satellites can be bound to certain nouns, adjectives, and expressives. The operation of these satellites will be discussed in my next post covering verbs of motion.

Verb Complexes Involving the Body.

Bodily Processes .



Bodily Signs/Gestures.



Nonverbal Expressions/Cues.




Involuntary Bodily States.




Bodily States and Bodily Damage.




Change of Bodily-State.




Verbs of Grooming and Bodily Care.

Care for the Entire Body.



Care for Specific Bodily Parts.



Dressing and Adornment.



Next: Verbs of motion


Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sat Jan 24, 2015 9:36 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Mon Aug 18, 2014 12:13 pm 
Avisaru
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I’ve been wrangling with TEST’s movement verbs for a bit and have gotten bogged down. I am trying to work TEST as a verb framed language with regard to at least verbs of movement. As a speaker of English, this has taken some thought and I still feel that I am falling back into a satellite framed system.

To pass the time, I am taking a crack at fleshing out TEST’s baroque pronoun system. TEST’s pronominal system is designed to be emerging from an earlier agglutinative phase and becoming progressively more synthetic. If you hate morphemes or heavily morpheme based design, then tl; dr: you will hate this.

The pronominal series have roughly the following form:

PRIOR DRAFT.



Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sat Jan 24, 2015 9:39 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Jan 18, 2015 2:51 pm 
Avisaru
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After reading through Nort's awesome page, I was inspired to reboot this. I haven't done much in about a half-year, so some fresh starting was in order.

---

Revamped Phoneme Inventory. A bit PIE-ish in manner (shout-out to w'elf, I think, for: https://www.academia.edu/1538887/Typolo ... o-European):



Reworked Pronominal/PRO-clitic/Verb-enclitic system:



EDIT: Reworked Pronominal/PRO-clitic/Verb-enclitic system with allophony:



EDIT: Relative, Corelative, and Interrogative Pronouns:



And . . . otherwise . . . I am still thinking about the applicability of these:

1-2 ----- 2-2 ----- 1-3 ----- 2-3 ----- 3-3 ----- kin/Names ----- Dyadic Kin ----- Paired nouns ----- common nouns
<-------------------------------------------------minimal----------------------------------------------------------------------->
<2 Assoc Aug>...................................................................................................................
.....................<------------------3 Associatively Augmented------------>.............................................
....................................................<-----------------Additively Augmented--------------------------------->
.......................................................................<------------Anti-Dual------------->......................


1-2 ----- 2-2 ----- 1-3 ----- 2-3 ----- 3-3 ----- kin/Names ----- Dyadic Kin ----- Paired nouns ----- common nouns
.....................<-----------------Plural Spatial Deixis ------------------->................................................

.......................................<Sg.DXS>...................................................................................


Attachments:
Misc Pronouns.JPG
Misc Pronouns.JPG [ 113.53 KiB | Viewed 9542 times ]
Personal Pronouns Re-done.JPG
Personal Pronouns Re-done.JPG [ 150.78 KiB | Viewed 9587 times ]


Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sun May 10, 2015 10:43 am, edited 8 times in total.
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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Thu Jan 22, 2015 8:26 pm 
Avisaru
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Numerals.

Again, a glimmer of PIE creative influence on the root shapes. Like [+3] PRO-forms above, numerals also have mandatory spatial deixis marking – the deictic extenders are largely isomorphic with the enclitic [+3] PRO-forms. Several forms show doubled or stacked deixis marking. I am not sure if the numerals beyond One will have case marking and whether such case marking of the higher numerals will be noun-like or adjective-like. I expect that One will serve double duty as a demonstrative or demonstrative-stem if those forms will be different than the [+3] PRO-forms – not sure yet.

On a phonetic note, as these forms increasingly show, breathy voicing and aspiration play parallel roles in <-H-> Augmentation -- perhaps fossilized and moving towards being phonemic. My orthographic instinct is towards marking /H/ as aspiration where applicable and leaving [ʱ] as just that. Also note the velar plus alveolar sequences -- I may need to tweak the phonotactics.

Cardinal Numerals:



Ordinal Numerals:



Nouns:

This will require a bit of thought. I think that deixis marking will be -- depending on class -- mandatory, optional, or blocked. The move away from deixis marking will coincide with increased animacy~definiteness.


Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Mon Feb 08, 2016 7:07 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Feb 01, 2015 12:51 pm 
Avisaru
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A bit on (P)NP Syntax and Nominal Morphology:

Basic P(NP) frames:



Demonstrative Classifier forms: (perhaps determiner classifier is a better label?)



(Pro)nominal and Deictic Ablaut:



Attachments:
Grades.jpg
Grades.jpg [ 57.12 KiB | Viewed 9863 times ]
D. Classifiers.JPG
D. Classifiers.JPG [ 39.34 KiB | Viewed 9863 times ]
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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Feb 08, 2015 11:57 pm 
Avisaru
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Phonotactics Revised.



EDIT: need to add /kt/, and ? /ktʰ/ clusters.

Initial Draft of Allophony.



Attachments:
Phonotactics.JPG
Phonotactics.JPG [ 23.95 KiB | Viewed 9773 times ]


Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sat May 30, 2015 8:22 am, edited 2 times in total.
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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sat May 02, 2015 2:15 pm 
Avisaru
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Well, why not.

Verb Ablaut.



Verb Terminations.



Copula.



General Thoughts.

Still need to do a TAM system. Almost any sound change will lead to more vowels, voicing/aspiration distinctions, and -- most likely -- tonogenesis.


Attachments:
Existential Copula.JPG
Existential Copula.JPG [ 77.73 KiB | Viewed 9608 times ]
Basic Verb Terminations.JPG
Basic Verb Terminations.JPG [ 69.3 KiB | Viewed 9608 times ]
Verb Ablaut.JPG
Verb Ablaut.JPG [ 40.41 KiB | Viewed 9608 times ]
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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun May 10, 2015 11:08 am 
Avisaru
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Edit notes:

Added relative, corelative, and interrogative pronouns above.

I think I also want to add defective enclitics in these series of a sort like Sanskrit <Ena>, which incidentally looks a lot like /*oi-n-/ or "one" in other PIE languages. Perhaps IIr. "one" /ai-k-/ is (also?) an O-grade of the demonstrative but with an indefinite /*oi-kʷ-/ rather than /*-n-/.

TAM Sketch.



Moving Forward.

I think I now have enough to do derivations. I think the first step will be to do a few sound changes -- particularly with the vowels -- and a major re-synthesis of the nominal endings. More to come.


Attachments:
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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Mon May 25, 2015 6:57 pm 
Avisaru
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Laying the foundation for a few derivation attempts:

Starting Point.



Daughter Cluster One.



Notes: (1) need to consider what tonogenesis does to the morphology; (2) the next crack/merger of the stop series will simplify the various series and allophones out; likely need prefixing to fix a lot of the left periphery losses.


Daughter Cluster Two.



Notes: (1) Phonotactics remain the same except in B, which allows geminate (fortis?) onsets. (2) The Ablaut system considered together with glide coloration massively changes and simplifies -- shortened and unstressed a grade /ɨ, i, u/ v. lengthened and stressed a grade /á:, í:, ú:/; shortened and unstressed ə grade /u, u, u/ v. lengthened and stressed ə grade /ú:, ái̯:, áʊ̯/. (3) Need to run the pronoun system through these sound changes, analogical leveling will probably be needed to keep things straight – especially with /k/ and /T/ in palatalizing environments.


Third Daughter Cluster.



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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sat Sep 19, 2015 8:56 am 
Avisaru
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Some work in a current draft.


I have been thinking about distance grades and their interaction with coronal fricative and affricate harmony. Harmony works left to right and back right to left. Stops including nasals are blockers everything else is transparent. Fricatives in pre-nasal onsets are also considered blocked.


2-2 plural,




2-3 plural.




Pre-verbs ~ verb prefixes (with more irregular and analogical developments)




The theme vowels of these forms can fuse with /y~i/ and /v~u/ with various coronal assimilations, which will eliminate some distinctions.

Here, I think there must be a further rule with coronal harmony, perhaps it probes first from the root left to right and then back onto the prefix on the right to left probe, so:

/ʈʂa:/ + /uʈʂ.ʈʰúʂ/ -> /ʈʂa.vuʈʂ.ʈʰúʂ/ "you all there are inside (of) ____"

But, /ʈʂa:/ + /itʃ.ʈʃʰíʃ/ -> /*ʈʂa.yiʈʂ.ʈʂʰíʂ/ but /tʃa.yitʃ.tʃʰíʃ/ "you all here are inside (of) ____"

Revised Rule:
(1) Pre-derivational harmony: Coronal Fricatives and Affricates assimilate to the coronal POA of Fricatives and Affricates to their left unless there is an intervening stop, then
(2) Derivational harmony: Coronal Fricatives and Affricates assimilate to the coronal POA of Fricatives and Affricates to their right unless there is an intervening stop.

Sandhi rules need to be worked out in greater detail.


Last edited by 2+3 clusivity on Sat Sep 26, 2015 8:50 pm, edited 4 times in total.

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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Sep 20, 2015 6:21 am 
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– The Gospel of Thomas


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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Sep 20, 2015 11:10 am 
Sanno
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But the river tripped on her by and by, lapping
as though her heart was brook: Why, why, why! Weh, O weh
I'se so silly to be flowing but I no canna stay!


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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Sep 20, 2015 6:24 pm 
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– The Gospel of Thomas


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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Sep 20, 2015 6:29 pm 
Sanno
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Yeah, we've all done that...

(but seriously, thanks for the reminder to look at that more)

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But the river tripped on her by and by, lapping
as though her heart was brook: Why, why, why! Weh, O weh
I'se so silly to be flowing but I no canna stay!


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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sat Sep 26, 2015 4:13 pm 
Avisaru
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(Going) the distance – but, specifically, which distance .
WIP . . . failing a pragmatic reason, it seems the origo for distance agreement should be A or S.


A more fundamental question is, failing pragmatics, what assigns the target of verbal deixis? Is it the verb stem or a feature of the verb like tense? Can only certain verbs assign deixis?

Are you experiencing?
WIP . . . need to determine if experiencer concord agrees with A/S or with O/null.
Using (1), above, I feel like experiencer concord must be A/S at least in the intentional/non-accidental construction. Perhaps, compare that to:



Causative mirroring of DSM
As discussed far above, Subject (A or S) marking varies depending on experiencer status and whether the Subject effects the action intentionally versus accidentally. Using a double object, double subject, dative shift and causative alternations, the language can largely do without morphological voice. That being said, several lexical to semi-productive causative and anti-causative formations will be available.

Direct Causatives: Mirroring DSM, match intentional v. unintentional/accidental/permitted causativization, as one dimension, against comitative v. non-comitative causation, as a second dimension.
These formations will be derived/formed through stem transformations and root suffixing. Note that causativization will affect (decrement) the logical number used in verbal number as discussed below. E.g. –



Indirect Causatives: only occur in comitative and non-comitative versions:



Anti-causatives



Minimal-Augmented verbal number.

Scope. Verbal number affects at least the following verb classes: intransitive verbs of motion and positon, transitives of caused motion; psych verbs, verbs of perception, etc.; copular expressions aligned with these constructions: obligational/modal compound verbs, quasi-possession and inalienable possession predicates.

Alignment and Number System. As I understand it, verbal number in natlangs is determined by the number of the S or O; so, it is an interesting form of covert-ergative marking. Reviewing Corbett, it also appears that verbal number is organized on a “singular v. plural” or “paucal v. greater paucal” depending on the verb within the same languages. I take this to mean that verbal number can – and perhaps often does – operate on a minimal v. augmented number system.

Here, since Differential Subject Marking which often blocks typical agreement, keeping track of the number of the Subject (S and A) becomes useful in a variety of constructions to which this will apply; therefore, verbal number will be determined by testing S or both A and O. Not originally intended, this system allows a massive amount of PRO-dropping due to parallel A/S agreement suffixes. Availability of both A and S for number testing, also makes sense to me diachronically as DSM constructions could be descended or analogized from scrambling formations fronting O. Samples with an early TAM version--



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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Wed Dec 30, 2015 11:45 am 
Avisaru
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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Tue Feb 02, 2016 6:56 pm 
Avisaru
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Number.Case portmanteaux suffix and prefix schemes: minimal: stem stress and suffix zeroing; augmented: stem zeroing and suffix stress with nasalization or nasal suffix. Historical note, optionally prefixed and mandatory suffixed numerals/demonstratives fused with pronominal case suffixes create the nominal case paradigm. Essentially the root always takes accent and length; however, numeral suffixes can drag the accent leftward with corresponding changes.
• “One/some” (i.e. augmented) /**s(n̩)- -sń̩-/ -> /*H-C –sV́~-/ -> /C<ʰ> -sV́~-/, etc.; but ?? singular /**Ø- <V́> -sn̩-/ -> /*Ø- <V́> -nʱV ~ -[s/h](V)/ -> various; so, oddly, the same root derives both minimal as “a/some X” and augmented as “some one(s) (of) X”; and
• “two” (i.e. unit augmented) /**kʷ- -k(ʷ)V́-/ -> /*[k/p]- -[k/p]V́-/ -> /[k/p]- -[k/p]V́-/; k- -k- forms analogize most heavily; so, the fossil duals are really “two/a pair (of) X.”

Prefixation causes aspiration of the plural stem onset; fossilized *duals -> Dyadic yerms form similarly to unit augmented pluractionals with ?/**kʷ-/ -> /*k-/ or /*p-/ (Dyadic terms are also formed by other strategies) often with a /-k-/ suffix following the stem. Pluracationals are again related to the double v. non-double scheme.
• E.g. with a homogeneous dyadic body part: /*p-tVt-k-/ -> /pʂʈʱɨ.kʂʉ́:~/ or /*k-tV́t-k-/ -> /kʂʈʱɨ.kʂʉ́:~/ (showing fossilized dual); /k-mVt-k-/ -> /kʂmʱɨ.kʂʉ́:~/ “mother and child,”

Pluractional scheme: internal reduplication of stem coda with cluster simplification if the stem is zeroed. Stem original takes either dual /*SCk-/ <kʰ> or plural marking /*S-/ -> <H>.

Pluractional or augmented pluractional --
• /*-sV/ -> /(-:).hV-/; /*-sSV/ -> /(-:)sV-/
• /*-sL/ -> /(-:).Lʰ-/; /*-sSL/ -> /(-:)sLʰ-/
• /*-sP/ -> /(-:).Pʰ-/; /*-sSP/ -> /(-:)sPʰ-/
• /*-sT/ -> /(-:).Tʰ-/ ; /*-sST/ -> /(-:)sTʰ-/
• /*-sK/ -> /(-:).Kʰ-/; /*-sSK/ -> /(-:)sKʰ-/

Unit augmented pluractional --
• /*k-(S) / -> /*K(S)-/
• /*k-(S)L/ -> /*K(S)Lʰ-/
• /*k-(S)P/ -> /*KSPʰ-/
• /*k-(S)T/ -> /*KSTʰ-/
• /*k-(S)K/ -> /*KSʰ-/

Person Schemes: 1-2, 1-3 prox & dist: /*hm(V)- -> (:)mV/, 2-2, 2-3 prox & dist: /t(V)u-/, reflexive: /s(V)u-/, INT: /k(V)u-/ (fossilized distal?); 3-3 pronoun is identical to demonstrative

Deixis Schemes:
• prox: /*hi̯(V) ~ hi/ -> /(:)i̯(V) ~ (:)i /, Dist: /*hu̯(V) ~ hu/ ->/(:)u̯(V) ~ (:)u /, and ? /hn(V) ~ hn̥/, /ti(V)/, /tu(V)/
• default: root as stem; v. areal: stem from root prefixed with /áL-/ appropriate to deixis (e.g. /*ái-hi̯(V)-/ -> /*ái:y-/ -> /á.yi.y-/ but /*ái-ti(V)-/ -> /ái̯.ti-/)

Diminutive v. Augmentative Schemes:
• diminutive: stem coda simplification, optional initial clipping, suffix lengthening, high stress;
• augmentative: suffix lengthening, low stress, optional reduplication of stem onset.

Strong/weak/enclitic/zero Scheme: /V́(:)/ versus /ɨ/ versus /ʉ/ versus /Ø/
• Singular Pronoun roots, plural pronoun case suffixes
• Euphonic, etc.,
• Enclitic roots,
• singular pronoun case suffixes, plural pronoun stems

Nominative & LOC v. oblique scheme: /a/ v. /ʉ/

Plosive /pʰ p bʱ b; tʰ t dʱ d; kʰ k gʱ g/
Affricate /pfʰ pf ; tsʰ ts dz dzʱ; kʟ̝̊ʰ, kʟ̝̊, / the invlid group goes to /u̯ u̯ʱ l lʱ/
Fricative /sʰ zʱ ɦ/
Continuant /mʱ nʱ rʱ i̯ʱ lʱ u̯ʱ/
Semi-Vocalic class I /m~m̩ n~n̩ r~r̩ l~l̩/ (are all /l/ really /ʟ̘/?)
Semi-Vocalic class II /i̯~i u̯~u/
Vocalic /a() ʉ(:) ɨ(:)/
---
Onset – (S/P)C(L), (P)(P)(L) [heterorganic]
Nucleus – V(:)(L1/L2), L1/L2
Coda – (C)
---
Right to left syllable assignment.
• First V forms nucleus.
• First L forms nucleus unless followed by another L which instead forms the syllable nucleus (fix this)


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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Oct 30, 2016 12:18 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Fri Mar 16, 2012 5:34 pm
Posts: 455
Okay! After a long hiatus on this, it’s time for a reboot.

Phonology.

/ m p b w | n t d | ts dz sʰ zʱ | ɻ | j | k g xʰ (?ɣʱ) | a, ə, ɨ, ʉ /

General Syllable Structure.

• (C)(C)(C)(w)(G)(V)(:)(G)(w)(C)(C)(C), where --
 C = {F, S, N}
 F = {sʰ, zʱ, xʰ} <Sʰ, Zʱ, H>
 S = {P, T, K}
 N = {m, n}
 P = {p, b}
 T = {t, ts, d, dz}
 K = {k, g}
 w = w
 G = {ɻ, j}
 V = {a, ə, ɨ, ʉ}

Phonotactic Restraints. (very much still working on this)

Onset and coda restrictions.

• Medial C clusters cannot exceed CCC
• !!!$CCC…CCC$ (If an onset or coda is CCC then the opposite edge may be at most CC) and perhaps savings leads !!C > ʰ.
• !!{FFF, NNN} (must have at least one fricative in a three consonant cluster)
• !!{PP, TT, KK, mm, nn} and !!{NFN} but {PFP, TFT, KFK} (no consecutive stop clusters)
• !!{$NC(C), (C)CN$}
• !!{PT, PK} and {?TK, ?mn} but {PFT, PFK, TFK} (essentially, oral stop clusters must advance in POA; perhaps such cluster are saved by an intervening fricative; yes, see below)
• !!FF but FSF (no fricative + fricative clusters)
• !P in an onset or coda with an adjacent-side labial glide

Nucleus and Glide restrictions.

• !!...w(G)(V)(:)(G)w… (i.e., only one labial glide per syllable)
• !!{...wj(V)(:)jw…, !!...wɻ(V)(:)ɻw…} (internal glides cannot be homo-organic)
• !!$V… ? > $hV…
• All syllables must have at least one vowel or glide. If there is no vowel, the glide forms the nucleus.
• ?? [nucleus assignment rule for chain glides without a vowel]

Allophones. (very much still working on this)

nasal allophones.

• Assimilate to the POA of a following oral stop

Fricative/aspirate allophones.

• {sʰ, zʰ}{N, S} > {s, z}{N, S}ʰ (including Fts > Ftsʰ); h{N, S} > {N, S}ʰ
• {sʰ, zʰ}{N, S}S > {s, z}{N, S}Sʰ; ; h{N, S}S > {N, S}Sʰ
• {N, S}{sʰ, zʰ}S > {N, S}{s, z}Sʰ; {N, S}hS > {N, S}ʰSʰ
• S{sʰ, zʰ} > S{sʰ, zʰ} (including Fts > Ftsʰ); Sh > Sʰ
• SS{sʰ, zʰ} > SS{s, z}ʰ; SSh > SSʰ
• ??{hSS, ShS} > SʰSʰ
• {sʰ, zʰ}S{sʰ, zʰ} > {sʰ, zʰ}SʰTʰ; hS{sʰ, zʰ} > SʰTʰ (front-back check?)
• {sʰ, zʰ}Sh > {sʰ, zʰ}SʰKʰ; hSh > SʰKʰ (front-back check?)
• ??FS{Sʰ, Zʰ} > FSʰTʰ; FSh > FSʰKʰ


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 Post subject: Re: 2+3's Project
PostPosted: Sun Feb 12, 2017 1:51 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru
User avatar

Joined: Fri Mar 16, 2012 5:34 pm
Posts: 455
Or, perhaps:

/m*, n/ (*?/nʷ/ with [m])
/mbʙ*, ndr, ɳɖɽ/ (*?/ndrʷ/ with [mbʙ])
/t, tʰ, t:, tʷ, tʷʰ, k̙, k̙ʰ, k̙:, k̙ʷ, k̙ʷʰ/
/ts, tsʰ, ts:, ts:ʰ, tsʷ, tsʷʰ, tʃ, tʃʰ, tʃ:, tʃ:ʰ, tʃʷ, tʃʷʰ, ʈʂ, ʈʂʰ, ʈʂ:, ʈʂ:ʰ, ʈʂʷ, ʈʂʷʰ, kʟ̝̊, kʟ̝̊ʰ, kʟ̝̊:, kʟ̝̊ʷ, kʟ̝̊ʷʰ/
/s, z, s:, sʷ, zʷ, s:ʷ, ʃ, ʒ, ʃ:, ʃʷ, ʒʷ, ʃ:ʷ, ʂ, ʐ, ʂ:, ʂʷ, ʐʷ, ʂ:ʷ, ʟ̝̊, ʟ̝̊:, ʟ̝̊ʷ, ʟ̝̊:ʷ, h/
/j, jʷ, ɻ, ɻʷ, w/
/ə, ə̃, ə:, ə̃:, ɨ, ɨ̃, ɨ:, ɨ̃:, ʉ, ʉ̃, ʉ:, ʉ̃:, a, ã, a:, ã:/

Syllable level: (S)F(S)(G)V(G)(S)F -- /h/ is the default onset and coda, but is realized as : / V_$. Then again, screw open syllables, maybe it is just /h/ in the coda. S=stop, affricate; F=fricative; G=approximant; V=vowel or approximant not adjacent to a similar G. Strong consonants =/= geminates and are not subject to POA assimilation rules.

Phrase/clause level: (SPEC) (PRE-ADJ+(PRE-ADJ)) (PRE-COMP) X (POST-COMP) (POST-ADJ+(POST-ADJ)) (COMP) – Non-Rigid Head-final. Need to work more on pre- and post- modifiers. Likely has post- and (maybe) circum-positions of some sort.

So, for example: (1) NP[DEM [N’ (…) N] (…) ] COMP, and (2) [A.NP IP[VP[XP[…] V] INFL]] COMP

Grammatical Persons grouped by common morpheme(s): 1(+2(+2)), 2(+2)/3d.prox, 3d.dist -- basically, reference to a 2d person is open ended in terms of logical number unlike reference to a 3d person.

Pronoun/Verb Agreement Number grouped by common morpheme(s): un-augmented, 3d.prox associatively augmented, 3d.dist associatively augmented

Non-Pronominal number: un-augmented, non-associative plural

Kin, Proper Nouns, Etc. can receive both "Pronoun number" and "Non-pronominal number"


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