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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed May 25, 2016 4:26 am 
Avisaru
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The suffix -tưtam

In Common Caber, a suffix -tưtam would often be employed to promote a dative or prepositional argument to the direct object and the patient to the subject. I gloss it here as EXCHANGE because it's not quite inversion, not quite an autobenefactive either. Usually, the replaced prepositional phrase is introduced using the preposition tignes 'about':

comos 'teach (someone something)'
comostưtam 'learn (something)'

i tignes ba ferơr comos cơap
i tignes ba ferơr comos cơap
1SG about DEF weather teach 3SG.M
'I teach him about the weather'

cơap comostưtam ba ferơr
cơap comos-tưtam ba ferơr
3SG.M teach-EXCHANGE DEF weather
'he learns about the weather'

opưn 'discuss' (typically used with a prepositional phrase indicating the object of discussion)
opưntưtam 'be discussed, concern someone'

ơr tignes ba iniscip opưn
ơr ba iniscip opưn
3PL.M about DEF punishment discuss
'they discuss the punishment'

ba iniscip opưntưtam
ba iniscip opưn-tưtam
DEF punishment discuss-EXCHANGE
'the punishment is being talked about'

Currently, I'm thinking that this will be indicated in writing by writing the character for faw 'flip' after the verb.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed May 25, 2016 10:00 pm 
Avisaru
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Thinking of redoing the sound changes for East Caber a bit to introduce lateral fricatives and a bit more alterations in the vowels.

Common Caber to Proto-East Caber

ɾ → l
x → s / _K
{b,g} d → w l / _#
ts dz → tθ dð → tɬ dɮ / _{u,ɨ,i}
t d → θ ð → ɬ ɮ / _{u,ɨ,i}
u ɨ i → ɔ ə e / _N
N → Ø / _#

dưmưś 'reed(s)' → ɮəmɨɕ
tin 'small' → ɬɛ
imbadu 'fan' → ɛmbaɮu
coasti 'jam, (fruit) jelly' → kɔasɬi
nuơsti 'classify; discern' → nuəsɬi
nintu 'basin, depression' → nɛnɬu
wandi 'suspect, think something or someone suspicious' → wanɮi
wandin 'parade around, walk around exaggeratedly' → wanɮɛ
baindi 'day, twenty-four-hour period' → baɛnɮi
bidi 'pet (animal)' → biɮi
dihgor 'command, give orders' → ɮisgɔl
ćosnati 'thread (verb)' → tɕɔsnaɬi
čimrat 'let (someone) down' → tɬɛmlat
sưnǧu 'difficult' → səndɮu
ưnǧu 'snare, trap' → əndɮu
ǧưi 'put, set, place' → dɮɨi
marǧin 'stay, remain' → maldɮɛn
du 'crop(s)' → ɮu
ǧubśư 'place, area' → dɮubɕɨ
mačư 'throw, toss' → matɬɨ
čư 'tree' → tɬɨ

0 mɨgɨi → mɨgɨi
1 bɨkə → bɨkə
2 bətɕi → bətɕi
3 dʑɛɕak → dʑɛɕak
4 ɾatsbɔtɕ → latsbɔtɕ
5 ə → ə
6 ɕɛɨ → ɕɛi

i → i
akɛ → akɛ
ɔ → ɔ
ba → ba
kəap → kəap
ɔstɕɔ → ɔstɕɔ
əɾ → əl
tɕɔmɨ → tɕɔmɨ

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod. [d͜zɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xaɾ kabɛɾ ɾu bɨfɛk ɾɨi t͜sɔsɔd] → [dzɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xal kabɛl ɾu bɨfɛk rɨi tsɔsɔl]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama. [kabɛɾ gat ɛk ɨd͜zɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔsɔ tama] → [kabɛl gat ɛk ɨdzɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ dzɔsɔ tama]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. [ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin] → [lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ]

Proto-East Caber to Old Northeast Caber

C[+ fricative] → [+ voiced] / V_V
ts dz tɕ dʑ tɬ dɮ → s z ɕ ʑ ɬ ɮ
ɮ → l
b → v / V_V
a → ɔ / _{f,v,w,u}
a ɛ → ɔ a / _l
g → j
a → ɛ / _{j,i}
ɔ…"ɔ a…"a ɛ…"ɛ → u…"ɔ ɨ…"a i…"ɛ
V → Ø / V(C)_C"V
u {ɨ,i} → w j / _V
u {ɨ,i} → w j / V_
ll → nl
lj → ʎ / {#,C}_V
ɨjɨj → i

dưmưś 'reed(s)' → ləmɨɕ
tin 'small' → ɬɛ
imbadu 'fan' → ɛmbɔlu
coasti 'jam, (fruit) jelly' → kɔasɬi
nuơsti 'classify; discern' → nuəsɬi
nintu 'basin, depression' → nɛnɬu
wandi 'suspect, think something or someone suspicious' → wanli
wandin 'parade around, walk around exaggeratedly' → wanlɛ
baindi 'day, twenty-four-hour period' → banli
bidi 'pet (animal)' → bili
dihgor 'command, give orders' → lisjɔl
ćosnati 'thread (verb)' → ɕɔsnɔli
čimrat 'let (someone) down' → ɬɛmlat
sưnǧu 'difficult' → sənlu
ưnǧu 'snare, trap' → ənlu
ǧưi 'put, set, place' → lɨi
marǧin 'stay, remain' → mɔnlɛn
du 'crop(s)' → lu
ǧubśư 'place, area' → lubɕɨ
mačư 'throw, toss' → mɔlɨ
čư 'tree' → ɬɨ

0 mɨgɨi → mɨgɨi → mi
1 bɨkə → bɨkə → bɨkə
2 bətɕi → bətɕi → bəʑi
3 dʑɛɕak → dʑɛɕak → ʑɛʑak
4 ɾatsbɔtɕ → latsbɔtɕ → lasbɔɕ
5 ə → ə → ə
6 ɕɛɨ → ɕɛi → ɕɛi

i → i → i
akɛ → akɛ → akɛ
ɔ → ɔ → ɔ
ba → ba → ba
kəap → kəap → kəap
ɔstɕɔ → ɔstɕɔ → usɕɔ
əɾ → əl → əl
tɕɔmɨ → tɕɔmɨ → ɕɔmɨ

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod. [d͜zɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xaɾ kabɛɾ ɾu bɨfɛk ɾɨi t͜sɔsɔd] → [zuzɔ dɔ ɕɛ xɔl kɔval ɾu bɨvɛk rɨi suzɔl]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama. [kabɛɾ gat ɛk ɨd͜zɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔsɔ tama] → [kɔval jat ɛk ɨzɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ zuzɔ tɨma]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. [ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin] → [lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ]

Old Northeast Caber to Modern Northeast Caber

j → Ø / E_C
ɔ ɛ → o e
wa ja → ɔ ɛ
v z ʑ ɣ → w ɾ j ɦ
S → F / #_
{θ,ð} → Ø
u → ɨ / ! ɔ_
ɔ{w,u} → u
ʎ → ɕ / _E
ʎ → j
ɔ ə ɛ → u ɨ i / _#
ɨ → əɪ

dưmưś 'reed(s)' → ləməɪ̯ɕ
tin 'small' → ɬi
imbadu 'fan' → emboləɪ̯
coasti 'jam, (fruit) jelly' → xoasɬi
nuơsti 'classify; discern' → nuəsɬi
nintu 'basin, depression' → nenɬəɪ̯
wandi 'suspect, think something or someone suspicious' → ɔnli
wandin 'parade around, walk around exaggeratedly' → ɔnli
baindi 'day, twenty-four-hour period' → vanli
bidi 'pet (animal)' → vili
dihgor 'command, give orders' → lisjol
ćosnati 'thread (verb)' → ɕosnoli
čimrat 'let (someone) down' → ɬemlat
sưnǧu 'difficult' → sənləɪ̯
ưnǧu 'snare, trap' → ənləɪ̯
ǧưi 'put, set, place' → ləɪ̯i
marǧin 'stay, remain' → monlen
du 'crop(s)' → ləɪ̯
ǧubśư 'place, area' → lubɕəɪ̯
mačư 'throw, toss' → moləɪ̯
čư 'tree' → ɬəɪ̯

0 mɨgɨi → mɨgɨi → mi
1 bɨkə → bɨkə → vəɪ̯kəɪ̯
2 bətɕi → bətɕi → vəji
3 dʑɛɕak → dʑɛɕak → jejak
4 ɾatsbɔtɕ → latsbɔtɕ → lasboɕ
5 ə → ə → ə
6 ɕɛɨ → ɕɛi → ɕei

i → i → i
akɛ → akɛ → aki
ɔ → ɔ → u
ba → ba → va
kəap → kəap → xəap
ɔstɕɔ → ɔstɕɔ → əɪ̯sɕu
əɾ → əl → əl
tɕɔmɨ → tɕɔmɨ → ɕoməɪ̯

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod. [d͜zɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xaɾ kabɛɾ ɾu bɨfɛk ɾɨi t͜sɔsɔd] → [ɾəɪ̯ɾu o ɕi xol xowal ɾəɪ̯ vəɪ̯wek rəɪ̯i səɪ̯ɾol]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama. [kabɛɾ gat ɛk ɨd͜zɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔsɔ tama] → [xowal jat ek əɪ̯ɾu not ɕi vəɪ̯f ɕi u ɾəɪ̯ɾu təɪ̯ma]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. [ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin] → [li li li li li li li]

Proto-East Caber to Old Southeast Caber

C → [+ voiced] / V_V
tɕ dʑ → ts dz
Vm → Ṽw / _V
VN → Ṽ
Vm → Ṽw / _V
u ɔ → ɨ ə / _C[+ alveolar]
k g → ɕ ʑ / E_
ə ɛ → ɨ i / _l
F → Ø / _N
Retraction of stress to the penult
u ɨ i → ɔ ə ɛ / #_
{ɨ,ə,a}Ṽ {ɨ,ə,a}V → {ɨ̃,ə̃,ã}C[+ glide] {ɨ,ə,a}C[+ glide]
V{ɨ,ə,a} → C[+ glide]{ɨ,ə,a}
Other VV sequences turn the unstressed one into a glide
Regressive voicing assimilation
Two coronal fricatives in a row drop the first

dưmưś 'reed(s)' → ɮə̃wɨɕ
tin 'small' → ɬɛ
imbadu 'fan' → ɛ̃baɮu
coasti 'jam, (fruit) jelly' → kwaɬi
nuơsti 'classify; discern' → nwəɬi
nintu 'basin, depression' → nɛ̃ɬu
wandi 'suspect, think something or someone suspicious' → wãɮi
wandin 'parade around, walk around exaggeratedly' → wãɮɛ
baindi 'day, twenty-four-hour period' → bãjɮi
bidi 'pet (animal)' → biɮi
dihgor 'command, give orders' → ɮizgɨl
ćosnati 'thread (verb)' → tsənaɬi
čimrat 'let (someone) down' → tɬĩlat
sưnǧu 'difficult' → sə̃dɮu
ưnǧu 'snare, trap' → ə̃dɮu
ǧưi 'put, set, place' → dɮi
marǧin 'stay, remain' → maldɮɛ
du 'crop(s)' → ɮu
ǧubśư 'place, area' → dɮupɕɨ
mačư 'throw, toss' → madɮɨ
čư 'tree' → tɬɨ

0 mɨgɨi → mɨgɨj
1 bɨkə → bɨgə
2 bətɕi → bədzi
3 dʑɛɕak → dzɛʑak
4 ɾatsbɔtɕ → ladzbɔts
5 ə → ə
6 ɕɛɨ → ɕɛj

i → ɛ
akɛ → agɛ
ɔ → ɔ
ba → ba
kəap → kwap
ɔstɕɔ → əzdzɔ
əɾ → əl
tɕɔmɨ → tsɔ̃wɨ

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod. [d͜zɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xaɾ kabɛɾ ɾu bɨfɛk ɾɨi t͜sɔsɔd] → [dzəzɔ dɔ ɕɛ xal kabil ɾu bɨvɛk rɨi tsəzɨl]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama. [kabɛɾ gat ɛk ɨd͜zɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔsɔ tama] → [kabil gat ɛk ədzɔ nət ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ dzəzɔ tãwa]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. [ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin] → [lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ lɛ]

Old Southeast Caber to Modern Southeast Caber

v ɮ z ɣ → Ø l ɾ w
ɔ ɛ → o e
x → h
h → Ø / _{C,#}
u → ɨ
{ɨ,i} → j / _V
{ɨ,i} → j / V_
əj → ɨ
kj gj → c ɟ
{aw,wa} {aj,ja} → ɔ ɛ
l → n
j → Ø / C_E

dưmưś 'reed(s)' → nə̃wɨɕ
tin 'small' → ɬe
imbadu 'fan' → ẽbalɨ
coasti 'jam, (fruit) jelly' → kɔɬi
nuơsti 'classify; discern' → nwəɬi
nintu 'basin, depression' → nẽɬɨ
wandi 'suspect, think something or someone suspicious' → ɔ̃ni
wandin 'parade around, walk around exaggeratedly' → ɔ̃ne
baindi 'day, twenty-four-hour period' → bɛ̃ni
bidi 'pet (animal)' → bini
dihgor 'command, give orders' → niɾgɨn
ćosnati 'thread (verb)' → tsənaɬi
čimrat 'let (someone) down' → tɬĩnat
sưnǧu 'difficult' → sə̃dɮɨ
ưnǧu 'snare, trap' → ə̃dɮɨ
ǧưi 'put, set, place' → dɮi
marǧin 'stay, remain' → manne
du 'crop(s)' → nɨ
ǧubśư 'place, area' → dɮɨpɕɨ
mačư 'throw, toss' → madɮɨ
čư 'tree' → tɬɨ

0 mɨgɨi → mɨgɨj
1 bɨkə → bɨgə
2 bətɕi → bədzi
3 dʑɛɕak → dzɛɛk
4 ɾatsbɔtɕ → nadzbots
5 ə → ə
6 ɕɛɨ → ɕej

i → e
akɛ → age
ɔ → o
ba → ba
kəap → kɔp
ɔstɕɔ → əzdzo
əɾ → ən
tɕɔmɨ → tsõwɨ

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod. [d͜zɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xaɾ kabɛɾ ɾu bɨfɛk ɾɨi t͜sɔsɔd] → [dzəɾo do ɕe hal kabin ɾɨ bjek ɾɨi tsəɾɨn]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama. [kabɛɾ gat ɛk ɨd͜zɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔsɔ tama] → [kabin gat ek ədzo nət ɕe bɨf ɕe do dzəɾo tɔ̃a]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. [ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin] → [ne ne ne ne ne ne ne]

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Thu May 26, 2016 3:09 am 
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 8:21 pm
Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
A few more derivational affixes

-re: Locative of action

The affix -re (the -r- is dropped when following another r) indicates a characteristic location of an action.

ǧatfum 'walk' > ǧatfumre 'route'
čo 'teach' > čore 'school'
ośćiǧ 'defend' > ośćiǧre 'defensive position, high ground; hometown' (which meaning developed depends on the dialect)
mep 'stand' > mepre 'stand, podium, dais'
bor 'wither' > bore 'contaminated field, diseased field'
har 'nurture, raise' > hare 'home'
tama 'give back, give in return' > tamare 'customs house'
ota 'take' > otare 'backpack, knapsack'
carơ 'join together, fix' > carơre 'workstation'
rưsacoa 'destruction' > rưsacoare 'destroyed town'
ma 'glow' > mare ''
ơ 'sit (somewhere)' > ơre 'seat'

-i: Emitted or given off

The suffix -i indicates something given off as a result of an action.

ma 'glow' > mai 'glow'
ưstac 'sweat' > ưstaci 'sweat'
ơć 'urinate' > ơći 'urine'
tư 'extrude sap' > tưi 'sap, tree sap'
ơnơ 'cry, weep' > ơnơi 'tears'

-čV: Illimitable pattern of action

What Gary Shannon calls an "illimitable pattern of action" (the term may have been first used by Czwartek) in his list of derivational functions is represented by the ending -čV, where V is an echo vowel of the stem. I'll use the derivations he gave in his document to illustrate.

ǧatfum 'walk' > ǧatfumču 'walk, route, way, journey'
ưmư 'paint, write' > ưmưčư 'subject, topic'
mafa 'cook (food)' > mafača 'recipe'
ǧan 'sing' > ǧanča 'song'
čo 'teach' > čočo 'subject matter, lesson materials'

-s(V): Resultatives

This affix is sometimes used to produce gerunds from causative verbs in those dialects where the causative did not fossilize early on.

oǧ 'know' > oǧso 'knowledge'
čưr 'show something to someone' > čưrsư 'introduction, discovery, exposure'
zoce 'throw off sparks' > zoces 'sparks'
ǵon 'murder' > ǵonso 'murder'
repću 'speak' > repćus 'speech, quote'
čo 'teach' > čos 'instruction'
goč 'learn' > gočso 'education, knowledge'
otgoć 'hit, fight with' > otgoćso 'feud, bad blood'

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat May 28, 2016 2:52 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat May 28, 2016 3:38 am 
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Wandering Caber

Thinking of developing a Caber language that was spoken in an area to the southwest, now dominated by the Tlar Canà languages. This language either died out five hundred years before the year of the setting or continues on as a minority language, I'm not sure which.

Changes from Common Caber to five hundred years prior to the setting:

a → ɔ / _K
b d g → w l Ø / V_V
x → s / _K
ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ→ ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ
t d s z ts dz → tʲ dʲ ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ / _{u,ɨ,i}
l ɾ → ʎ j / _{u,ɨ,i}
k g x → kʲ gʲ xʲ → c ɟ j / _{u,ɨ,i}
ɔ ə ɛ → u ɨ i
w → j / _V
uˈV ˈVu {ɨ,i}ˈV ˈV{i,ɨ} → wV Vw jV Vj
Ba aB {ɨ,i}a a{ɨ,i} → wa aw ja aj
ww jj → v dʒ
u ɨ i → ɔ ə ɛ / _{w,j}
u ɨ i → ɔ ə ɛ / {w,j}_
V(w,j)N → V̀(w,j) / ! _V
V(w,j){S[+ voice],l,ʎ,ɾ} → V̀(w,j)ʔ / ! _V
V(w,j)F → V(w,j)h → V́(w,j) / ! _V
V(w,j)S[-voice] → V́(w,j)ʔ / ! _V
x → h / V_V
x → k / #_
x → Ø
ɨ → ə
t(ʲ) d(ʲ) ts dz → ʔ ɦ t d
ʔb ʔd ʔɟ ʔg → ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
C[- voice]V̀ C[- voice]V́ → CV̄ CV́ (/w j/ do not count as consonants for the purpose of this rule)
C[+voice]V̀ C[+ voice]V́ → CV̀ CV̌ (/w j/ do not count as consonants for the purpose of this rule)
C → C[+ voice] / V_V
ʔ → Ø / _C
ə → a

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod.
[d͜zɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xaɾ kabɛɾ ɾu bɨfɛk ɾɨi t͜sɔsɔd] → [dǔzú ɦǔ ʃí kāʔ kájɛ̀ʔ jú bǎvíʔ dʒǐ túzūʔ]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama.
[kabɛɾ gat ɛk ɨd͜zɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔsɔ tama] → [kájɛ̀ʔ gǎʔ íʔ áʔú nǔʔ ʃí bǎ ʃí ɦǔ dǔzú ʔámá]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin.
[ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin] → [jɛ̀ jɛ̀ jɛ̀ jɛ̀ jɛ̀ jɛ̀ jɛ̀]

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sat May 28, 2016 8:08 am 
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The collective plural

The collective plural in Common Caber was marked using a suffix -(V)r, where V is an epenthetic echo vowel appearing if a cluster would be created word-finally. In most branches of Caber it has fallen out of use, remaining only on some nouns (like "Caber").

cabe 'person' > caber 'people; Caber'
nuơc 'road' > nuơcơr 'all the roads, roads in general, roads as a whole'
besrơ 'mountain' > besrơr 'all the mountains, mountains in general, mountains as a whole'
caơ 'bean' > caơr 'all the beans, beans in general, beans as a whole'
ǧubśư 'place, area' > ǧubśưr 'everywhere'
gum 'pennant, flag' > gumur 'all the flags, flags in general, flags as a whole'

The past tense

The past tense is typically marked using a suffix -če; if an affricate already ends the word, it is replaced. Certain vowel-final verbs mark it using -t, but this is rare.

rin 'kill' > rinče 'killed'
tama 'give back, give in return' > tamače 'gave back, gave in return'
ćơr 'give birth' > ćơrče 'gave birth'
ǵơn 'die' > ǵơnče 'died'
sơdri 'bounce' > sơdriče 'bounced'
otgoć 'hit, fight with' > otgoče 'hit, fought with'
ưmư 'paint, write' > ưmưče 'painted, wrote'
goč 'learn' > goče 'learned'

me 'go, leave' > met 'went, left'
ci 'arrive, get somewhere' > cit 'arrived, got somewhere'
iści 'mix' > iścit 'mixed'
repću 'speak, say' > repćut 'spoke, said'

The verb robe 'hit with the head, headbutt' is an anomaly. North, East, and Central Caber inherited the ending -če for the past tense of this verb, whereas the other branches inherited the form with the past tense in -t.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Mon May 30, 2016 1:20 am 
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(a)n-: Characteristic passive

This is like s(o)-, except it has a passive sense. The n assimilates to a following obstruent.

edren 'complain' > nedren 'problem, issue'
iscip 'punish' > niscip 'someone who has a judgment carried out against them'
dơs 'drop, let go of' > andơs 'refuse, garbage'
repću 'speak, say' > anrepću 'speech, language instinct'
ǧan 'sing' > anǧan 'song'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > ambaśam 'bone of contention'
baw 'vomit' > ambaw 'vomitus'
fa 'blow' > amfa 'blast'
miśin 'hang' > anmiśin 'clothing'
ư 'suspend' > nư 'plumb bob, plumb line'
mafa 'cook (food)' > anmafa 'feast'

ưf-: Characteristic substances of actions

taran 'glue' > ưftaran 'glue'
suir 'shine (up)' > ưfsuir 'lacquer'
hưir 'chew' > ưfhưir 'saliva'
achar 'burn' > ưfachar 'firewood, kindling'

Participles

These may be subject to considerable revision. Participle tense is generally with respect to the primary verb.

ti-: Nonpast active participle

A sequence -ii- simplifies to -i-.

edren 'complain' > tiedren 'complainant, (someone) complaining'
iscip 'punish' > tiscip '(someone/something) punishing'
repću 'speak, say' > tirepću '(someone) speaking'
ǧan 'sing' > tiǧan '(someone) singing'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > tibaśam '(someone/something) looking for a fight'
baw 'vomit' > tibaw '(someone) vomiting'
mafa 'cook (food)' > anmafa '(someone) cooking'

om-/on-: Nonpast passive participle

The form om- is the basic form, with the nasal assimilating to a following consonant. A sequence -mm- simplifies to -m-.

iscip 'punish' > omiscip '(being) punished'
repću 'speak, say' > onrepću '(being) spoken'
ǧan 'sing' > onǧan '(being) sung'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > ombaśam '(being) instigated'
baw 'vomit' > ombaw '(being) vomited up'
mafa 'cook (food)' > omafa '(being) cooked'

č(a)-: Past active participle

edren 'complain' > čedren '(who was) complaining'
iscip 'punish' > čiscip '(who was) punishing'
repću 'speak, say' > čarepću '(who was) speaking'
ǧan 'sing' > čaǧan '(who was) singing'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > čabaśam '(who was) looking for a fight'
baw 'vomit' > čabaw '(who was) vomiting'
mafa 'cook (food)' > čamafa '(who was) cooking'

ne-: Past passive participle

A sequence -ee- simplifies to a single -e-.

iscip 'punish' > neiscip 'punished'
repću 'speak, say' > nerepću 'spoken'
ǧan 'sing' > neǧan 'sung'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > nebaśam 'instigated'
baw 'vomit' > nebaw 'vomited up'
mafa 'cook (food)' > nemafa 'cooked'

(h)a-: Nonpast active circumstantial

A sequence aa- becomes ha-.

edren 'complain' > aedren '(while) complaining'
iscip 'punish' > aiscip '(while) punishing'
repću 'speak, say' > arepću '(while) speaking'
ǧan 'sing' > aǧan '(while) singing'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > abaśam '(while) looking for a fight'
baw 'vomit' > abaw '(while) vomiting'
mafa 'cook (food)' > amafa '(while) cooking'

ơ-/ư-: Nonpast passive circumstantial

This affix surfaces as ư- before ơ-.

iscip 'punish' > dơiscip '(having been) punished'
repću 'speak, say' > ơrepću '(having been) spoken'
ǧan 'sing' > ơǧan '(having been) sung'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > ơbaśam '(having been) instigated'
baw 'vomit' > ơbaw '(having been) vomited up'
mafa 'cook (food)' > ơmafa '(having been) cooked'

hư-: Past active circumstantial

edren 'complain' > hưedren '(while) complaining'
iscip 'punish' > hưiscip '(while) punishing'
repću 'speak, say' > hưrepću '(while) speaking'
ǧan 'sing' > hưǧan '(while) singing'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > hưbaśam '(while) looking for a fight'
baw 'vomit' > hưbaw '(while) vomiting'
mafa 'cook (food)' > hưmafa '(while) cooking'

r(a)-: Past passive circumstantial

iscip 'punish' > riscip '(having been) punished'
repću 'speak, say' > rarepću '(having been) spoken'
ǧan 'sing' > raǧan '(having been) sung'
baśam 'pick a fight, instigate' > rabaśam '(having been) instigated'
baw 'vomit' > rabaw '(having been) vomited up'
mafa 'cook (food)' > ramafa '(having been) cooked'

Hưcioc, ota osćo.
hư-ci-oc ota osćo
PST.ACT.CIRC.PTCP-get.somewhere-PL take 3PL.M

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Tue May 31, 2016 2:48 am 
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A new batch of logograms:


Top row: cưh 'remove, replace', dagư 'count, take stock of', ri 'fret, worry (about)', rưś 'be drunk'
Second row: hơnsi 'pass out, faint', birgeč 'window', nac 'opportunity', reidi 'chance, odds, luck'
Third row: caf 'mushroom, fungus', wantet 'knead (dough), massage', gaf 'lid, cover, top, cap', mơg 'throb'
Bottom row: fama 'pillow', cưsti 'thicket, patch of weeds', ưac 'chalk', cihal 'fake, deceptive, false'

Characters for the participles:


Characters for derivational/inflectional morphemes:

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Tue May 31, 2016 8:31 am 
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Editing the sound changes for North Caber a bit…

Common Caber to Old North Caber

ɨ → ə / P_
ts dz s z k g x → tɕ dʑ ɕ ʑ ts dz ɕ / _{ɛ,i}
a → ə / _(C)(C){ɔ,ɛ}
{ɔ,ə,ɛ} → a / _ɾ
ɨ → i
VNV → ṼṼ
VN → Ṽ / _C
ɾ → Ø
ɔ ə ɛ → u ɨ i / _CCV(C)#
f → w / V_V
f → Ø
p b → ts dz / _i
z → ɾ / V_V
V → Ø / VC_# if both vowels are the same
V → Ø / V_ if both vowels are the same
u ɨ i → ɔ ə ɛ / _ɾ
u ɨ i → ɔ ə ɛ / #_
m n → Ø i / E_#
{t,d} → Ø / _#

Ǧoso do śe har caber ru bưfec rưi čosod. [d͜zɔsɔ dɔ ɕɛ xaɾ kabɛɾ ɾu bɨfɛk ɾɨi t͜sɔsɔd] → [d͜zɔs dɔ ɕɛ xa kəba ɔ bəwɛk ɛ t͜sɔsɔ]
Caber gat ec ưǧo not śe bưf śe do ǧoso tama. [kabɛɾ gat ɛk ɨd͜zɔ nɔt ɕɛ bɨf ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔsɔ tama] → [kəba ga ɛk ɛd͜zɔ nɔ ɕɛ bə ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔs tã]
Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. Rin. [ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin ɾin] → [ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯]

i 1SG → ɛ
ace 1PL → ətsɛ
o 2SG → ɔ
ba 2PL → ba
cơap 3SG.M → kəap
osćo 3SG.F → ustɕɔ
ơr 3PL.M → a
ćomư 3PL.F → tɕɔ̃ĩ

0 mɨgɨi → məgi
1 bɨkə → bək
2 bətɕi → bətɕi
3 dʑɛɕak → dʑɛɕak
4 ɾatsbɔtɕ → ɨtsbɔtɕ
5 ə → ə
6 ɕɛɨ → ɕɛi

Old North Caber to North Caber

ɔ ə ɛ → u ɨ i / _K
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / V_V
V[- stress] → Ø
Ø → ə / #_RO
Voicing assimilation
ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ → s z ts dz
VN → V[+ nasalized] / _#
m n → b d
x → ʃ
ɾ → d
{ɔ,ə,ɛ}i̯ → aɪ̯
{u,ɨ}i̯ ii̯ → əɪ̯ ɛi̯
ɨ → i / #(C)_
ɨ → ə
S → N / _Ṽ
Ø → n / {F,C[+ affricate]}_Ṽ
Ṽ → [-nasal]
ii̯ → i
u i → ɔʊ̯ ɛɪ̯ / #(P)(w)_K
ɔ ə a ɛ → u ɨ əɪ̯ i / {F,C[+affricate]}_#
ɔ ə ɛ → aʊ̯ əɪ̯ aɪ̯ / N_
F → Ø / _#

[d͜zɔs dɔ ɕɛ xa kəba ɔ bəwɛk ɛ t͜sɔsɔ] → [d͜zɔ dɔ si ʃəɪ̯ gba ɔ bwɛɪ̯k ɛ d͜zu]
[kəba ga ɛk ɛd͜zɔ nɔ ɕɛ bə ɕɛ dɔ d͜zɔs tã] → [gba ga ɛɪ̯k d͜zu naʊ̯ si bə si dɔ d͜zɔ na]
[ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯ ɛi̯] → [aɪ̯ aɪ̯ aɪ̯ aɪ̯ aɪ̯ aɪ̯ aɪ̯]

ɛ → ɛ
ətsɛ → dzi
ɔ → ɔ
ba → ba
kəap → kap
ustɕɔ → stsu
a → a
tɕɔ̃ĩ → tsni

məgi → əbgi
bək → bɛɪ̯k
bətɕi → bdzi
dʑɛɕak → dzak
ɨtsbɔtɕ → dzbɔts
ə → ə
ɕɛi → si

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Jun 01, 2016 12:05 pm 
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Top row: ưgǵam 'brave', rơs 'bring', mafca 'sled, sledge', ur 'rye', nar 'oat plant'
Second row: ticar 'food', mor 'just (now)', tưr 'sieve (verb)', tunoc 'society', tih 'gradual'
Third row: tuhuc 'insolent, irreverent', tuon 'crawl', cafcar 'shoulder blade, scapula', čona 'shallow', miǧ 'deep'
Fourth row: ưgǵar 'famine (verb)', fiǧ 'dribble (of saliva)', dunur 'thatch (verb)', ad 'pinecone', duhac 'whetstone'
Bottom row: tưf 'plantains', dưm 'plate (metal)', śưm 'digging stick', tưar 'kidneys', dư 'scar'

The verb ưgǵar 'famine' is often used with a word such as ćam 'ground', baćam 'world', rư 'field', or bore 'diseased field, contaminated field' as a subject:

Ba ćam ưgǵarče.
ba ćam ưgǵarče
DEF ground famine-PST
'there was a famine' (lit. 'the ground famined')

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Fri Jun 03, 2016 5:31 am 
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Top row: čas 'decide', tơǧ 'own, possess', gisưc 'wise, smart, intelligent', čơr 'foreign, alien', ưtus 'soap'
Second row: bơnas 'trumpet, war-horn', čośtam 'lunch', tư 'bleed', čưda 'ready', ǧando 'boil, heat'
Third row: tưdor 'cart', ưstin 'tin', ćar 'iron', ưdơr 'rust', tač 'gold'
Fourth row: ưdo 'silver', ơsta 'whittle, carve', ưfi 'swallow', o 'pipe, tube', fơs 'brick, ingot'
Bottom row: gor 'toad', zif 'type of pack animal', on 'fat, adipose tissue', ǧưtar 'mess, disorder', utaf 'trap, trick, hazard'

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Sun Jun 05, 2016 12:49 am 
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Top row: śos 'have a headache', tiga 'crumble, fall apart', gơt 'callus', ćuc 'rig, jury-rig, set up, kludge', ưsći 'climb, ascend'
Second row: giǵo 'cooking pot', da 'type of bird', ruc 'type of fish', tuśa 'gamble, wager, bet', gir 'lick'
Third row: rưci 'crossroads, junction', taga 'scratch, itch', taǵa 'drag', zag 'game', śưs 'play, horse around'
Fourth row: daz 'mane; fog', cơśi 'slick, slippery', dưś 'lard, fat product', gariz 'pour', ưć 'cream, ointment'
Fifth row: dawơs 'starve', dawơz 'slaughter', giz 'trim, cut (down)', ǵơb 'evaporate, disappear', ćưscư 'clot, thicken'

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 10:43 pm 
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Top row: daǵưr 'fight, argue', borưs 'bend in the wind', he 'matter, be important', gaǵ 'catch', hơp 'pump', aǧač 'repeat', čư 'peat', cưǧ 'face (verb)', naśa 'cross, go across or over', gưhưt 'arrest'
Second row: ač 'pain', čưcoa 'infection, sore, abscess', śưm 'hut, yurt', acoơ 'monkey', śaơ 'spider', ćorưs 'centipede, millipede', dauč 'beam, support', saưś 'fry, toast', aha 'laugh', ưnćir 'staff'
Third row: gơać 'type of bird', uơ 'clay', ǵadaǧ 'refuse', soưś 'cave', soưs 'look up to, have as a role model', čodưć 'funnel', narha 'island', nara 'tell a secret', garhi 'trust', sore 'be worth'
Fourth row: cadan 'balance (verb)', ưgǵi 'climb, scale', tas 'summit, peak', cafar 'turn, change direction', aǵ 'win, defeat', sơ 'lose, be defeated, be conquered', ǧiro 'lips', sacam 'touch', ag REFLEXIVE, čaǵon 'prize'
Fifth row: ro 'create', taran 'glue (verb)', suir 'shine, polish (verb)', iscơr 'fear, be terrified (of), be afraid (of)', wigam 'doubt (verb)', padơ 'hole through a rock formation, natural arch', bưćam 'type of mushroom', sưćin 'decide, make up one's mind', ǧưm 'take action, act', zơg 'cover, envelop'
Sixth row: wab 'pus', aśa 'brush up against', arơm 'sod', adih 'slope, grade', ơt 'open wound', ơśưm 'spot, location', ǧor 'compose, write, come up with', ǧimni 'gold dust', paơs 'shatter, disintegrate', barơr 'floor'
Seventh row: dơrưs 'random', giǵam '', ǧom 'poison (noun)', śơd 'type of aquatic animal with a shell', hica 'unique', aeh 'type of fabric', roś 'medicinal herb', rugwas 'secure, make safe', sesư 'feature, landmark', gauat 'dialogue, conversation, discussion'
Eighth row: hepse 'surround', ro 'topic, issue, matter of discussion, talking point', noti 'intend', peos 'help', ima 'dart', us 'copy, mimic', socur 'nut, tree nut', bangangơ 'choose, select', pite 'look after, care for', amiri 'village'
Ninth row: cen 'tongue', haśo 'ambitious', tahci 'spur', foś 'lava', forưs 'heel of the hand, part of the palm close to where the wrist meets the hand', tahći 'rice', ưdi 'lye solution', ersơś 'type of fermented drink', ơsum 'type of fruit juice'
Bottom row: ragam 'for a long time', fado 'crease, fold', fơzin 'tire, exhaust', dưǵon 'year', wandin 'parade around, walk around exaggeratedly', pim 'chimes', śuh 'slip of paper', ahton 'porch, veranda', ohen 'come from a people group, come from a certain place, come from, hail from'

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Tue Aug 23, 2016 10:32 pm 
Avisaru
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Top row: tag 'pain, injury', rưf 'gain', sac 'lose', u 'lean on', pabaz 'compose'
Second row: zư 'grind (using a millstone)', maz 'drag', ǧe 'dark (hue or tint)', maơǧ 'light (hue or tint)', wair 'barb, thorn, spike'
Third row: deơc 'hurt, cause pain', cưǧ 'measure, weigh', bi 'young, new', zagaw 'type of animal', nou 'cheap shot'
Fourth row: maǵdin 'type of bird', bam 'outrigger (boat)', izoc 'join two people in marriage', caz 'old', wơb 'perform (action or art)'
Fifth row: bitưr 'forget', du 'remember', ǧu 'corner', agư 'turn (verb)', gơmơm 'mimic, imitate; rhyme'

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Tue Mar 21, 2017 10:40 pm 
Avisaru
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Well, I got all the content words digitized. Now all that's left is a few prepositions, I think.

----------------

Been working on a descendant logography: Calligraphic Caber. Most glyphs get flipped ninety degrees counterclockwise, although a few (like 'dissolve') escape this. I was going for a Naduta-like flow with some characters being different widths. Whether some glyphs will stack, I don't know.

The bottom four are the pronouns—first, second, third masculine, and third feminine. (Please pardon the roughness of the glyphs—I'm a bit pressed for time so I couldn't make them look as good as I'd have hoped.)


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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Mar 22, 2017 7:04 am 
Smeric
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I find this thread slightly erotic.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Tue Mar 28, 2017 8:31 pm 
Avisaru
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I'm thinking that one Caber cognitive metaphor would be SEEING IS POSSESSION. Then, from POSSESSION IS OBLIGATION, one could logically extend this to SEEING IS OBLIGATION. Maybe some verb tenses could be derived from 'see'—perhaps a future tense, or a desiderative. So you could get constructions like:

ba ưčoc fe i mep ta cơap
ba ưčo-c fe i mep ta cơap
DEF eye-PL GEN 1SG stand toward 3SG.M
'my eyes are toward it' (= 'I have it' or 'I must do it')

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Mar 29, 2017 6:29 am 
Smeric
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While possession would seem (to me) to be an easily constructed extension of observation, I'm not sure the same argument for obligation would be as convincing. So, 'my eyes are toward it' does suggest possession (or at least tentative possession) it does not suggest (to me) that something "must be done" or even possessed.

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 Post subject: Re: Caber Logograms
PostPosted: Wed Mar 29, 2017 6:35 pm 
Avisaru
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