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zompist bboard • View topic - Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

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PostPosted: Tue Feb 24, 2015 2:46 am 
Avisaru
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Messing around with gleb I got what I thought was a great phonology. A few of the words are from gleb; most of these are from Awkwords, which went offline apparently due to some error shortly after I got this batch generated and translated from HTML codes.

/m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋˤ ŋˤʷ ɴ ɴˤ/
/p pʼ b ɓ t tʼ d ɗ c k kʼ g kʷ kˤ kˤʼ gˤ kˤʷ q qʼ ɢ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ ɢˤ qˤʷ/
/f v s z/
/r j ɪ̯̥ ɪ̯ ɪ̯ˤ w ʊ̯ˤ ʕ/

/u ɔ a ɛ i/

The semivowels with non-syllabic diacritics would probably do some stuff involving morphology and resyllabification.

Subject and object pronouns
ukʼs ~ ukʼus 1SG
ɔtʼ ~ ɔtʼɔr 2SG
ɔɓz ~ ɔɓɔrz 3SG.M
iɗ ~ iɗir 3SG.F

uks ~ ukur 1DL
ɔt ~ ɔrt 2DL
ɔbz ~ ɔbɔz 3DL.M
id ~ ird 3DL.F

ku ~ kur 1PL
tɔ ~ tɔr 2PL
bɔz ~ bɔrz 3PL.M
di ~ dir 3PL.F

Class I: Animals
-uŋˤʷ DL
-ɔʊ̯ˤ PL

uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼ fish > uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼuŋˤʷ two fish > uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼɔʊ̯ˤ fish
ʊ̯ˤɛkˤ deer > ʊ̯ˤɛkˤuŋˤʷ two deer > ʊ̯ˤɛkˤɔʊ̯ˤ deer
qˤʼukˤʷɛ type of bird > qˤʼukˤʷɛuŋˤʷ > qˤʼukˤʷɛɔʊ̯ˤ
ŋˤʷɛkɪ̯̥a bear-like animal > ŋˤʷɛkiʕuŋˤʷ > ŋˤʷɛkiʕɔʊ̯ˤ

Class II: Bodies and parts thereof
-qʼ DL
-kˤ PL

atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤ half of the body > atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤqʼ body > atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤkˤ bodies
qˤʼukˤʷɛ foot
kʼivkˤinɗ liver
us(n) coat of hair or fur > usnuqʼ > usnukˤ
qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤc eye > qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤcɔqʼ > qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤcɔkˤ
qˤatc trunk, proboscis > qˤatcaqʼ > qˤatcakˤ

Class III: Landforms
-kˤʼ(u) DL
-ʕ/-a PL

ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴkˤʼ two rivers > ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴʕ rivers
ɔɢar steep side of a hill > ɔɢarkˤʼ > ɔɢarʕ
kˤu shoreline, riverbank > kˤukˤʼ > kˤuʕ
kʼɛvqʷɛ island > kʼɛvqʷɛkˤʼ > kʼɛvqʷɛʕ
ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > ɗɛktɔŋˤʷkˤʼ > ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ
ikʼqʷis(n) clearing > ikʼqʷisnukˤʼ two clearings > ikʼqʷisna clearings
zuɓaqʼ lake, channel > zuɓaqʼukˤʼ > zuɓaqˤʼ
gˤɛps boulder > gˤɛpskˤʼu > gˤɛpsa

Class IV: Forces
-n(i) DL
-k(i) PL

Nominalizations of certain verbs fall into this category. "Force" can refer to both a physical force or a process occurring in nature.

qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤun two winds > qˤapʼikˤukˤ winds
ugaŋʷtʼ fire > ugaŋʷtʼni > ugaŋʷtʼki
u sun > un > uk
tupqʷa tide, wave > tupqʷan > tupqʷak
ɛb push > ɛbni > ɛbki
ɛpʼvikˤʼ shock, stun > ɛpʼvikˤʼni > ɛpʼvikˤʼi

Class V: Materials
The dual and plural of this class, if used, refer to kinds/varieties/mixes/flavors. Some words from other classes can be pluralized using these suffixes in which case the semantics change in the expected manner.

-gˤ DL
-ŋˤ PL

ɢˤɔqˤʼa silver > ɢˤɔqˤʼagˤ two kinds/mixes of silver > ɢˤɔqˤʼaŋˤ
gˤɔra type of spice used for food

Class VI: Plants

-ɔɗ DL
-ɔn PL

gˤɔra type of plant from which a kind of spice is obtained > gˤɔrʕɔɗ two of these plants > gˤɔrʕɔn many of these plants
ukˤpʼ type of decorative plant > ukˤpʼɔɗ > ukˤpʼɔn

Class VII: Inanimates, abstracts

-ʊ̯ˤɔ DL
-ɔkˤʷ PL

ɛtkʷ pebble > ɛtkʷʊ̯ˤɔ two pebbles > ɛtkʷɔkˤʷ pebbles

Class VIII: Sentient beings and certain personal items

-r(ɔ) DL
-ʕ/-an PL

kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > kˤɛqʷcɔr two parents, married couple > kˤɛqʷcɔʕ many parents
iɴkʷaɪ̯̥ biological child > iɴkʷaɪ̯̥r > iɴkʷaɪ̯̥ʕ
ɴˤikˤcɔ adopted child > ɴˤikˤcɔr > ɴˤikˤcɔʕ
iɪ̯ɔf old person > iɪ̯ɔfrɔ > iɪ̯ɔfan
dɛ dishonest person > dɛr > dɛʕ
zaqʼ spear > zaqʼrɔ > zaqʼan
uʊ̯ˤ shoe > uʊ̯ˤr > uʊ̯ˤʕ
ɛmkʼˤit(ŋʷ) identity > ɛmkʼˤitŋʷrɔ > ɛmkʼˤitŋʷan
ɴˤɛtʼ comb > ɴˤɛtʼrɔ > ɴˤɛtʼan
si disposition > sir > siʕ

Switch-reference
I'd like to include some sort of switch-reference thing on the verbs. Maybe =r/=u?

Some possible sound-changed words for some descendants?
gleb generated some very interesting allophonic processes that I think would make a great descendant or family thereof (or at least the start of it); however, most of the below isn't from that and instead represent different possible routes I could go.

us coat of hair or fur > os pelt
usnuqʼ > unoʔ
usnukˤ > unoq

ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jɛˤgɛ̃
ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴkˤʼ > jɛˤgɛ̃ʔ
ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴʕ > jɛˤgɛ̃ˤ
+
kˤu shoreline, riverbank > ko
kˤukˤʼ > kuˤʔ
kˤuʕ > kuˤ
Drift of jɛˤgɛ̃ to "queue", kuˤʔ to "river"?

ɢˤɔqˤʼa silver > ɢˤʷɑqˤɑ̰

ukʼs ~ ukʼus 1SG > uʔs ~ ukus / uks ~ ukus
ɔtʼ ~ ɔtʼɔr 2SG > ɔʔ ~ ɔtɔ̀ / ɔs ~ ɔtɔr
ɔɓz ~ ɔɓɔrz 3SG.M > ɔːs ~ ɔːpɔ̀s / ɔbz ~ ɔborz
iɗ ~ iɗir 3SG.F > iːʔ ~ iːtì / iz ~ idir
+
uks ~ ukur 1DL > uks ~ ukù / usː ~ ukur
ɔt ~ ɔrt 2DL > ɔt ~ ɔ̀t / ɔs (> ɔsː by analogy with usː) ~ or
ɔbz ~ ɔbɔz 3DL.M > ɔːps ~ ɔːpɔːs / ɔvz (> ɔvzː by analogy with usː and other forms?) ~ ɔvɔz
id ~ ird 3DL.F > iːt ~ ìːt / iz (> izː by analogy with usː) ~ ir
+
ku ~ kur 1PL > ku ~ kù / ku ~ kur
tɔ ~ tɔr 2PL > tɔ ~ tɔ̀ / tɔ ~ tɔr
bɔz ~ bɔrz 3PL.M > pɔːs ~ pɔ̀s / boz ~ bor
di ~ dir 3PL.F > di ~ dì / di ~ dir

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PostPosted: Thu Feb 26, 2015 2:31 pm 
Avisaru
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Posts: 894
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Phonotactics
Probably should've posted this in the original post but oh well. gleb gave me the following phonotactics (presentation edited):

(C)V(X)(C), where X is one of /m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋˤ ŋʷˤ ɴ ɴˤ p pʼ t tʼ c k kʼ kʷ kˤ kˤʼ kˤʷ q qʼ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ qˤʷ ɓ ɗ f s ʕ r ɪ̯̥ w ʊ̯ˤ/

So I'll probably make it so that there aren't any obstruent-resonant clusters immediately before another consonant or a word boundary.

Syntactic stuff
I'd like to do head-final, but with SVO order and preference to suffixes. Is that beyond the pale for naturalistic languages? Also I want to do what that one language that IIRC was in New Guinea does by making "and" a verb (something I also did in Kgáweq', and since this language is spoken near that one it makes sense for a Sprachbund thing) except doing it with all the conjunctions.

TAM
Probably just going to do a simple past/nonpast distinction for tense. The past is marked either by -kʷa or kʷa-, not sure which. If I go for the former I might get Slavic-style verb-stem alternations in the daughters.

As for aspect, you can tell I've been reading the Wikipedia article on aspect:

-ʊ̯ˤ defective (surfaces as -ʊ̯ˤ near a vowel in the same word and -u otherwise)
-kʷ(ɔ) perfective
-Ø progressive
-ɓ(ɛ) stative
-(ɔ)n habitual
-ir pausative
-a/-ʕ resumptive

ŋˤan "learn" + -ɓ(ɛ) stative = ŋˤanɓ "know (information)"
ŋʷiqʼziqʷ "meet" + -ɓ(ɛ) stative = ŋʷiqʼziqʷɓɛ "know (person)"

As for moods, I'm thinking:

-Ø declarative
-qˤʷ(u) conditional
-(i)s optative
-tʼɛɢ potential
-u imperative
-nɔr interrogative

Hopefully in at least a few branches I can spin off the potential or the optative into a future tense.

The conditional is employed in both the if and then phrases of a conditional statement:


If I were able, I would build a house.

The optative usually ends up as a (di)transitive with the party wanting the action in object position (think dative or recipient).

Negation
Negation is actually a verbal prefix u-.

Nominalization
One nominalizer would probably be -gˤ(ɔ) which would be some sort of abstract thing, maybe a gerund-type or something like -ship. I'm thinking of having a semantic shift of apʼɪ̯̥ɔ-gˤ to "money" or "strength" (> "muscle"?) in some of the descendant languages.

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PostPosted: Thu Feb 26, 2015 11:55 pm 
Avisaru
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Numbers
1. qʼuk
2. ɔpkˤʼɔ
3. ɔt
4. aŋˤwɛpʼ
5. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
6. qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
7. ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
8. ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
9. aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
10. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ

Some possible distinguishing sound changes for descendant families
1. *c → s, ts, (ts → ?) t, ʃ, tʃ, h, x, j
2. *ɓ *ɗ → m n, mˀ nˀ (→ mˤ nˤ?), b d, v z
3. k kʼ kˤ kˤʼ kʷ g gˤ → k kʼ q qʼ k g ɢ, tʃ tʃʼ tʃˤ tʃˤʼ tʃ dʒ dʒˤ, ʃ ʃʼ ʃˤ ʃˤʼ ʃ ʒ ʒˤ, ts tsʼ tsˤ tsˤʼ ts dz dzˤ, s sʼ sˤ sˤʼ s z zˤ, k kʼ q qʼ kʷ g ɢ
4. q qʼ qˤ qˤʼ qʷ ɢ ɢˤ → ʔ ʔ ʔ ʔ ʔ ɦ ɦ, k kʼ kˤ kˤʼ kʷ g gˤ, q qʼ ʔ ʔ qʷ ɢ h
5. ŋʷ kʷ → m p, ŋ k
6. kʷ qʷ → k q, p q, p k, p p
7. CˤVCˤ → CˤVCˤ, CVC, CVˤC
8. aʕ → aʕ, ɑʕ, aː, ɑː, a, ɑ
9. {kʷ,qʷ} → w / #_
10. r z → r z, r r, l z, l r (with v → w)
11. k s → s ʃ / _i
12. ŋʷ → m / #_, → ŋ else

Conjunctions
Conjunctions in this language are verbs (cf. the situation for "and" in Walman). They agree with the main verb of the clause in tense.

uapʼ "and"
ʊ̯ˤɔ "or"
uɴˤɢˤ "but, except"

Consider this case:


You and him built a house.


*You were with him, you built the house.

I'm thinking about changing the language to be SOV and then employing the switch-reference marker if there's conjoined objects.


You met them (those men and those women).

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PostPosted: Wed Mar 25, 2015 12:38 am 
Avisaru
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Color space
The color system in this language is a three-color system consisting of ɔŋʷˤ white/yellow, ɪ̯ɛŋˤ red/orange, and wusqˤ blue/green/black.

People
The culture that speaks this language basically practices .

ɢɔɴˤzuɢˤ mother, maternal aunt
ɔtʼŋˤɔŋ father, paternal uncle
ʕɔɛkˤpʼ paternal aunt
iwʊ̯ˤvɔ maternal uncle
aqˤʼɗɛz sibling, parallel cousin
ɪ̯amra sister, female parallel cousin
rɔaqˤʷ brother, male parallel cousin
ɗiɓqʷ cross-cousin
ɔqʼŋa grandmother
uɗgˤu grandfather
ɛsɛqʷ nuclear/close family
ŋuɢˤɪ̯̥ikʼq extended/distant family
qʼaqʷŋˤʷɔq someone of the same tribe/group
ŋˤʷunɢ friend
quʊ̯ˤɢ guest
saɢˤ foreigner
dɛtʼ marry (spouse)
aqˤ join someone in marriage

A few parts of the body

ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm
kʼup lower arm
aŋˤkˤʼ fingernail, claw
ɔ finger
wɛkˤʼ knuckle
ʕuɪ̯ˤ thumb
qˤɔʕn upper leg
ʕiqˤʼ spine

To refer to a whole arm, one would say ŋʷɔmkˤʷɔqʼ (lit. two upper arms) or, less commonly, kʼupuqʼ (lit. two lower arms). To refer to a pair or arms one would say ŋʷɔmkˤʷɔqʼ kʼupuqʼ uapʼ "two upper arms and two lower arms" and then use the switch-reference marker on the verb, if necessary.

A bunch of miscellaneous vocabulary you can skip if you want to

a heat
ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢ sleep
ʊ̯ˤɛqʼ gag, wheeze
aʕqˤʼ cough, vomit
quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll
ɔŋʷˤ shovel, small shovel
ŋʷɛp celebrate
qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal
qˤu type of small mammal-like animal
jiŋqˤʷ school
kˤipʼ cause something to skip or bounce on a surface
kˤiɢˤ jam, paste
vɔʕ pebble
ŋʷɔqˤʼ tie (knot)
kʼaɢ tie, affix
ɔɗʊ̯ˤ sack, bag
ɔɓ up, above
aɗ down, below
ŋˤʷuɓ run away in fear
ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light
qʼuqˤʷ compel
utqˤ main road in a village
kˤɔqˤʷuŋʷˤ pot
ɢˤiŋʷ type of bird-like animal
ɔqˤʼɔkˤʷ type of bird-like animal
ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house
ŋˤukʷɓɔpʼ strike on the head
qˤʼaɴˤ burlap-like material
uqˤʷɔd type of fruit
ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit
qˤʷukʼ type of fruit
uŋˤɢɔʊ̯ˤtʼ type of fruit
sakʼ type of fruit
ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material
diwkʷ fishing net, spider web
ɛpʼsu eating utensil
iŋʷu sky
uɓc type of fine meal powder
ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder
ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop
gakˤʷpɛkʷ inside
anun from
ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place
qʼiŋʷˤk die
ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal
ukˤʷŋak type of bird-like animal
kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult
kˤʷuŋɓ bone
nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join
akˤʼakˤs split, cut
kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat
iʕ bear, carry
aŋʷinqʼ cloud
ɛɴˤkaŋˤgˤ basic, elementary
aɓ without, lacking
ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼ child's toy
muɪ̯̥ɢˤ mother
qʼɔc eat
ŋˤʷuqʷkˤʼi taste
aɢˤɔt digest
qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture)
gˤu feel (temperature, weather)
ɢˤɛʕ smell
qʷɔd perceive
ɔqʷɔ record
uwi read
ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write
ɔɛŋʷ understand
aɪ̯̥ɢˤ hear
ŋʷai track a source of sound

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PostPosted: Wed Mar 25, 2015 7:53 pm 
Smeric
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I like it. Really digging the roots there, and the three-way color space is a cool idea I don't see very often.
I also like how frequently /ɢ/ appears, as it's not really that common in natlangs, afaik.

This inspired me to go on gleb, and after the first reload I found a nice phonology that I think I'll work with.

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PostPosted: Fri Mar 27, 2015 1:41 am 
Avisaru
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 30, 2015 2:53 am 
Avisaru
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To give

ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf is the verb meaning "to give", but the semantics are a bit strange. Instead of the object being given being the direct object, the recipient is the direct object and the object given is shunted off into its own postpositional phrase.

kˤɛqʷcɔrɢˤ aqʷpʼam ɔbza ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼɔɢˤ kʷɛ kʷaŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔfkʷɔ

the parents gave their child the toy

"To teach" and "to learn"

These verbs (ŋˤʷɔqˤʼtʼuw, aqakʷqɪ̯ˤi) are kind of fuzzy as to which part of the teaching/learning dichotomy they represent. Branches differ in which meaning ultimately wins out.

Some derivational morphology

-qˤʼɛs small bit of mass noun (aŋʷˤmɴˤɛ water > aŋʷˤmɴˤɛqˤʼɛs drop of water; ɪ̯afu snow > ɪ̯afuqˤʼɛs snowflake)

Sample sentences

From Rossman and Mills (1922), Graded Sentences for Analysis.

1. Birds sing.

iŋˤʷuʊ̯ˤqɔʊ̯ˤ qˤiqɔn

birds sing

qˤiqɔ is almost exclusively used of bird-like animals.

2. Children play.

aqʷpʼaman ɴˤitaɓ/ɴˤitan
[g=child-PL.sentient play-STAT / play-HAB]aqʷpʼam-an ɴˤita-ɓ/ɴˤita-n[/g]
children play

ɴˤita is an interesting case. It cannot occur in the defective or progressive and typically it occurs in the stative.

5. Baby laughed.

ɔkˤʼiqˤʷ kʷa-qɛɢaɪ̯̥-kʷ

(a) baby laughed

6. The sun shines.

uɢˤ qɔɴɔn

the sun shines

7. The wind blows.

qˤapʼikˤuɢˤ akʼɛŋˤɔn

the wind blows

akʼɛŋˤ is used for "blow" in the sense of "gust" or "force".

8. The car started.

tʼɔŋʷgˤɛqʷikʷ

woke up

No word for "car" in this protolang because protolang, but this is how they would say "start".

9. School began again.

ŋˤʷɔqˤʼtʼuwgˤ kʷabɛnŋʷɔkˤʼkʷɔ qʼukan ɔkɢˤɴˤiqˤ


Abstract processes don't tʼɔŋʷgˤɛqʷɪ̯ "wake up", they bɛnŋʷɔkˤʼ "commence" instead.

10. The child ran quickly.

aqʷpʼamɢˤ kʷauakʷ tɛdɔŋan

the child ran quickly

As with adjectives and nouns, adverbs follow the verb. I'm considering changing this to make the verb obligatorily dead last but I'm not sure if that's naturalistic given the other rules in the language.

11. Yellow daffodils nodded gaily.

qʼɔtʼɔaɓɔn ɔŋʷˤɔn kʷaɢˤaʊ̯ˤɢˤɓifɓɛ ɛŋatkˤɛɴan

yellow flowers bobbed happily in the wind

12. Little Marigold cried bitterly.

qʼɔtʼɔaɓ ɔŋʷˤ it kʷaavi qɔŋqˤʼsɛtan

little yellow flower cried deeply

Note the use of the stative here.

13. All the people shouted.

ɔɗŋˤʷiʕɢˤ ɔʊ̯ˤuʕ kʷaɢˤɔuckʷɔ

all the people shouted

14. I recited twice.

ukʼs kʷaqˤʼaqˤʼuɓɛ ɔpkˤʼɔʕn

I spoke twice at length

15. The weary traveler slept soundly.

ɢˤɔpʼjɔpʼʊ̯ˤɛɢˤ ɔkˤʷɔɴag kʷaŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢɓɛ

the tired traveler slept for a long time

16. The little brook flows swiftly.

ɪ̯ɔaɴ=ɢˤ it aɢkˤʷic-ɔn tɛdɔŋ-an

the little stream flows quickly

Note the habitual rather than the stative.

17. Softly the great white snowflakes fell.

ɪ̯afuqˤʼɛsɔkˤʷɢˤ ɔŋˤʷɔkˤʷ ɔqʼɔɢɔkˤʷ kʷaɴɔbɛɓ ɔŋˤqɔʕn

the little white snowflakes fell softly

18. The kind old man laughed pleasantly.

iɪ̯ɔfɔɢˤ utʼpɔk kʷaqɛɢaɪ̯̥kʷ ɛkˤʷŋʷɔqʷan

the kind old man laughed pleasantly

19. The happy days passed quickly.

[g=day-PL.force-DEF happy-PL.forceaqtʼut-k=uɢˤ ɛŋatkˤɛɴ-k kʷa-ɪ̯̥akˤʷkˤɔɪ̯ˤ tɛdɔŋ=an[/g]

20. Up jumped the smallest boy.

ɛɔqˤʼɴˤaqʼaɢˤ itri kʷaakˤʼŋˤuqʷkʷɔ ɔɔc

the smallest boy jumped up

22. Slowly the great door opened.

giqˤɔɢɔɢˤ ɔqʼɔɢ kʷaɔqʼcibiqʼ ʕikʼɛʕn

the large door opened slowly

37. I will go now.

There are actually several ways to go about saying this since this language lacks an overt future:

dakʷɔɪ̯̥c ui ukʼus qʷuʊ̯ˤɢˤɔɪ̯

I plan to leave now

The semantics of qʷuʊ̯ˤɢˤɔɪ̯ are a bit odd. Its meaning covers both "want" and "plan to", and what in English would be the subject and object are reversed. ui now follows the infinitive.

ukʼs dakʷɔɪ̯̥ ui

I'm leaving now

The vanilla utterance, though it carries the connotation that you're actually in the process of leaving.

ukʼs dakʷɔɪ̯̥s ui

I want to leave now

This construction uses the optative, which I hope to change into an overt future in some of the descendant langs.

Miscellanea

nɔsŋˤʷatʼ-ɓɛ holding something together

More roots/words

amziqfij fall apart (stative lie in a heap)
kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man
kʷuɔf female, woman
ɔiɓi boyar
ɔkɢˤɴˤikqˤ more, further
itbu more (number)

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PostPosted: Mon Mar 30, 2015 3:12 pm 
Avisaru
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Some more derivational morphology

-gˤ(ɔ) abstract nominalizer – Things like abstract qualities, gerunds, -ness, and -ship.

apʼɪ̯̥ɔ be able > apʼɪ̯̥ɔ-gˤ ability

-kˤʼuʕ motion purpose

qʼɔc eat > qʼɔckˤʼuʕ go to dinner
iqˤiqˤʷ farm > iqˤiqˤʷkˤʼuʕ go to the fields
kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede > kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷkˤʼuʕ rush to defend against
ŋˤʷuɓ run away in fear > ŋˤʷuɓkˤʼuʕ panic

-ni something made from X – This gets used for both nouns and adjectives, the latter more common when it comes to materials.

aŋʷinqʼ cloud > aŋʷinqʼni rain
ɢˤɔqˤʼa silver > ɢˤɔqˤʼani silver coin
uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼ fish > uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼni fish dinner
gˤɔra type of spice used for food > gˤɔrani a type of dish made with gˤɔra

-sɛ malady, illness – This can be applied to the cause, result, object, or metaphor of an illness.

u sun > usɛ heatstroke
si disposition > sisɛ depression
ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʕiqˤʼsɛ hunchback, scoliosis
kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kˤʷuŋɓsɛ broken bone

-q(ɔ) place of

ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ɔqʷgˤrɛmq boulder field
uwi read > uwiq study, library
qʼɔc eat > qʼɔcqɔ dining room
uɓc type of fine meal powder > uɓcqɔ storage container for uɓc

-s(ɔ) become X – Used with abstract qualities like colors. Not used if something else is stated to be causing the change.

ɔŋˤʷ white/yellow > ɔŋˤʷus turn white/yellow
ɪ̯ɛŋˤ red/orange > ɪ̯ɛŋˤus turn red/orange

-ust cause X to be Y – Used with abstract qualities like colors. Not used for unless something else is stated to be causing the change.

ɔŋˤʷ white/yellow > ɔŋˤʷust whiten/yellow
ɪ̯ɛŋˤ red/orange > ɪ̯ɛŋˤust redden/orange

-k(ɛ) cause X to do Y – Creates a verb that takes some sort of postpositional argument.

-atʼ adjectivizer – This is the vanilla noun-to-adjective affix.

ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔ sleep (n.) > ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔatʼ sleepy
qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤatʼ windy

-ŋ(ɛ) lacking in – This typically produces adjectives.

ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔ sleep (n.) > ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔŋ sleepless
qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤuŋ windless

-ɔqʷ abounding in – This typically produces adjectives.

ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔ sleep (n.) > ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔɔqʷ well-rested
qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤɔqʷ blustery

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PostPosted: Tue Mar 31, 2015 12:46 am 
Avisaru
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So let's take a moment and sketch out a quick preliminary descendant to this protolanguage.

Resyllabification of syllables with *ʕ

Probably the defining trait of this family is the development of *ʕ. ʕV and Vʕ sequences became diphthongs with an offglide at the same POA of the vowel (except for *ʕa, *aʕ which > aː).

Change of *r and loss of implosives
*r > l, and *ɓ *ɗ > w r.

Assimilation in dorsal clusters
Clusters of dorsal consonants (including *c) progressively assimilate in phonation and regressively assimilate in place, roundedness, and pharyngealness.

Hiatus resolution
If two vowels in hiatus are the same, the sequences reduces to one. If the sequence is *a + high vowel, a diphthong is formed; if *a + non-high vowel, the result is aː.

Vowel lowering before pharyngealized consonants
*u *i > o e / _Cˤ, and then pharyngealized consonants lose this articulation.

*c lenition
*c > s

Vowel lowering before aː
u o {ɔ,ɛ} e i > o ɔ a ɛ e / _(C)(C)(C)aː

Dorsal shifts
The *k-series and the *q-series shift forward in POA to become a tʃ series (losing its contrastive rounding) and a k series (retaining its contrastive rounding). *ɢ > ɣ except C_#, where > Ø.

Lenition of word-final nasals
Word-final nasals become the appropriate semivowel.

Vocalic offglides
These simply become their consonantal counterparts (except for the voiceless palatal, which becomes ʃ).

Final custers
Final stops in clusters are lost.

Vowel raising
ɔ ɛ > o e

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > kʼutʃ
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > optʃʼo
*ɔt three > ot
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aɲwepʼ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ŋeɲ
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > kʼutʃŋeɲ
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > optʃʼoŋeɲ
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > otŋeɲ
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aɲwepʼŋeɲ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ŋeɲtʃwo
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aːkʼ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ɲabaː
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > tʃesːo
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jatʃʼew
*kˤuʕ shorelines > tʃwa
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > retʃtoj
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > koj
*vɔʕ pebble > vwa
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > apʼʃodʒ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ajkʼ
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > odʒːlew
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kapʼetʃu
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ɲewɔf
*uɢˤ the sun > oɣ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > kʼatʼaːw
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > eʒ
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > okʷod
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ɲakʷɲeŋ
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > awʃ
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > tʃorɣajkʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > omkʷːu
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > tʃeɣetʃ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > tʃwof
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ɲunɣ
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kowɣ
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ɲomtʃ
*kʼup lower arm > tʃʼup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kwar
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > kʷuʒ
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ɲiwkʷetʃ
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > kʼeɲ
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > wameŋu
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > tʃoɲdʒoj
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kʼir
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ojʃakʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nosɲatʼ
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > tʃuŋu

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PostPosted: Tue Mar 31, 2015 3:04 am 
Avisaru
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Shall we do another?

Nasalization
VN > V[+ nasalized] / _{C,#}

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > mˤ nˤ

High vowels near uvular consonants
High vowels become mid-close adjacent to a uvular consonant.

Uvular merger
The uvular series merges with the velar series.

Hiatus resolution
uu ɔɔ aa ɛɛ ii > ow oɔ a eɛ ej
Other combinations produce a semivowel

Vowel pharyngealization
Vowels bordered on both sides by a pharyngeal(ized) consonant become pharyngealized; pharyngealized consonants drop this secondary articulation. *ʕ drops completely.

Ejective loss
Cʼ > C

Semivowel stuff
The non-syllabic vowels become semivowels (except the voiceless palatal becomes /s/). This is more for convenience than sound change proper.

*a-raising
a > ɛ / j_
a > ɔ / w_

Lowering of final high vowels
Final high vowels become mid-close.

Rounded velars
Rounded velar consonants become bilabial.

Intervocalic voicing
Voiceless obstruents become voiced when between vowels (except for [ʔ]).

*c loss
*c > tʃ

Cluster resolution
Clusters of dorsal consonants drop the second consonants (except [w]). Clusters of a dorsal and a non-dorsal drop the dorsal (except [w]).

Glide fortition
wː jː > v dʒ

Lowering of nasal mid vowels
õ ẽ > ɔ̃ ɛ̃ (unless part of a diphthong)

Selected vocabulary

Again, these may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > kok
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > ɔpɔ
*ɔt three > ɔt
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > ãwɛp
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ŋẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > kokẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > ɔpkɔˤŋẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > ɔtẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > ãwɛpẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ŋẽˤɛ̯̃ˤgwo
*aʕqˤʼ cough > ak
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > mɛba
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > kɛptʃɔ
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jɛˤgɛ̃ˤ
*kˤuʕ shorelines > koˤ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > nɛtɔ̃
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > kɔ̃
*vɔʕ pebble > vɔ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > abjɔg
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > eˤk
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ɔprɛ̃
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kabigu
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ŋiˤwɔf
*uɢˤ the sun > og
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > kɔdwɔ̃
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > ezg
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > obɔd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > maˤpɛ̃ˤt
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ɔs
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kɔriˤp
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > ɔ̃pu
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > kɛgɛp
*kʷuɔf female, woman > pwɔf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > mɔ̃g
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kowg
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > mɔ̃p
*kʼup lower arm > kup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kɔˤn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > poj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > miˤmip
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > kɛ̃k
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > ɔmĩm
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kɔ̃ˤguŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kɛ̃g
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ɔdʒap
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nɔsat
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > pũˤm

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PostPosted: Wed Apr 01, 2015 12:36 am 
Avisaru
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Another descendant.

Dorsal resolution
Clusters of two dorsal plosives assimilate to the first one.

Uvular loss
q qʼ ɢ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ ɢˤ qˤʷ > k x ɣ kʷ ʡ ʡ ʢ ʡʷ

Vowel breaking
u i > aw aj after a pharyngeal(ized) sound.
a > ɑ after a pharyngeal(ized) sound.

Vowel deletion
Unstressed short vowels are deleted unless an illegal cluster is created.

Loss of bilabial sounds
f v > h w

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > b d

Decomposition of rounded consonants
Cʷ > Cw

Vowel shift
ɔ ɛ > o e
aw aj > ɔ ɛ

Vowel lengthening process
VCw > VːC
w > Ø

Intervocalic lenition
s z > z r / V_V
p b t d c k g > b v d z j g ɣ

Loss of *c
c > Ø

Umlaut
u o > i e before palatal sounds. The voiceless palatal semivowel is deleted.

Dorsal metathesis
In a cluster of a non-dorsal and a dorsal, the order of the phones reverses to place the dorsal first.

Second vowel shift
u o ɔ ɑ > ɨ u o ɔ

Ejective loss
Cʼ > C

Assimilations
Word-final clusters assimilate in voicing. Nasals assimilate in place to a following stop.

Pharyngeal merger
ʕ > j

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > ʡɨ
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > ukp
*ɔt three > ut
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aːmp
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > eŋk
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > ʡɨgeŋk
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > ukpŋeŋk
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > uteŋk
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aːmpeŋk
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ezets (loan)
*aʕqˤʼ cough > ɔjʡ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ŋevaj
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > keːkʷ
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jɔk
*kˤuʕ shorelines > kɨj
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > dektuːŋ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > kɨːŋ
*vɔʕ pebble > wuj
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > ɛpk
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > jiʡ
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ugʷrem
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kokpɨ
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ŋɛːh
*uɢˤ the sun > ɨʢ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > xutab
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > eʢ
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > ɨːgd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ŋɔːget
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > je
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kurʢɛjk
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > uŋk
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > keɣg
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kɨh
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ŋɔŋɣ
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kɔːɣ
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋuŋk
*kʼup lower arm > xɨp
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kujn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > kij
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ŋɛːkbiːk
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > xiːŋk
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > ɔjmb
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kuːŋgɔŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > xiɣd
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ɛjk
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nuŋst
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kɔmb

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v.10.2


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Last edited by Pogostick Man on Tue Apr 07, 2015 7:44 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Wed Apr 01, 2015 2:38 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
Let's go for another descendant, shall we?

Dorsal harmony
Dorsal consonants in a word harmonize to match the place of the first dorsal consonant in the word.

Simplification of semivowel-vowel clusters
wɛ wi > o u
ju jɔ > i e
wa ja > ɔ ɛ

Rhinoglottophilia
ɴ ɴˤ > h ħ
{hC[- voice],C[- voice]h} > Cʰ

Second vowel shift
u i > oʊ eɪ
o ɔ ɛ e > u o e i

Loss of nasals after semivowels
N > Ø / {w,j}_

Implosive loss
{ɓ,ɗ} > ʔ

Obstruent loss
O > Ø / _#

Voicing of initial obstruents and loss of certain consonants
O > [+ voice] / #_
b d {g,ɢ}(ˤ) > w r Ø / #_

Breathy voice
CʼV > CV[+ breathy]

Fronting of pharyngeal consonants
ħ ʕ > χ ʁ

Nasal assimilation
NS > Nː

Intervocalic voicing
C > C[+ voice] / V_V

Pharyngealization loss
Pharyngealized uvulars become plain uvular; pharyngealized velars become uvular.

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > oʊ
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > opqo̤
*ɔt three > o
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aɴu
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ɦeɴ
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > o̤ʊ̤qχeɴ
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > opqo̤heɴ
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > otʰeɴ
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aɴupʰeɴ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > heɴqʁʷo
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aʕ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ŋeba
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > ego
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > ege̤
*kˤuʕ shorelines > oʊ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > ʔektuŋˤ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > oʊ
*vɔʕ pebble > voʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > abṳ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʁeɪ
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > oɢrem
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > abe̤ɪ̤ɢoʊ
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ɴeɪʁʷo
*uɢˤ the sun > oʊɢ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > odo̤a
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > e
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > oʊɢo
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ɴaqɴe
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʁoj
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > orgeɪʁ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > omqoʊ
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > eɢe
*kʷuɔf female, woman > oʊo
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ɴoʊn
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > oʊw
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋom
*kʼup lower arm > oʊ
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > oʁ
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > oʊi
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ɴeɪʔqi
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > eɪh
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > oʁmih
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > oɴɢoʊɴ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > eɪʔ
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ojɛ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nosɴa
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > oʊɴ

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PostPosted: Fri Apr 03, 2015 1:12 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 8:21 pm
Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
And another one!

*r fortition
r > d / N_

*c loss
c > ʃ

Palatalization
t d > tʃ dʒ / _{i,j, various flavors of ɪ̯}

Pharyngealized semivowels
ɪ̯ˤ ʊ̯ˤ > ʕ ʕʷ

Betacism
b > w

*a-coloring and pharyngeal processes
a > ɔ / _ʕʷ > ɔ
aʕ > aː
ʕ(ʷ) > Ø / _C
{gˤ,ɢˤ} > ʕ

Uvular loss
q qʼ ɢ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ qˤʷ > x h w xʷ χ h χʷ

Umlaut
a aː > ɛ ɛː / _(C)(C)(C){i,j,ɛ,some flavor of palatal semivowel}
ɛː > ɛɪ

Loss of unstressed vowels
V[- long] > Ø / [- stress] (if no unwieldy cluster is created)
V[- long] > ə / [- stress] (if an unwieldy cluster would be created)

Ejective disharmony
C[+ glottal] > C[- glottal] / C[+ glottal]…_

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > b d

Uvularization of pharyngealized velars
Pharyngealized velars become uvulars; *ŋˤ > Ø

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > huk
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > ɔpqʼ
*ɔt three > ɔt
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > awpʼ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ɛq
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > hukɛq
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > ɔpqʼɛq
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > ɔtɛq
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > awpʼɛq
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ɛʃɛtʃ (loan)
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aːh
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ŋɛwaː
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > qɛxʷʃə
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > ʕɛqʼ
*kˤuʕ shorelines > quʕ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > dɛktə
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > xuː
*vɔʕ pebble > vɔʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > ɛpʼʃəɢ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʕih
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ɔxʷɢrəm
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > xɛpʼqu
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > iʕʷɔf
*uɢˤ the sun > uʕ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > hɔtʼab
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > ɛʒʕ
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > oχʷəd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ɛχʷət
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʕɔʃ
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kɔrʕəχʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > ɔmqxə
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > qɛwkʷ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kʷuf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > un(w)
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > xuw
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ɔmqʷ
*kʼup lower arm > kʼup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > χɔn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > xʷuj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ibxʷəqʷ
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > xik
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > ɔmb
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > qɔɢə
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > xinʕ
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ojʃəxʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nɔsətʼ
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > qʷuŋb

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PostPosted: Tue Apr 14, 2015 12:22 am 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 8:21 pm
Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
Let's do another.

Initial fortition of *r

r > dʒ / #_

Palatalization

The *k-series becomes an s-series before front vowels.

Loss of *c

c > s / _i

Vowel shift

ɔ u > u i / open syllables

Mid-open lowering

{ɔ,ɛ} > a

Pharyngealization processes

Pharyngealization spreads regressively in clusters.
Ejective consonants become pharyngeal.
Vowels before a pharyngeal(ized) consonant become pharyngealized.
Consonant pharyngealization is lost, but *ʕ remains.

Long vowels

VV > Vː

Loss of *ɴ *ɴˤ

*ɴ *ɴˤ are lost with compensatory lengthening of a preceding short vowel

Loss of *r

r > Ø

Uvular fronting

The uvular series becomes a velar series.

Minor stuff

The first element of a mixed-voice cluster of dorsal obstruents drops out.

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > kuk
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > aˤpka
*ɔt three > at
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aˤŋwaˤp
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > aˤːŋk
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > kukaˤːŋk
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > aˤpkaˤːaˤːŋk
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > aˤtaˤːŋk
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aˤŋwaˤpaˤːŋk
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > aˤːŋkwu
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aˤʕk
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > nʷabaˤʕ
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > kakʷʃu
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jaˤkaː
*kˤuʕ shorelines > kuˤʕ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > ɗaktaŋʷ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > kuˤŋʷ
*vɔʕ pebble > vaˤʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > aˤpjaˤg
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʕik
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > aˤkʷam
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kaˤpiˤki
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > niˤwaf
*uɢˤ the sun > uˤg
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > kuˤtuːɓ
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > aˤjg
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > iˤkʷad
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ŋʷaˤqʷŋaˤːt
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʕaj
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kaˤgiˤʕkʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > aˤmqʷu
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > sagakʷ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kʷiːf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ŋʷing
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kuˤwg
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋʷamkʷ
*kʼup lower arm > kup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kaˤʕn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > kʷuj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > nʷiɓkʷiˤkʷ
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > kiˤŋk
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > aˤʕmiˤːɓ
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kaˤŋʷguˤŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kiˤɗg
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ajakʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > naˤsŋʷaˤt
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kʷuŋɓ

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PostPosted: Tue Apr 14, 2015 7:10 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 8:21 pm
Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
Vowel breaking
ɔ ɛ > wa ja / #_(C)i

Loss of unstressed high vowels
u i > x ʃ / [- stress] (voiced if between two voiced sounds)
{ɔ,ɛ} > ə / [- stress]

Merger of mid-open vowels to high
ɔ ɛ > u i

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > b d

Umlaut
a > e / _(C)(C)(C){palatal}

Palatalization
Consonants palatalize before a front vowel.

Vowel merger
{a,e} > a
{u,i} > ə

Consonant harmony
Non-semivowels are palatalized or not palatalized depending upon the first obstruent in the word.

Palatalization reduction
*pʲ-series > pʃ-series (fʲ vʲ > x ɣ)
*tʲ-series > tʃ-series (sʲ zʲ > ʃ ʒ)
*kʲ-series > s-series
*qʲ-series > k-series

*ʕ syllabifies
*ʕ > a / O_O

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > qʼək
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > apkˤʼə
*ɔt three > at
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > anˤwəpʼ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ŋˤaəŋˤkˤ
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > qʼəkŋˤəaŋˤkˤ
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > apkˤʼəŋˤaəŋˤkˤ
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > atŋˤəaŋˤkˤ
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aˤŋwəˤpʼŋˤaəŋˤkˤ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ŋˤaəŋˤkˤwˤa
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aʕqˤʼ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > nʷabaʕ
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > saqʷca
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jˤasˤʼaɴ
*kˤuʕ shorelines > kˤəʕ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > dʒaktaŋˤʷ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > qəŋˤʷ
*vɔʕ pebble > vaʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > apʼʃjagˤ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ɣək
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > aqʷgˤʒam
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > qˤapʼʃkˤə
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > nˤəwˤaf
*uɢˤ the sun > əɢˤ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > qʼatʼəab
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > aˤjɢˤ
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > əqˤʷəd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤaɴˤt
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ɣaj
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > karɢˤʒaqˤʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > amkˤqʷə
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > sˤagakʷ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kʷəaf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ŋˤʷənɢ
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > qəwˤɢ
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋʷamkˤʷ
*kʼup lower arm > kʼəp
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > qˤaʕn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > qʷəj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > nʷibqʷʒkˤʷ
*qʼiŋˤʷk die > kʼəˤŋˤʷk
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > aʕmʃɴˤb
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kˤaŋʷˤgɣˤŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kʼədɢˤ
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ajaqʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nasŋˤʷatʼ
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kʷəŋb

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