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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Feb 10, 2016 2:34 am 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 8:21 pm
Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
Old North Caber to North Caber

ɔ ɛ → u i / _K
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / V_V
V[- stress] → Ø
Ø → ə / #_RO
Voicing assimilation
ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ → s z ts dz
VN → V[+ nasalized] / _#
x → ʃ
ɾ → d
ɨ → ə

Dzos do se ša gba u bvic i tsod.
[dzɔs dɔ sɛ ʃa gba u bvik i tsɔd]
Gba gat ic dzo not se bǝf se do dzos tą.
[gba gat ik dzɔ nɔt sɛ bəf sɛ dɔ dzɔs tã]
Į. Į. Į. Į. Į. Į. Į.
[ĩ ĩ ĩ ĩ ĩ ĩ ĩ]

Old Northeast Caber to Northeast Caber

j → Ø / E_C
wa ja → ɔ ɛ
v z ʑ ɣ → w ɾ j ɦ
S → F / #_
{θ,ð} → Ø
u → ɨ / ! ɔ_
ɔ{w,u} → u
ʎ → ɕ / _E
ʎ → j
ɔ ə ɛ → u ɨ i / _#
ɨ → əɪ

Zyzu u śi hol hywal lu vywec śi suzol.
[zəɪzu u ɕi xɔl xəɪwal lu vəɪwɛk ɕi suzɔl]
Hywal et ec yzu not śi vyf śi u zuzu yma.
[xəɪwal ɛt ɛk əɪzu nɔt ɕi vəɪf ɕi u zuzu əɪma]
Lin. Lin. Lin. Lin. Lin. Lin. Lin.
[lin lin lin lin lin lin lin]

Old Southeast Caber to Southeast Caber

v z ɣ → Ø ɾ w
ɔ ɛ → o e
x → h
h → Ø / _{C,#}
u → ɨ
{ɨ,i} → j / _V
{ɨ,i} → j / V_
əj → ɨ
kj gj → c ɟ
{aw,wa} {aj,ja} → ɔ ɛ
l → n
j → Ø / C_E

Dơro do śe hal cèn nu beś nư tơrưn.
[dəɾo do ɕe hal kɛn nu beɕ nɨ təɾɨn]
Cèn gat eś ưdo nơt śe bưf śe do dơro tǫ̀.
[kɛn gat eɕ ɨdo nət ɕe bɨf ɕe do dəɾo tɔ̃]
Nįr. Nįr. Nįr. Nįr. Nįr. Nįr. Nįr.
[nĩɾ nĩɾ nĩɾ nĩɾ nĩɾ nĩɾ nĩɾ]

Old South Caber to South Caber

f → h
V[- stressed] → semivowel / _V
V[- stressed] → semivowel / V_
ʑ → j / #_
{ju,uj} → y
{wɔ,ɔw} {jɔ,ɔj} → u ø
{wa,aw} {ja,aj} → o e
{jɛ,ɛj} {wɛ,ɛw} → e ø
{wi,wɨ,ɨw,iw} → y
ɨ → i
a → ɔ / _#
ɛ e → a i / _K
VN → V[+ nasalized] / _{C,#}
S R → S[+ prenasalized] N / _V[+ nasalized]
V[+ nasalized] → V[- nasalized]
ə → a
o e → u i / unstressed
h → s / E_E
h → Ø

Droz do é ǥro góre ru bisic ray drosod.
[dɾɔz dɔ e ɣɾɔ ˈgoɾɛ ɾu biˈsik ɾaj dɾɔˈsɔd]
Góre gat ik idz not é bi é do droz dab.
[ˈgoɾɛ gat ik idz nɔt e bi e dɔ dɾɔz dab]
Ri. Ri. Ri. Ri. Ri. Ri. Ri.
[ɾi ɾi ɾi ɾi ɾi ɾi ɾi]

Mute Caber to Mute Caber A

VS → Vˀ / _U
VN → V[+ one tone lower] / _U
V → ə / unstressed (sesquisyllabic)
F → [+ voiced] / V_V
S → [+ fricative] / V_V
ə → Ø
a → ɔ / K_
ɨ → ə / N_
ɨ → i

Do⁵ do² ñe² ngo¹ co³ vẻ¹ nǝ⁴ tỏ⁵.
[dɔ˧˥ dɔ˨ ɲɛ˨ ŋɔ˩ kɔ˧ vɛˀ˩ nə˦ tɔˀ˧˥]
Ko³ gỏ² ẻ² đo² nỏ² ñe² uf² ñe² do² do⁵ tma².
[kɔ˧ gɔˀ˨ ɛˀ˨ ðɔ˨ nɔˀ˨ ɲɛ˨ uf˨ ɲɛ˨ dɔ˨ dɔ˧˥ tma˨]
Ni¹. Ni¹. Ni¹. Ni¹. Ni¹. Ni¹. Ni¹.
[ni˩ ni˩ ni˩ ni˩ ni˩ ni˩ ni˩]

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Feb 10, 2016 2:36 am 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 8:21 pm
Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
More on Mute Caber A

Base sound changes:

VS → Vˀ / _U
VN → V[+ one tone lower] / _U
V → ə / unstressed (sesquisyllabic)
F → [+ voiced] / V_V
S → [+ fricative] / V_V
ə → Ø / sesquisyllabic
Place assimilation of nasals
Regressive voicing assimilation
w → f / _C[- voice]
w → v / _C[+ voice]
a → ɔ / K_
ɨ → ə / N_
ɨ → i
s z → ts dz / N_
F → S[+ voice] / N_

So what we eventually end up with is a series of prenasalized stops as well.

cabe "person" > ká > ko⁴
caber "people (collective)" > kán > ko³
rubes "ball, sphere, circle" > núh > nuh⁴
fe "of" > mɛ̀ > me²
bưf "and" > wɨ̀f > wif²
bưcuś "but, except" > wɨ̀kɨ̀s > fḵis²
ec "NEGATIVE" > ɛ̀k > ẻ²
śemuc "or" > ɲɛ̀mùk > ñmủ²
mưgưi "zero" > mɨ̀gɨ́ > ngi⁴
bưćơ "one" > wɨ̀tə̀ > fŧǝ²
bơći "two" > wə̀tì > fŧi²
ǵeśac "three" > dɛ̀sàk > dzả²
račboć "four" > nàtwɔ̀t > ndwỏ²
ơ "five" > ə̀ > ə²
śeư "six" > ɲɛ́ > ñe³
seśo "hand" > nɛ̀sɔ̀ > ndzo²
bosa "water" > wɔ̌ > wo⁵
ćơ "fire" > tə̀ > tə²
čư "tree" > tɨ̀ > ti²
ru "give" > nù > nu²
ruơa "pole" > núà > na²
ča "wind" > tà > ta²
eseć "hear" > ɛ̌t > ẻ⁵
bưbư "see" > wɨ̀wɨ̀ > wi²
ota "take" > ɔ̀tà > ŧa²
dơ "kick" > də̀ > də²
čengac "smell" > tɛ̂gàk > dǥả²
ơgoc "leg" > ə̀gɔ̀k > ǥỏ²
nici "spine" > nìkì > ngi²
nuơc "road" > núk > nủ⁴
rưsaco "break, split" > nɨ̌kɔ̀ > ngo²
ćưiu "fall" > tɨ́ù > tu²
ćưa "QUESTION" > tɨ́ > ti⁴
hưr "speak, say" > ŋɨ̀n > ǹǝ¹
besrơ "mountain" > wɛ̂hə̀ > fǝ²
ba "DEFINITE" > wà > wo²
cać "think" > kàt > cả²
nơ "boat" > nə̀ > nə²
caơ "bean" > ká > ka⁴
śuśo "drop" > ɲùsɔ̀ > ndzo²
ǧatfum "walk" > tàtfùm > tfu¹
ǧubśư "place, area" > tùwsɨ̀ > dvzi²
cưgrưni "knot" > kɨ̀ghɨ̀nì > kig2ni²
huśơ "vine" > xùsə̀ > ǥzǝ²
mačư "throw, toss" > màtɨ̀ > ndi²
ćưcơ "ramp, inclined plane" > tɨ̀kə̀ > tḵǝ²
ưbacư "screw" > ɨ̀wàkɨ̀ > if²ḵi²
reśu "twist; weave" > nɛ̀sù > ndzu²
mesơ "bed, mattress" > mě > me⁵

Mute Caber to Mute Caber B

h → Ø
V → Ø / _V
k g ŋ → t d n / V_{C,#}
CV → VC / #_
ɛ i → ɛə iə / K_
f → p / _#
wɨ ɨ → u i
wə ə → ɔ ɛ
V → ə / unstressed (sesquisyllabic)
m → w
N → Ø / _N
˧˥ → ˥
ŋ → n / #_
wa → ɔ
w → Ø / C_C

cabe "person" > ká > ká
caber "people (collective)" > kán > kán
rubes "ball, sphere, circle" > núh > nú
fe "of" > mɛ̀ > mè
bưf "and" > wɨ̀f > ùp
bưcuś "but, except" > wɨ̀kɨ̀s > əwkìs
ec "NEGATIVE" > ɛ̀k > èt
śemuc "or" > ɲɛ̀mùk > əwùt
mưgưi "zero" > mɨ̀gɨ́ > əngí
bưćơ "one" > wɨ̀tə̀ > ətè
bơći "two" > wə̀tì > ətì
ǵeśac "three" > dɛ̀sàk > ətsàt
račboć "four" > nàtwɔ̀t > əntwòt
ơ "five" > ə̀ > è
śeư "six" > ɲɛ́ > ñé
seśo "hand" > nɛ̀sɔ̀ > ənsò
bosa "water" > wɔ̌ > wő
ćơ "fire" > tə̀ > tè
čư "tree" > tɨ̀ > tì
ru "give" > nù > nù
ruơa "pole" > núà > nú
ča "wind" > tà > tà
eseć "hear" > ɛ̌t > e̋t
bưbư "see" > wɨ̀wɨ̀ > əù
ota "take" > ɔ̀tà > ətà
dơ "kick" > də̀ > dè
čengac "smell" > tɛ̂gàk > ədgàt
ơgoc "leg" > ə̀gɔ̀k > əgòt
nici "spine" > nìkì > ənkìə
nuơc "road" > núk > nút
rưsaco "break, split" > nɨ̌kɔ̀ > ənkò
ćưiu "fall" > tɨ́ù > tí
ćưa "QUESTION" > tɨ́ > tí
hưr "speak, say" > ŋɨ̀n > nìn
besrơ "mountain" > wɛ̂hə̀ > wê
ba "DEFINITE" > wà > ò
cać "think" > kàt > kàt
nơ "boat" > nə̀ > nè
caơ "bean" > ká > ká
śuśo "drop" > ɲùsɔ̀ > ənsò
ǧatfum "walk" > tàtfùm > ətfù
ǧubśư "place, area" > tùwsɨ̀ > ətsì
cưgrưni "knot" > kɨ̀ghɨ̀nì > kìgənì
huśơ "vine" > xùsə̀ > əxsè
mačư "throw, toss" > màtɨ̀ > əntì
ćưcơ "ramp, inclined plane" > tɨ̀kə̀ > ətkè
ưbacư "screw" > ɨ̀wàkɨ̀ > ìwəkì
reśu "twist; weave" > nɛ̀sù > ənsù
mesơ "bed, mattress" > mě > we̋

Mute Caber to Mute Caber C

d g → l j
k → tʃ / _E
ɨ u ɔ a → u ɔ a ɛ
V(h)V → V[+ one tone higher]
Vh → V[+ one tone higher]
h → Ø
t n → k ŋ / V_{C,#}
f → Ø
s → l / V_V
x → k
w → Ø / {#,C}_V

cabe "person" > ká > ke²
caber "people (collective)" > kán > keŋ²
rubes "ball, sphere, circle" > núh > no³
fe "of" > mɛ̀ > me¹
bưf "and" > wɨ̀f > u¹
bưcuś "but, except" > wɨ̀kɨ̀s > u¹kus¹
ec "NEGATIVE" > ɛ̀k > ek¹
śemuc "or" > ɲɛ̀mùk > ñe¹mok¹
mưgưi "zero" > mɨ̀gɨ́ > mu¹ju²
bưćơ "one" > wɨ̀tə̀ > u¹tə¹
bơći "two" > wə̀tì > ə¹ti¹
ǵeśac "three" > dɛ̀sàk > le¹lek¹
račboć "four" > nàtwɔ̀t > nek¹wak¹
ơ "five" > ə̀ > ə¹
śeư "six" > ɲɛ́ > ñe²
seśo "hand" > nɛ̀sɔ̀ > ne¹la¹
bosa "water" > wɔ̌ > wa⁴
ćơ "fire" > tə̀ > tə¹
čư "tree" > tɨ̀ > tu¹
ru "give" > nù > no¹
ruơa "pole" > núà > no³
ča "wind" > tà > te¹
eseć "hear" > ɛ̌t > ek⁴
bưbư "see" > wɨ̀wɨ̀ > u¹
ota "take" > ɔ̀tà > a¹te¹
dơ "kick" > də̀ > də¹
čengac "smell" > tɛ̂gàk > te⁶jek¹
ơgoc "leg" > ə̀gɔ̀k > ə¹jak¹
nici "spine" > nìkì > ni¹tʃi¹
nuơc "road" > núk > nok²
rưsaco "break, split" > nɨ̌kɔ̀ > nu⁴ka¹
ćưiu "fall" > tɨ́ù > ti³
ćưa "QUESTION" > tɨ́ > ti²
hưr "speak, say" > ŋɨ̀n > ŋuŋ¹
besrơ "mountain" > wɛ̂hə̀ > we⁷
ba "DEFINITE" > wà > we¹
cać "think" > kàt > kek¹
nơ "boat" > nə̀ > nə¹
caơ "bean" > ká > ke²
śuśo "drop" > ɲùsɔ̀ > ño¹la¹
ǧatfum "walk" > tàtfùm > ta¹kom¹
ǧubśư "place, area" > tùwsɨ̀ > tow¹su¹
cưgrưni "knot" > kɨ̀ghɨ̀nì > ku¹ju¹ni¹
huśơ "vine" > xùsə̀ > ko¹lə¹
mačư "throw, toss" > màtɨ̀ > me¹tu¹
ćưcơ "ramp, inclined plane" > tɨ̀kə̀ > tu¹kə¹
ưbacư "screw" > ɨ̀wàkɨ̀ > u¹we¹ku¹
reśu "twist; weave" > nɛ̀sù > ne¹lo¹
mesơ "bed, mattress" > mě > me⁴

Also, opipik did something very nice for me—he made another daughter of Mute Caber, the pertinent information on which you can see here.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Feb 10, 2016 2:42 am 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 8:21 pm
Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
Image

Top row: behsu "happy", nam "eat", ǧiś "noise, sound", tac "chisel, carve"
Second row: śuśur "grass", an "drive (animals, e.g. cattle)", ap "stab", basar "carve, whittle"
Third row: ćo "flower", bes "pick, choose", oc "choke (transitive)", ơ "sit (somewhere)"
Bottom row: caơ "sky", tastanơ "pick (fruit)", hac "choke (intransitive)", sar "sad"

Easter egg—nam "eat" (should be obvious)

Again, no sound-change applier. I got the sound changes to Mute Caber D wrong; opipik posted corrections here but I haven't gone back and fixed them yet. Guide to abbreviations:

ONC = Old North Caber
NC = North Caber
ONEC = Old Northeast Caber
NEC = Northeast Caber
OSEC = Old Southeast Caber
SEC = Southeast Caber
OCC = Old Central Caber
CC = Central Caber
OSC = Old South Caber
SC = South Caber
MC = Mute Caber
MCA = Mute Caber A
MCB = Mute Caber B
MCC = Mute Caber C
MCD = Mute Caber D (opipik's language)

behsu [bɛxˈsu] "happy"
> ONC [bɛxˈsu] > NC [pʃu]
> ONEC [bɛxˈsu] > NEC [vɛxˈsəɪ]
> OSEC [bɛxˈsu] > SEC [beˈsɨ]
> OCC [ɛxˈsu] > CC [ɛxˈsu]
> OSC [ˈbɛxsu] > SC [ˈbaxsu]
> MC [ɔ˧˥] > MCA [ɔ˧˥], MCB [ɔ˥], MCC [a˧˥], MCD [ɔ˩˥]

nam "eat"
> ONC [nam] > NC [nã]
> ONEC [nam] > NEC [nam]
> OSEC [nãw] > SEC [nɔ̃]
> OCC [nam] > CC [nam]
> OSC [nab] > SC [nab]
> MC [nam˨] > MCA [na˩], MCB [naw˨], MCC [nɛm˨], MCD [tã˩]

ǧiś "noise, sound"
> ONC [dʑiɕ] > NC [dzis]
> ONEC [ʑiɕ] > NEC [jiɕ]
> OSEC [diɕ] > SEC [diɕ]
> OCC [zix] > CC [zix]
> OSC [dɾiɕ] > SC [dɾiɕ]
> MC [dis˨] > MCA [dis˨], MCB [dis˨], MCC [lis˨], MCD [ĩs˩]

tac "chisel, carve"
> ONC [tak] > NC [tak]
> ONEC [tak] > NEC [ak]
> OSEC [tak] > SEC [tak]
> OCC [tak] > CC [tak]
> OSC [dɔk] > SC [dɔk]
> MC [tak˨] > MCA [taˀ˨], MCB [tat˨], MCC [tɛk˨], MCD [θax˩]

śuśur "grass"
> ONC [ɕuɕ] > NC [sus]
> ONEC [ɕuˈʑul] > NEC [ɕəɪˈjəɪl]
> OSEC [ɕɨˈʑɨl] > SEC [ɕɨˈʑɨn]
> OCC [xuˈxuɾ] > CC [uˈxu]
> OSC [ˈʑuɕɾu] > SC [ˈjuɕɾu]
> MC [ɲu˨ˈsu˧˥] > MCA [ndzu˧˥], MCB [əˈnsu˥], MCC [ɲɔ˨ˈsɔ˧˥], MCD [cu˩ˈsu˩˥]

an "drive (animals, e.g. cattle)"
> ONC [an] > NC [ã]
> ONEC [an] > NEC [an]
> OSEC [ãɾ] > SEC [ãɾ]
> OCC [an] > CC [aŋ]
> OSC [na] > SC [nɔ]
> MC [an˨] > MCA [a˩], MCB [an˨], MCC [ɛŋ˨], MCD [ã˩]

ap "stab"
> ONC [ap] > NC [ap]
> ONEC [ap] > NEC [ap]
> OSEC [ap] > SEC [ap]
> OCC [af] > CC [a]
> OSC [ap] > SC [ap]
> MC [ap˨] > MCA [aˀ˨], MCB [ap˨], MCC [ɛp˨], MCD [af˩]

basar "carve, whittle"
> ONC [bas] > NC [bas]
> ONEC [baˈzɔl] > NEC [vaˈɾɔl]
> OSEC [baˈzal] > SEC [baˈɾan]
> OCC [aˈzal] > CC [aˈzal]
> OSC [ˈbasɾa] > SC [ˈbasɾɔ]
> MC [wah˧˥] > MCA [wɔ˧˥], MCB [ɔ˥], MCC [ɛ˦˥], MCD [wa˩˧]

ćo "flower"
> ONC [tɕɔ] > NC [tsɔ]
> ONEC [ɕɔ] > NEC [ɕɔ]
> OSEC [tɔ] > SEC [to]
> OCC [xɔ] > CC [ɔ]
> OSC [dɾɔ] > SC [dɾɔ]
> MC [tɔ˨] > MCA [tɔ˨], MCB [tɔ˨], MCC [ta˨], MCD [θɔ˩]

bes "pick, choose"
> ONC [bɛs] > NC [bɛs]
> ONEC [bɛs] > NEC [vɛs]
> OSEC [bɛs] > SEC [bes]
> OCC [ɛs] > CC [ɛs] ([ɛ] before /l ɾ/)
> OSC [bɛs] > SC [bɛs]
> WE [ɔ˧˥] > MCA [ɔ˧˥], MCB [ɔ˥], MCC [a˧˥], MCD [ɔ˩˥]

oc "choke (transitive)"
> ONC [ɔk] > NC [uk]
> ONEC [ɔk] > NEC [ɔk]
> OSEC [ɔk] > SEC [ok]
> OCC [ɔk] > CC [ɔk]
> OSC [ɔk] > SC [ɔk]
> MC [ɔk˨] > MCA [ɔˀ˨], MCB [ɔt˨], MCC [ak˨], MCD [ɔx˩]

ơ "sit (somewhere)"
> ONC [ə] > NC [ə]
> ONEC [ə] > NEC [əɪ]
> OSEC [ə] > SEC [ə]
> OCC [ɛ] > CC [ɛ]
> OSC [ə] > SC [a]
> MC [ə˨] > MCA [ə˨], MCB [ɛ˨], MCC [ə˨], MCD [ə˩]

caơ "sky"
> ONC [kaˈə] > NC [kə]
> ONEC [kaˈə] > NEC [xaˈəɪ]
> OSEC [ka] > SEC [ka]
> OCC [kaˈɛ] > CC [kaj]
> OSC [kaˈə] > SC [gaˈa]
> MC [ka˦] > MCA [kɔ˦], MCB [ka˦], MCC [kɛ˦], MCD [xa˥]

tastanơ "pick (fruit)"
> ONC [tastãˈɔ̃] > NC [tasˈtɔ̃]
> ONEC [tastaˈnə] > NEC [astaˈnəɪ]
> OSEC [tasˈtãɾ] > SEC [tasˈtãɾ]
> OCC [tastaˈnɛ] > CC [tastaˈnɛ]
> OSC [dasˈtan] > [dasˈna]
> MC [ta˧˩ta˨nɔ˨] > MCA [taz˦˧ˈnɔ˨], MCB [tat˦˨əˈnɔ˨], MCC [tɛ˧˩tɛ˨ˈna˨], MCD [θɛ˥˩θɛ̃˩ˈʔɔ˩]

hac "choke (intransitive)"
> ONC [xak] > NC [ʃak]
> ONEC [xak] > NEC [xak]
> OSEC [xak] > SEC [hak]
> OCC [xak] > CC [ak]
> OSC [ɣɔk] > SC [ɣɔk]
> MC [ŋak˨] > MCA [ŋaˀ˨], MCB [nat˨], MCC [ŋɛk˨], MCD [ãx˩]

sar "sad"
> ONC [sa] > NC [sa]
> ONEC [sɔl] > NEC [sɔl]
> OSEC [sal] > SEC [san]
> OCC [saɾ] > CC [sa]
> OSC [zɾa] > SC [zɾɔ]
> MC [na˧˥] > MCA [na˧˥], MCB [na˥], MCC [nɛ˧˥], MCD [ã˩˥]

----------------

Image
Top row: rasa "wide", ơngơ "tall, long", baw "vomit", ići "chew"
Second row: bim "here, hither", amwoz "there, thither", sưr "there, yon(der)", pue "spit"
Third row: ǧac "up", "down", cưp "left", aćir "right"
Bottom row: dơr "tail", ưz "blood", darơ "to, toward", ascoro "(away) from"

Again, no sound-change applier used, so these are subject to revision:

rasa [ɾaˈsa] "wide"
> ONC [as] > NC [as]
> ONEC [lɨˈza] > NEC [ləɪˈɾa]
> OSEC [laˈza] > SEC [naˈɾa]
> OCC [ɾaˈsa] > CC [ɾaˈsa]
> OSC [ɾaz] > SC [ɾaz]
> MC [na˦] > MCA [na˦], MCB [na˦], MCC [nɛ˦], MCD [na˥]

ơngơ [ənˈgə] "tall, long"
> ONC [ə̃g] > NC [ə̃g]
> ONEC [ənˈjə] > NEC [ənˈji]
> OSEC [ə̃ɾˈgə] > SEC [ə̃ɾˈgə]
> OCC [ɛŋˈgɛ] > CC [ɛŋˈgɛ]
> OSC [əŋˈgə] > SC [aˈgɔ]
> MC [ə˧˩gə˨] > MCA [ɣə˨], MCB [əˈgɛ˨], MCC [ə˧˩ˈjə˨], MCD [ə˥˩ˈŋə˩]

baw [baw] "vomit"
> ONC [baw] > NC [baw]
> ONEC [bɔw] > NEC [vu]
> OSEC [baw] > SEC [bɔ]
> OCC [aw] > CC [aw]
> OSC [bwɔ] > SC [bu]
> MC [waw˨] > MCA [wɔw˨], MCB [ɔw˨], MCC [aw˨], MCD [waw˩]

ići [iˈtɕi] "chew"
> ONC [itɕ] > NC [its]
> ONEC [iˈɕi] > NEC [iˈɕi]
> OSEC [iˈdʑi] > SEC [iˈdʑi]
> OCC [ɛˈxi] > CC [ɛˈji]
> OSC [ˈitɾi] > SC [ˈitɾi]
> MC [i˨ti˨] > MCA [θi˨], MCB [əˈti˨], MCC [i˨ti˨], MCD [i˩θi˩]

bim [bim] "here, hither"
> ONC [bim] > NC [bĩ]
> ONEC [bim] > NEC [vim]
> OSEC [bĩw] > SEC [bĩw]
> OCC [im] > CC [im]
> OSC [bib] > SC [bib]
> MC [um˨] > MCA [u˩], MCB [u˨], MCC [ɔm˨], MCD [ũ˩]

amwoz [amˈwɔz] "there, thither"
> ONC [ə̃ˈwɔz] > NC [wɔz]
> ONEC [amˈwɔz] > NEC [amˈwɔɾ]
> OSEC [ãwˈwəz] > SEC [ɔ̃ˈwəɾ]
> OCC [amˈwɔz] > CC [amˈwɔz] ([amˈwɔ] before /ɾ l/)
> OSC [abˈwɔz] > SC [aˈbuz]
> MC [a˧˩ˈwɔ˧˥] > MCA [wɔ˧˥], MCB [əˈwɔ˥], MCC [ɛ˧˩ˈwa˧˥], MCD [a˥˩ˈwɔ˩˥]

sưr [sɨɾ] "there, yon(der)"
> ONC [si] > NC [si]
> ONEC [sɨl] > NEC [səɪl]
> OSEC [sɨl] > SEC [sɨl]
> OCC [siɾ] > CC [si]
> OSC [zɾɨ] > SC [zɾi]
> MC [nɨn˨] > MCA [nə˩], MCB [nin˨], MCC [nuŋ˨], MCD [tũ˩]

pue [puˈɛ] "spit"
> ONC [puˈɛ] > NC [pɛ]
> ONEC [pwɛ] > NEC [fwi]
> OSEC [pu] > SEC [pɨ]
> OCC [fɛ] > CC [fɛ]
> OSC [buˈɛ] > SC [bø]
> MC [pu˦] > MCA [pu˦], MCB [pu˦], MCC [pɔ˦], MCD [fu˥]

ǧac [dzak] "up"
> ONC [dzak] > NC [dzak]
> ONEC [zak] > NEC [ɾak]
> OSEC [dak] > SEC [dak]
> OCC [zak] > CC [zak]
> OSC [dɾɔk] > SC [dɾɔk]
> MC [dak˨] > MCA [daˀ˨], MCB [dat˨], MCC [lɛk˨], MCD [na˧˩]

[iˈə] "down"
> ONC [iˈə] > NC [ə]
> ONEC [jə] > NEC [jə]
> OSEC [iˈə] > SEC [jə]
> OCC [iˈɛ] > CC [jɛ]
> OSC [iˈə] > SC [jə]
> MC [i˦] > MCA [i˦], MCB [i˦], MCC [i˦], MCD [i˥]

cưp [kɨp] "left"
> ONC [kip] > NC [kip]
> ONEC [kɨp] > NEC [xəɪp]
> OSEC [kɨp] > SEC [kɨp]
> OCC [kih] > CC [ki]
> OSC [gɨp] > SC [gip]
> MC [kɨp˨] > MCA [kiˀ˨], MCB [kip˨], MCC [kup˨], MCD [xi˧˥]

aćir [aˈtɕiɾ] "right"
> ONC [aˈtɕi] > NC [tsi]
> ONEC [aˈɕil] > NEC [aˈɕil]
> OSEC [aˈdʑil] > SEC [aˈdʑil]
> OCC [aˈxiɾ] > CC [aˈxi]
> OSC [ˈatɾi] > SC [ˈatɾi]
> MC [a˨ˈtin˨] > MCA [θi˩], MCB [əˈtin˨], MCC [ɛ˨ˈtiŋ˨], MCD [a˩ˈθĩ˩]

dơr [dɨɾ] "tail"
> ONC [də] > NC [də]
> ONEC [dɨl] > NEC [ɨl]
> OSEC [dɨl] > SEC [dɨl]
> OCC [diɾ] > CC [di]
> OSC [dɾɨ] > SC [dɾi]
> MC [dɨn˨] > MCA [di˩], MCB [din˨], MCC [luŋ˨], MCD [nũ˩]

ưz [ɨz] "blood"
> ONC [iz] > NC [iz]
> ONEC [ɨz] > NEC [əɪɾ]
> OSEC [ɨz] > SEC [ɨɾ]
> OCC [iz] > CC [iz] (drop the [z] before /l ɾ/)
> OSC [ɨz] > SC [iz]
> MC [ɨ˦] > MCA [i˦], MCB [i˦], MCC [u˦], MCD [i˥]

darơ [daˈɾə] "to, toward"
> ONC [daˈə] > NC [də]
> ONEC [dɔˈlə] > NEC [ɔˈləɪ]
> OSEC [dal] > SEC [dal]
> OCC [daˈɾɛ] > CC [daˈɾɛ]
> OSC [daɾ] > SC [daɾ]
> MC [da˨ˈnɔ˨] > MCA [dnɔ˨], MCB [əˈdnɔ˨], MCC [lɛ˨ˈna˨], MCD [na˩tɔ˩]

ascoro [askɔˈɾɔ] "(away) from"
> ONC [askaˈɔ] > NC [asˈkɔ]
> ONEC [askuˈlɔ] > NEC [askɨˈlu]
> OSEC [asˈkɔl] > SEC [asˈkol]
> OCC [askɔˈɾɔ] > CC [askuˈɾɔ]
> OSC [asˈkɔɾ] > SC [asˈkoɾ]
> MC [a˧˩kɔ˨ˈnɔ˨] > MCA [aɣ˧˩ˈnɔ˨], MCB [a˧˩gˈnɔ˨], MCC [ɛ˧˩ka˨ˈna˨], MCD [a˥˩xɔ˩ˈtɔ˩]

----------------

Image
Top row: miśin "hang", basma "take captive" (dialectally "enslave"), dihgor "command, give orders", baśam "pick a fight, instigate", far "flick"
Second row: ićino "bend (transitive)", damba "joint, bend", ma "glow", ưf "color", ơro "needle"
Third row: sihca "corner", mafa "cook (food)", ưrơm "type of bird", ćasfan "fern", mir "rein(s)"
Fourth row: mazbo "plow (verb)", wơo "cower, cringe, flinch", śehcơ "stream, brook", upsi "slide", lưs "necklace"
Bottom row: darơ "red", mihgơ "green", aścan "blue", waǧitec "yellow/orange", ćosnati "thread (verb)"

Note the semantic compounds in the logograms for the colors—blood-color, grass-color, water-color, and fire-color, respectively.

----------------

Something for the /r/conlangs Golden Record. It says something along the lines of "On behalf of the Caber, we call out to you who come from another world and welcome/greet you".

Common Caber:
Adig ba Caber, ace do so i mưo rai baćam ci ưndư bưf ace nagi so.
[aˈdig ba kaˈbɛɾ ǀ aˈkɛ dɔ sɔ i mɨˈɔ ɾaˈi baˈtɕam ki ɨnˈdɨ bɨf aˈkɛ naˈgi sɔ ǁ]

North Caber:
Dig ba Gba, dze do so i mo i bdzą tsi di bǝf dze ǝndzi so.
[dig ba gba ǀ dzɛ dɔ sɔ i mɔ i bdzã tsi di bəf dzɛ ənˈdzi sɔ ǁ]

Northeast Caber:
Adiw va Hywal, aci u su i miu lei vyśam hi yndy vyf aci neii su.
[aˈdiw va xəɪˈwal ǀ aˈki u su i mju lɛj vəɪˈɕam xi əɪnˈdəɪ vəɪf aˈki nɛˈji su ǁ]

Southeast Caber:
Adiw ba Cèn, age do so i mư na badǫ̀ ci ų̛rdư bưf age nagi so.
[aˈdiw ba kɛn ǀ aˈge do so i mɨ na baˈdɔ̃ ki ɨ̃ɾˈdɨ bɨf aˈge naˈgi so ǁ]

Central Caber:
Adig ba Cabi, ase do so i mio rai ajam si indi i ase ae so.
[aˈðig ba kaˈβi ǀ aˈsɛ dɔ sɔ i mjɔ ɾaj aˈxam s(i) inˈdi i aˈsɛ aˈɛ sɔ ǁ]

South Caber:
Adig bo Góre, oce do zo i bö rai batrab gi idi bif og nog zo.
[aˈdig bɔ ˈgoɾɛ ǀ ɔˈkɛ dɔ zɔ i bø ɾaˈi baˈtɾab gi iˈdi bif ɔg nɔg zɔ ǁ]

Mute Caber A (lots of replaced words here):
Đỉ² wo² Ko³, ḵe² do² no² i² mǝ⁴ ǥả⁵ fŧa¹ ki² đi² waf⁴ ḵe² ngi² no².
[ðiˀ˨ wɔ˨ kɔ˧ ǀ xɛ˨ dɔ˨ nɔ˨ i˨ mə˦ ɣaˀ˧˥ fθa˩ ki˨ ði˨ waf˦ xɛ˨ ŋgi˨ nɔ˨ ǁ]

----------------

ImageThis is the system of sound complements that appear under some glyphs. When a complement appears below a glyph, it informs the reader what the initial sound of the word is. A few initials have two variants; which one is used is glyph- or word-specific. (There's two forms of the d- initial because I'm not sure which one I want to use.)

This post's batch of logograms:

Image
Top row: ibơs "turn (facing or corner)", musrus "earwax", zơmo "body", indơ "dandruff", fusco "side, face", cơpaw "explode"
Second row: zoce "throw off sparks", duro "shell", dưro "layer (noun)", ǧin "dust (noun)", boz "soil, earth", sasmơ "sizzle"
Third row: baǵưg "gray", bidơn "tone, hue", famơw "light, pale", sinam "fail", ama "explore", tasćo "current"
Fourth row: zơnam "rapids", carnơs "riverbed", barưs "white", worư "time", taư "moon", ưs "night"
Fifth row: hom "black", "field", manda "trough, furrow", čimrat "let (someone) down", baćam "world", rai "another"
Bottom row: ćam "ground", maśar "type of long-necked animal", ơč "dam, barrier", "know", hon "think", čưr "show something to a person or people"

manda "trough, furrow" is a reference to Amanda Babcock Furrow of CONLANG-L.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Feb 10, 2016 3:25 am 
Avisaru
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Khemehekis wrote:
Ooh! New logograms!

Very creative -- the color words show Caber logograms can be as complex as hanzi/kanji.

And I salute you for your Easter egg in homage to Amanda Babcock Furrow. Her mention of writing Ursula K. LeGuin as a teen-ager inspired me to write my own letter to her (with Tanni's help, of course).
[:D] Thank you!

ImageLots of new logograms in this post—forty-nine. I think this is my largest single update on characters so far.

Top row: imiś "lie down", daraś "hair, fur", asim "raise", astac "flute", bor "carry", ưd "preen, groom oneself", ưtamac "excuse (someone)"
Second row: hoc "sick, ill", minic "mind", amag "lower", tưoc "pearl", castac "stomp", pưtu "spit", bas "arch"
Third row: ǵoǵ "bush, shrub", "branch", martam "string", ǧư "clam", bam "strike (with hammer or other tool)", dơt "tooth", nơśgic "polite"
Fourth row: hamawes "hair follicle, fur", čim "twig", sunưgo "harp, lyre", "lizard", tangat "metal", hau "bite", bidi "pet (animal)"
Fifth row: ohu "monkey", ưč "comfort, be there for", tơwưć "save", ǧasmać "pouch", rơa "(tree) trunk", "hit, strike", čưdič "train (verb)"
Sixth row: oesnoč "log", wec "cut, chop", faw "flip", ơpsi "trip", sưgo "ring", bowi "dance", uwan "want"
Bottom row: waw "faze, dazzle", posto "great, mighty", boưs "(take a) bow", oton "pigment, ink", rohca "dip", nomi "need"

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Feb 10, 2016 8:25 pm 
Avisaru
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Image

Top row: ơnơ "cry, weep", basnoc "chest, trunk", hid "fence", goci "weed, invasive plant"
Second row: hisic "type of tree", hasać "noodles", hed "place, region, area", oshić "sudden, abrupt"
Third row: ǵostoč "rabbit, hare", hi "turtle, tortoise", śamći "type of flower", ưrưc "litter; bier"
Bottom row: hasi "pyre", hog "fog", danơr "get the better of, trump", ceisic "govern"

Here's how I imagine this group of characters might look in cursive:

Image

Here's a sentence in both original and cursive script:

Image

Coś ceisic ba Caber.
He governs the Caber.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Fri Feb 12, 2016 9:08 pm 
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The largest update to the logograms at one time: One hundred new characters.

Image

Top row: ưsơ "east", mansơ "west", či "north", nasnơ "south", tarpa "art", iscip "punish", cơr "any", ban "gong", śưśćo "type of insect", ma "oil, grease"
Second row: śam "quick", bưsća "defect, blemish", fơrsic "belong", tascan "basket", forsic "group, bunch", ingo "damage", sưs "snake", śasćơ "drip, ooze", odoć "(bunch of) grape(s)"
Third row: one "bar", opi "peek", rưn "grove, stand of trees", fascư "plant", otơ "top, area on top", iniscip "punishment, penance", dacas "kneel", mưn "miss (emotional)", car "crystal", bup "drip", andar "grape"
Fourth row: asćar "pay attention (to), listen (to)", ǧan "sing", anǧan "song", ćor "name", zưn "bottom", hưc "hiccup", ơp "foot", paz "impression, trace", maz "peg", dazi "wine"
Fifth row: baiz "push", sưt "pull", parơc "(commit) suicide", parsư "part, component", min "lean", rif "dust, powder", zi "miss (at hitting something)", ơpaz "footprint, track", dơs "drop, let go of", paơś "cup"
Sixth row: aưc "dust", taz "mountain range", fa "blow", oriơn "belt", azam "butterfly", cơran lever, mưs "swing (at)", barưc "ox", mazno "durable, tough", emwot "lake"
Seventh row: muưś "squish", ưmban "flake, particle", fơirsa "sharpen", fơnor "dull (verb)", irsa "sharp", nor "dull", baraso "imagine", osčor "flee", ren "weak; pliable", ưs "scratch (noun)"
Eighth row: baś "nearby", hos "faraway", ar "scratch, claw at", far "ribbon", śima "nose", fơas "pebble", opưn "discuss", bơrni "sandal, shoe", bahmo "noon", nofśam "smile"
Ninth row: rorơ "star", siśam "ever", tono "note (song)", mahgi "wait", ǵasin "winter", wih "spring", čom "fall", pơrow "summer", cirnis "cloud", ferơr "weather"
Tenth row: čưsmać "love", śưś "scythe", harmin "fruit", nomưś "type of fruit", zơdo "type of fruit", ǧiran "type of fruit", carsi "type of fruit", ćơris "type of fruit", gospin "type of fruit", masnor "type of fruit"

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat Feb 13, 2016 5:20 pm 
Avisaru
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Image

Top row: har "growl", cơusta "curtain, sheet", neơscin "wander", nuơsti "classify; discern", nintu "basin, depression", bousta "country", nainma "defect from, desert (from)"
Second row: mousni "leak", paus "knock", gaensi "(tree) bark", soưsro "strong", masi "coin", tuasep "charge, attack", damsi "defect to, change allegiance to"
Third row: cabni "weight, something to weigh something down or balance something", mintoc "type of animal used for riding", bưśưś "be absent, miss", toarci "lead", wam "room, partitioned area", cươcip "spearman", bas "now"
Fourth row: daơrśin "follow", rươrcis "plank, piece of wood", mozdan "awning", suisren "seize, have a seizure", wandi "suspect, think something or someone suspicious", usićip "bowman", ǧari "guilt"
Fifth row: uastoc "meal", astoc "serve (food)", uinǧưs "betray, backstab", faosroś "cost", eanri "warrior, soldier", anśip "swordsman", ǧasnir "innocence"
Bottom row: bưm "curl", unoas "lose (item)", fưś "fish", śamfưś "school (of fish)", baindi "day, twenty-four-hour period", rưmưś "odd (number)", tan "even (number)"

How these might look in cursive:

Image

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sun Feb 14, 2016 1:40 am 
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Image

Top row: baurnoč "labor, effort", tacơ "chisel", canag "wave", wasfa "spool", fainrom "buy", ư "rhythm", ǧasaur "band"
Second row: agron "axle", courco "wheel", aơrśo "sea, ocean", famśo "unwind, unspool", fiưr "sell", cam "rim", canca "stripe"
Third row: ipfar "tide", ơsim "character, symbol", pama "fabric", bintac "wind up, rewind", ưarcos "pick up", er "lung", śahư "inhale"
Fourth row: pabzi "tongs", gather "magic", icran "scroll", pasfam "component, ingredient", ibrau "bodyslam", ǵir "rip, tear", ifhư "exhale"
Fifth row: iǵưn "sailboat", pairsư "pilot a boat using a staff", gamo "distance", top "height", magar "read", "sigh; breathe", maśtac "coral"
Sixth row: paum "crater", śum "valley", inca "handle", "quench, put out (e.g., fire)", marsin "loan", ưgoć "pay back, return", pascra "reef"
Bottom row: ǵaǧ "flint", imsad "atoll", soar "man, crew", arpin "mistake", ǵindor "correction", raǧo "algae", zaorsi "resist"

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Last edited by Pogostick Man on Mon Feb 15, 2016 7:16 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sun Feb 14, 2016 5:55 am 
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Image

Top row: dưmưś "reed(s)", ơ "if", nuas "then", bazna "meteor, shooting star", cưpći "thumb", onưm "wand", omana "record(s)", machi "hunt"
Second row: tin "small", oesto "big, large", hacar "compare, contrast", unashi "harvest (noun)", imbadu "fan", rưcći "staff, walking stick", impu "dive", wazmo "false"
Third row: "air", bơosnut "grind", ưśbatar "obstacle", ưś "hinder", ưcći "constellation", maz "gain", pơruf "smoke (verb)", mirwam "lie, tell a lie"
Fourth row: mośću "candle", aćam "forehead", bor "wither", cenim "nail", hehgi "aim, target", rihgi "lose", ơśćid "mast", dưro "true"
Fifth row: camno "pasture", camnon "force, compel", ǵoran "juice", pafci "cloak", iasci "read", tacom "clod; lozenge", nescu "statue", ui "tell the truth"
Sixth row: calơ "join together; fix", acsur "tent", ihpi "life", gathersoćur "witch", gatherip "warlock, shaman", nuc "volcano", buinsi "pulley", weg "tail"
Seventh row: cơśam "lightning", au "pain", nainca "vertebra", coasti "jam, (fruit) jelly", embưg "larva, grub", nưc "cove, bay", arơp "nook, cranny, crevice, alcove", ćimbac "ask"
Bottom row: sunaư "spoke", śuram "lazy", cando "canoe", ember "war", seśtiśam "do something the right way", itarpin "err, make a mistake", seisu "language", ogna "beer"

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Feb 24, 2016 10:46 pm 
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I'm thinking about shifting Common Caber /x/ to /ʜ/ in South Caber. This is based on something a user said in—I think it was the Yay or Nay? thread. I don't use epiglottals very much. I actually don't use very many trills in my conlangs.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat Apr 16, 2016 2:24 am 
Avisaru
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More: show
Image

Top row: baǵar "bend", nisci "joint", cưfa "mix, stir", tarnơ "present (to someone)"
Second row: dưsro "acid", marca "dissolve", arid "spill", cuhco "waterfall, cataract"
Third row: iar "cliff, edge", nasa "patch" (n.), ? "patch" (v.), dari "melt"
Bottom row: mu "swap, switch", pasco "struggle, resist", śu "soul", pal "wing"

Easter eggs:
  • arid "spill"—if you spill something it isn't arid anymore there, is it?
  • iar "cliff, edge"—Estonian jäääär
  • dari "melt"—Salvador Dali and The Persistence of Memory
  • śu "soul"—the sole of a shoe
  • pal "wing"—Paul McCartney and Wings

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat Apr 23, 2016 11:07 pm 
Sanci
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I have nothing constructive or specific to say, but this is so cool! I'm in awe at the intricacy and detail you've put into the information in this post and so many others on this board. Impressive.


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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Fri May 20, 2016 11:30 pm 
Avisaru
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scorpryan wrote:
I have nothing constructive or specific to say, but this is so cool! I'm in awe at the intricacy and detail you've put into the information in this post and so many others on this board. Impressive.
:-D Thank you!

Now, inspired by something I just read on Wikipedia—Extreme Southern Caber.

Common Caber to Old Extreme Southern Caber
a → ɔ / _K
b → w / V_V
(split from Old South Caber to Old Extreme Southern Caber begins here)
g → ɣ / #_
f → h
b d dz dʑ g ɣ → p t ts tɕ k x

Old Extreme Southern Caber to Extreme Southern Caber
t → ʔ
{ts,tɕ} → t
ɔ wa → o ɔ
ɛ ə → e ɛ
ɨ → i
B E → u i / unstressed
u i → f s / unstressed
a → h / unstressed
w N → u a / {#,C}_C
ɾ → Ø / _F[- voice]
h → Ø / {#,H}_{R,H}
x ɕ → ʜ x
u i → o e / _N
ɾ N → s Ø / _#
ɾ → n

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod.Tfso ʔo je ras khwes nu ushek si tfsoʔ. [tfso ʔo xe ʜas khwes nu ushek si tfsoʔ]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama.Khwes raʔ ek sto noʔ je wih je ʔo tfso ʔma. [khwes ʜaʔ ek sto noʔ xe wih xe ʔo tfso ʔma]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin.Ne. Ne. Ne. Ne. Ne. Ne. Ne. [ne ne ne ne ne ne ne]

Adig ba Caber, ace do so i mưo rai baćam ci ưndư bưf ace nagi so.ʔik au Khwes, fke ʔo so i aso hi fta ki saʔi wih fke afki so. [ʔik ɔ khwes fke ʔo so i aˈso hi fta ki saˈʔi wih fke afˈki so]

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat May 21, 2016 2:32 am 
Avisaru
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So, how to say "the Caber" in Common Caber and the seven "modern" Caber languages.

  • Ba Caber (Common Caber)
  • Ba Gba (North Caber)
  • Va Hywal (Northeast Caber)
  • Ba Gin (Southeast Caber)
  • A Cabi (Central Caber)
  • Bo Góre (South Caber)
  • Au Khwes (Extreme Southern Caber)
  • Wo² Ko³ (Mute Caber)

The name Ba Gin is an interesting one; the indefinite form of gin is cèn. Along the way from Common Caber to Southeast Caber, the definite article became a prefix and affected the sound changes, so words have definite and indefinite forms.

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Last edited by Pogostick Man on Sat May 21, 2016 7:02 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat May 21, 2016 5:21 am 
Avisaru
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Way back in the thread on the CBB, shimobaatar wrote:
Outside of the written language, if you don't mind my asking, is there a connection between soćur "woman" and ćơr "give birth", and/or between ǵơn "die" and ǵon "murder"?
Causatives are formed by applying the following transformations to the final vowel in the root:

u ~ uo
o ~ oa
ư ~ u
ơ ~ o
a ~ o
e ~ ie
i ~ ai

Typically these derived words function either as a causative or as a way to introduce a new argument to an intransitive (some might say middle-voice or mediopassive) verb. Examples:

ǧatfum 'walk' > ǧatfuom 'banish, exile'
rưsaco 'break, split' > rưsacoa 'break (something), split (something), ruin, destroy'
hưr 'speak, say' > hur 'influence (pejorative), corrupt (someone)'
ǵơn 'die' > ǵon 'murder'
cać 'think' > coć 'teach'
mep 'stand' > miep 'prop up'
marǧin 'stay, remain' > marǧain 'cause someone to stay in a location'

The prefix s(o)- is a sort of characteristic nominalizer—that is, it has a sense like "one who does X as a rule", "one of a class that does X", "one that has X as a characteristic", "one that normally does X". The o surfaces if an initial cluster would result.

ćur 'give birth' (< ćưr 'be born') > soćur 'woman'
edren 'complain' > sedren 'malcontent'
cohiǧ 'trade' > socohiǧ 'trader, merchant'
repću 'speak, say' > sorepću 'orator'
'(do) work' > soś 'laborer'
tocar 'rock, buffet' > sotocar 'the tide, the waves'
ap 'stab' > sap 'dagger, small knife'
baw 'vomit' > sobaw 'nervous/anxious person'
ma 'glow' > soma 'glowworm'
mazbo 'plow' > somazbo 'plow'
cơpaw 'explode' > socơpaw 'guns of the Seneca, mistpouffer'
bo 'hold' > sobo 'bag, pouch; shelf' (different dialects inherited different meanings for this word)

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat May 21, 2016 2:07 pm 
Avisaru
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A slight revision:

Common Caber to Old Extreme Southern Caber
a → ɔ / _K
b → w / _V
(split from Old South Caber to Old Extreme Southern Caber begins here)
g → ɣ / #_
f → h
b d dz dʑ g ɣ → p t ts tɕ k x

Old Extreme Southern Caber to Extreme Southern Caber
t → ʔ
{ts,tɕ} → t
ɔ wa → o ɔ
ɛ ə → e ɛ
ɨ → i
B E → u i / unstressed
u i → f s / unstressed
a → h / unstressed
w N → u a / {#,C}_C
ɾ → Ø / _F[- voice]
h → Ø / {#,H}_{R,H}
h → Ø / R_F
x ɕ → ʜ x
u i → o e / _N
ɾ N → s Ø / _#
ɾ z → n ɾ
F → Ø / _ʔC
w → Ø / m_ ! sm_
S → Ø / SF_S
h → Ø / #C_C

dưmưś "reed(s)" → ʔfmij [ʔfmix]
ơ "if" → ai [ɛ]
nuas "then" → ahas [aˈhas]
bazna "meteor, shooting star" → fdna [fɾna]
cưpći "thumb" → ksti [ksti]
onưm "wand" → fni [fni]
omana "record(s)" → omhna [omˈhna]
machi "hunt" → afkri [afˈkʜi]
tin "small" → ʔi [ʔi]
oesto "big, large" → ossʔo [osːˈʔo]
hacar "compare, contrast" → rfkas [ʜfkas]
unashi "harvest (noun)" → unsri [unˈsʜi]
imbadu "fan" → imfʔu [imfˈʔu]
rưcći "staff, walking stick" → askti [asˈkti]
impu "dive" → sapu [saˈpu]
wazmo "false" → fdmo [fɾmo]
oơ "air" → fai [fɛ]
bơosnut "grind" → waifsnuʔ [wɛfˈsnuʔ]
ưśbatar "obstacle" → ijpʔas [ixpˈʔas]
ưś "hinder" → ij [ix]
ưcći "constellation" → skti [skti]
maz "gain" → mad [maɾ]
pơruf "smoke (verb)" → pfnuh [pfnuh]
mirwam "lie, tell a lie" → asnau [asˈnɔ]
mośću "candle" → afjtu [afˈxtu]
aćam "forehead" → hta [hta]
bor "wither" → wos [wos]
cenim "nail" → ksni [ksni]
hehgi "aim, target" → rsrki [ʜsʜki]
rihgi "lose" → afrki [afˈʜki]
ơśćid "mast" → sjtiʔ [sxtiʔ]
dưro "true" → ʔsno [ʔsno]
camno "pasture" → khano [khaˈno]
camnon "force, compel" → khano [khaˈno]
ǵoran "juice" → tfna [tfna]
pafci "cloak" → pki [pki]
iasci "read" → ihski [ihˈski]
tacom "clod; lozenge" → ʔko [ʔko]
nescu "statue" → assku [asːˈku]
ui "tell the truth" → fi [fi]
carơ "join together; fix" → khno [khno]
acsur "tent" → fksus [fksus]
ihpi "life" → frpi [fʜpi]
gathersoćur "witch" → kʔrensftus [kʔʜensˈftus]
gatherip "warlock, shaman" → katrsnip [katʜˈsnip]
nuc "volcano" → nuk [nuk]
buinsi "pulley" → wusasi [wusaˈsi]
weg "tail" → wek [wek]
cơśam "lightning" → ksja [ksxa]
au "pain" → hu [hu]
nainca "vertebra" → nasaka [nasaˈka]
coasti "jam, (fruit) jelly" → kohsʔi [kohˈsʔi]
embưg "larva, grub" → sawik [saˈwik]
nưc "cove, bay" → nik [nik]
arơp "nook, cranny, crevice, alcove" → naip [nɛp]
ćimbac "ask" → tfmok [tfmok]
sunaư "spoke → sunhi [sunˈhi]
śuram "lazy" → jfna [xfna]
cando "canoe" → khaʔo [khaˈʔo]
ember "war" → smwes [smwes]
seśtiśam "do something the right way" → seʔfja [seʔˈfxa]
itarpin "err, make a mistake" → iʔapi [iʔaˈpi]
seisu "language" → sessu [seˈsːu]
ogna "beer" → fkna [fkna]

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sun May 22, 2016 7:45 am 
Smeric
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Wow! You are beating Armenian out of the field ;)

But what I have to say about the whole family, script and all is just: ROCK'N'ROLL!

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sun May 22, 2016 6:14 pm 
Avisaru
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WeepingElf wrote:
Wow! You are beating Armenian out of the field ;)
What do you mean, exactly? The consonant clusters?

WeepingElf wrote:
But what I have to say about the whole family, script and all is just: ROCK'N'ROLL!
:-D

Pronouns

i 1SG
ace 1PL
o 2SG
ba 2PL
cơap 3SG.M
osćo 3SG.F
ơr 3PL.M
ćomư 3PL.F

As usual, I did these without the benefit of an SCA. Caveat linguifex.

Old North Caber

i
ətsɛ
ɔ
ba
kəap
ɔstɕɔ
a
tɕɔ̃ə̃

North Caber

i i
dzɛ dze
ɔ o
ba ba
kap cap
stsɔ stso
a a
tsə̃ tsą (should be a schwa with an ogonek, but my Characters panel isn't working right now)

Old Northeast Caber

i
akɛ
ɔ
ba
kəap
usɕɔ
əl
ɕɔmɨ

Northeast Caber

i i
aki aci
u u
va va
xəap həap
əɪ̯sɕu ysśu
əl əl
ɕɔməɪ̯ śomy

Old Southeast Caber

i
ag
ɔ
ba
kəap
əstɔ
ɨl
tɔ̃w

Southeast Caber

i i
ag ag
o o
ba ba
kəap cơap
əstɔ ơstò
ɨn ưn
tõw tǫw

Old Central Caber

i
asɛ
ɔ
a
sɛap
ɔsxɔ
ɛɾ
xɔmi

Central Caber

i i
asɛ ase
ɔ o
a a
sɛap seap
ɔsxɔ osjo
i (this is probably going to get replaced somehow)
ɔmi omi

Old South Caber

i
ɔg
ɔ
ba
gəap
ɔstɾ
ɾə
ˈdɾɔbɨ

South Caber

i i
ɔg og
ɔ o
ba ba
gwap gwap
ɔstɾ ostr
ɾa ra
ˈdɾobi drobi

Old Extreme Southern Caber

i
ɔkɛ
ɔ
wa
kəap
ɔstɕɔ
əɾ
tɕɔmɨ

Extreme Southern Caber

i i
fke fke
o o
ɔ au
ksap ksap
fsto fsto
ɛs ais
tfmi tfmi

Old Mute Caber

ì
àkɛ̀
ɔ̀

kə́p
ɔ̂tɔ̀
ə̀n
tɔ̀mɨ̀

Mute Caber A

ì
ɣɛ̀
ɔ̀
wɔ̀
kə́ˀ
ðɔ̀
ə̀n
tmə̀

Mute Caber B

ì
əkɛ̀ə
ɔ̀
àw
ə́kp
ətɔ̀
ɛ̀n
ətwì

Mute Caber C

ì
ɛ̀tʃɛ̀
à
ɛ̀
kə́p
âtà
ə̀ŋ
tàmù

Mute Caber D

This was one of opipik's contributions. I'm still not sure I'm reading the sound changes right.


a˩xɛ˩
ɔ˩

xə˧˥
ɔ˥˩θɔ˩
ə̃˩
θɔ˩pu˩

Old Opipik's Caber

This is another of opipik's contributions. I've arbitrarily cut off the list partway through for the "Old" stage of the language. I'm not sure where to place this geographically yet.

ʔi
ʔakɛ
ʔɔ
ba
kap
ʔɔaʂtɔ
ʔɛɾ
tɔmɨ

Opipik's Caber

ʔi
ʔakɛ
ʔɔ
ma
qaw
ʔaʂtɔ
ʔɛɾ
ʔnumɨ

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Mon May 23, 2016 3:27 am 
Avisaru
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Numbers

0 mɨgɨi
1 bɨkə
2 bətɕi
3 dʑɛɕak
4 ɾatsbɔtɕ
5 ə
6 ɕɛɨ

Old North Caber

0 məgɨi
1 bək
2 bətɕi
3 dʑɛɕak
4 ɾətsbɔtɕ
5 ə
6 ɕɛɨ

North Caber

0 məgi
1 bək
2 bdzi
3 dzak
4 ədzbɔts
5 ə
6 sə

Old Northeast Caber

0 mɨji
1 bɨkə
2 bəɕi
3 ʑɛʑak
4 lasbɔɕ
5 ə
6 ɕɛɨ

Northeast Caber

0 məɪ̯ji
1 vəɪ̯kə
2 vəɕi
3 jɛjak
4 lasbɔɕ
5 ə
6 ɕɛəɪ̯

Old Southeast Caber

0 mɨgɨ
1 bɨgə
2 bədi
3 dɛʑak
4 latbət
5 ə
6 ɕɛɨ

Southeast Caber

0 mɨgɨ
1 bɨgə
2 bədi
3 deʑak
4 natbət
5 ə
6 ɕeɨ

Old Central Caber

0 mizii
1 isɛ
2 ɛxi
3 jɛxak
4 ɾazbɔx
5 ɛ
6 xɛi

Central Caber

0 mizi
1 isɛ
2 ɛxi
3 jixak
4 ɾazbɔx
5 ɛ
6 ɛj

Old South Caber

0 bɨgəj
1 bɨg
2 ˈbətɾi
3 dɾɛɕɔk
4 ˈɾatɾbɔtɾ
5 ə
6 ʑɛɨ

South Caber

0 bigaj
1 big
2 ˈbatɾi
3 dɾɛɕɔk
4 ˈɾatɾbɔtɾ
5 a
6 ji

Old Extreme Southern Caber

0 mɨkɨi
1 wɨkə
2 wətɕi
3 tɕɛɕɔk
4 ɾatswɔtɕ
5 ə
6 ɕɛɨ

Extreme Southern Caber

0 aski
1 uskə
2 usti
3 txok
4 htwot
5 ɛ
6 xsi

Mute Caber

0 mɨ̀gɨ́
1 ùkə̀
2 ɔ̀tì
3 dɛ̀sàk
4 nàtwɔ̀t
5 ə̀
6 ɲɛ́

Mute Caber A

0 ŋgí
1 xə̀
2 θì
3 dzàˀ
4 nwɔ̀ˀ
5 ə̀
6 ɲɛ́

Mute Caber B

0 əwgí
1 əkɛ̀
2 ətì
3 ədzàt
4 əntwɔ̀t
5 ɛ̀
6 ɛ́ɲ

Mute Caber C

0 mɨ̀jɨ́
1 ùkə̀
2 ɔ̀tì
3 lɛ̀làk
4 nàkɔ̀k
5 ə̀
6 ɲɛ́

Mute Caber D

0 u˩ŋi˥
1 u˩xə˩
2 ɔ˩θi˩
3 nɛ˩sa˧˩
4 θa˩θwɔ˧˩
5 ə˩
6 cɛ˥

Old Opipik's Caber

0 mɨgɨi
1 bɨkɛ
2 bəti
3 dɛjak
4 ɾat̪bɔt
5 ʔɛ
6 jɛɨ

Opipik's Caber

0 mɨʟɨi
1 mɨkɛ
2 məti
3 lɛjaʔ
4 ɾatmɔʔ
5 ʔɛ
6 jɛɨ

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Mon May 23, 2016 4:30 am 
Avisaru
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Location: Ohio
Nouns, Adjectives, Numbers, and Plurals

The plural for nouns and adjectives is generally -(o)c (the -o- is deleted if the singular form ends in -o), unless the noun ends in a velar consonant, in which case the plural is -a:

bousta
bousta
country
'country'

boustaoc
bousta-oc
country-PL
'countries'

ćeg
ćeg
jar
'jar, vase'

ćega
ćeg-a
jar-PL
'jars, vases'

As in English, adjectives (and the definite article) precede their referents:

ơngơ dơr
ơngơ dơr
long tail
'(a) long tail'

mihgơ rai baćam
mihgơ rai baćam
green another world
'another green world' (yes, I like Brian Eno)

ba baǵưga oestoc embưga
ba baǵưg-a oesto-c embưg-a
DEF gray-PL large-PL larva-PL
'the big gray larvas'

Perhaps unusually, adjectives referring to mass nouns take a plural suffix, while the mass noun itself does not:

waǧiteca oton
waǧitec-a oton
yellow-PL ink
'yellow ink'

irsaoc oơ
irsa-oc oơ
sharp-PL air
'air after a thunderstorm'

Adjectives can be turned into causative verbs using the prefix fơ-:

irsa
irsa
sharp
'sharp'

fơirsa
fơ-irsa
CAUS-sharp
'sharpen'

nor
nor
dull
'dull, not sharp, worn'

fơnor
fơ-nor
CAUS-dull
'dull (transitive), wear (out)'

The comparative is an adverbial particle te:

te irsa
te irsa
more sharp
'sharper'

te nor
te nor
more dull
'duller, not as sharp, more worn'

The superlative is an adverbial particle anta:

anta irsa
anta irsa
most sharp
'sharpest'

anta nor
anta nor
most dull
'dullest, most worn'

Numbers are treated as nouns, not adjectives, and take a prepositional phrase with fe 'of' and the referent noun(s) in the singular; note how the placement of the definite article influences the meaning:

račboć fe čư
račboć fe čư
four of tree
'four trees'

ba račboć fe čư
DEF račboć fe čư
four of tree
'the four trees'

račboć fe ba čư
račboć fe DEF čư
four of the tree
'four of the trees'

ba račboć fe ba čư
DEF račboć fe DEF čư
the four of the tree
'these four trees (specifically)'

I may have some of the daughter languages begin to treat numbers as adjectives, perhaps with fe becoming reanalyzed as an adjectival suffix in this case.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Mon May 23, 2016 8:56 am 
Smeric
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Pogostick Man wrote:
WeepingElf wrote:
Wow! You are beating Armenian out of the field ;)
What do you mean, exactly? The consonant clusters?


I mean the general way the sound changes change the words beyond recognition.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Mon May 23, 2016 9:08 am 
Smeric
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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Mon May 23, 2016 11:09 pm 
Niš
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Pogostick Man wrote:
Ketumak wrote:
I like these, too. What technology do your people use to write it, though? I imagine the angularity comes from something like a stylus on a clay tablet.
Thank you! I actually haven't given that much thought.



Really interesting stuff. Really love the look of these glyphs. Great work man. With regards to the writing tool, I kind of imagine that it is something that is a combination of a pen and a ruler type object with the shape of a scalene triangle. Or a pen that has a bit of a complex design. Anyway, keep the ideas coming.


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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Tue May 24, 2016 4:18 am 
Avisaru
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Mahewurz wrote:
Pogostick Man wrote:
Ketumak wrote:
I like these, too. What technology do your people use to write it, though? I imagine the angularity comes from something like a stylus on a clay tablet.
Thank you! I actually haven't given that much thought.



Really interesting stuff. Really love the look of these glyphs. Great work man.
Thank you!
Mahewurz wrote:
With regards to the writing tool, I kind of imagine that it is something that is a combination of a pen and a ruler type object with the shape of a scalene triangle. Or a pen that has a bit of a complex design.
Thank you. I will bear that in mind as I conworld.
Mahewurz wrote:
Anyway, keep the ideas coming.
I hope to!

A few miscellaneous thoughts

The 2PL pronoun

I didn't mean for it to be identical to the definite article, but per DesEsseintes' advice I think I'm going to leave it. In at least one language it becomes sort of a clitic, and I'm thinking about having it develop as an unstressed vowel in Extreme Southern Caber in which case it would also become a clitic f-.

Adverbial subordinators

Unusually for an SVO language (although there is precedent for it, namely Buduma), adverbial subordinators in Common Caber come at the end of the clause:

o wec ba hư ơ, o maz bơći fe rươrcis nuas
o wec ba hư ơ, o maz bơći fe rươrcis nuas
2SG cut DEF branch if 2SG gain two of piece.of.wood then
'if you cut the branch, you gain two pieces of wood'

cơpa dihgor ba adis
cơpa dihgor ba adis
3SG.M give.orders.to 2PL after
'after he gives you orders', 'once he tells you to'

In some branches these will end up preceding the clause.

The existential construction

There are four existentials in Common Caber: tac 'there is', iec 'there is no(t)', ơn 'there was', and ưnec 'there was not'. To write iec, one uses a combination of the negative character and the character for tac. Existentials come at the beginning of the sentence. For the past-tense existentials, one uses the same past-tense marker one would use for verbs.

tac ưtam ba rư boz
tac ưtam ba rư boz
there.is on DEF field soil
'there's soil in the field'

iec ưtam ba rư boz
iec ưtam ba rư boz
there.is.not on DEF field soil
'there's no soil in the field'

ơn ưtam ba rư boz
ơn ưtam ba rư boz
there.was on DEF field soil
'there was soil in the field'

ưnec ưtam ba rư boz
ưnec ưtam ba rư boz
there.was.not on DEF field soil
'there was no soil in the field'

WH-words

e 'who? what? (subject)'
ri 'who? what? (object)'
ćam 'do what?' (probably not a very good translation; there is no verb 'to do' in Caber, and this is used instead)
'where?'
ćuư 'when?'
aǧe 'why?'
ơs 'how?'
cơwơ 'how far?'
ei 'how much? (quantity)'
ǧo 'how much? to what extent?'

These question words appear in the same place in the sentence as the referent normally would. Interestingly, the question particle ćưa, usually used for polar questions, is obligatory.

E dihgor ba ćưa?
e dihgor ba ćưa
who.SBJ command 2PL Q
'who commands you?'

Cơpa bo ri ćưa?
cơpa bo ri ćưa
3SG.M hold what.OBJ Q
'what is he holding?'

Cơpa ćam ćưa?
cơpa ćam ćưa
3SG.M do.what Q
'what does he do?'

Cơpa eś marǧin ćưa?
cơpa eś marǧin ćưa
3SG.M where remain Q
'where is he staying?'

Cơpa ćuư gat cơpa ćưa?
cơpa ćuư gat cơpa ćưa
3SG.M when have 3SG Q
'when will he have it?'

Aǧe o oś ec ćưa?
aǧe o oś ec ćưa
why 2SG do.work NEG Q
'why aren't you working?'

O ơs oś ćưa?
o ơs oś ćưa
2SG how do.work Q
'how do you work? how does one discharge their duties here?'

Ba ǧư cơwơ ćưa?
ba ǧư cơwơ ćưa
DEF bazaar how.far Q
'how far (away) is the bazaar?'

Ei bosa ćưa?
ei bosa ćưa
how.much water Q
'how much water?'

Cơpa ǧo rưsacoa cơpa ćưa?
cơpa ǧo rưsacoa cơpa ćưa
3SG how.much destroy 3SG Q
'to what extent will that destroy it?' (= 'how badly will that damage it?', 'how much will that ruin it?')

Analogy in Extreme Southern Caber

It occurs to me that Extreme Southern Caber is likely going to have some analogy going on with regards to the fricativization of unstressed vowels. Look at these examples:

gatherip 'warlock, shaman' → katrsnip [katʜˈsnip]
gathersoćur 'witch' → kʔrensftus [kʔʜensˈftus]

This may not be an ideal example but it's the only one I've worked out so far. It's based around an element gather 'magic' → kʔres. Note the deletion of the unstressed vowel (the /h/ would be there were it not for the glottal stop causing its loss, which is why this is far from an ideal example). The general rules of vowel deletion are:

B a E → f h s / unstressed

Note how it is all back and front vowels going to f and s, respectively. I could imagine some changes in the vowels due to confusion and analogy because in one or the other form of the word, the vowel is lost. This will even happen with plurals:

ip 'man' → ip
ipoc 'men' → spok
soćur 'woman' → sftus
soćuroc 'women' → sotfnok

What seems to be ending up happening is that each word has an "absolute" and "conjunct" form, similar to how I understand Old Irish operated, and I suppose they will have to be learned for each stem. Because so many mergers happen (any back vowel goes to f and any front vowel goes to s), I suppose there may be some intermittent vowel changes.

The relative marker in Extreme Southern Caber

I'm also thinking that one of the relative-clause words, i, will lose stress and become a proclitic s- on the verb:

ba ip i hưr ba seisu fe ba 'the man who speaks our language' → fip sris fsessu fe au (s-ris REL-speak)

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Tue May 24, 2016 12:23 pm 
Smeric
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mèþru wrote:
Look at Old Chinese and look at Standard Chinese. Reaching that level is your next challenge.

Or Latin -> French.


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