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 Post subject: Sernećlaća
PostPosted: Sun Jun 28, 2015 5:37 pm 
Lebom
Lebom

Joined: Sun Jun 01, 2014 1:35 pm
Posts: 134
Sernećlaća /sɛr.nɛʧ.ˈla.ʧa/

Phonology

Sernećlaća has 22 distinct consonants, and 5 distinct vowels. Leading to 27 distinct phonemes.

/m n ɲ/ <m n ń>
/p b t d k g/ <p b t d k g>
/ts dz tʃ dʒ/ <c j ć j́>
/f v s z ʃ ʒ/ <f v s z ś ź>
/l ʎ r/ <l ł r>

/ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ a/ <i u e o a> + <´> for stress.

<rerksicći> /rɛrk.ˈsɪʦ.ʧɪ/ “bee-eater”
<mondraźśetka> /mɔn.draʒ.ˈʃɛt.ka/ “male cousin”
<kindúmtaći> /kɪn.ˈdʊm.ta.ʧɪ/ “knee”
<łimńi> /ˈʎɪm.ɲɪ/ “husband”

Phonotactics

(C1)(C2)V(C3)(C4)

Onset
First consonant (C1): Can be any consonant.
Second consonant (C2): If the first consonant is a stop, a fricative or an affricate then and only then a liquid is permitted as the second consonant.

Nucleus
Vowel (V): Can be any vowel.

Coda
First consonant (C3): Can be any consonant
Second consonant (C4): If first consonant is a liquid, then and only then a stop, a fricative or an affricate are permitted as the second consonant.

CV and CVC are most common syllable types in Sernećlaća, while in contrast, CVCC and CCV, are the rarest.

Stress

In a word of three or more syllables, the last syllable of the root is generally stressed, which is usually the penult syllable of the word. A word may also be stressed on the antepenult or last syllable if certain affixes are added. If the word has less than three syllables, the first, or the only, syllable is generally stressed then.

The stress is marked only on words that does not follow this pattern.

Allophony and other processes

The vowels, /ɪ, ʊ, ɛ, ɔ, a/, are raised and become long, [iː, uː, eː, oː, əː], when stressed.

<kaj́sa> /ˈkaʤ.sa/ [ˈkəːʤ.sa]

Non-palatal consonants become palatalized before front vowels [ɪ, ɛ, iː, eː] and palatals [ɲ, c, ɟ, ʎ], except the velars /k, g/ which becomes palatals [c, ɟ] instead.

<kirći> /ˈkɪr.ʧɪ/ [ˈciːr.ʧʲɪ]

Unstressed vowels are deleted when occurring in the context /VCVCV/, in a single vowel with a single consonant on both sides. This also applies across word boundaries.

<lúpiba> /ˈlʊ.pi.ba/ [ˈluːpʲ.ba]
<gubi vevri> /ˈgʊ.bɪ ˈvɛ.vrɪ/ [ˈguːbʲ ˈvʲeː.vrʲɪ]

Complex consonant clusters of three or more consonants are never allowed to appear together, including across word boundaries. When such a situation would occur, an epenthetic vowel [ɛ] is inserted between the second and third consonants. A similar process happens on loanwords to prevent non-Sernećlaća consonant clusters.

<geńebkas śrut> /gɛ.ˈɲɛb.kas ʃrʊt/ [ɟɛ.ˈɲeːb.kas ʃʲɛrʊt]
<lavźeśvńi> /lav.ˈʒɛʃv.ɲɪ/ [lav.ˈʒʲeːʃ.vʲɛ.ɲɪ]
<Gdańsk> /ˈɡdaɲsk/ [ɟɛ.ˈdəːɲ.sʲɛk]

If a word ends with an unstressed vowel and the next word begins with the same unstressed vowel, they merge in speech, producing a single vowel.

<cońsa akaja> /ˈʦɔɲ.sa a.ˈka.ʣa/ [ˈʦoːɲ.sa ˈkəː.ʣa]

Grammar

Morphology

Noun

Nouns are marked for definiteness (definite or indefinite), number (singular, dual and plural), possession (alienable or unalienable) and case (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, comitative, ablative, locative, allative, essive and translative). The linear order of the affixes obey the following order.

Definiteness + Root + Number + Possession + Case

Definiteness

Sernećlaća nouns usually have either definite or indefinite form. The definite form of Sernećlaća nouns receive the /ma/- prefix, while the Indefinite nouns are unmarked.

<kalé> /ka.ˈlɛ/ “a boy” <peśaśa> /pɛ.ˈʃa.ʃa/ “a girl”
<makalé> /ma.ka.ˈlɛ/ “the boy” <mapeśaśa> /ma.pɛ.ˈʃa.ʃa/ “the girl”

With some nouns, whose meaning is inherently definite (<maza> /ˈma.za/ “moon”, <nasep> /ˈna.sep/ “happiness”, names), the use of the prefix is optional.

Number

Sernećlaća marks three number distinctions. The singular is unmarked, the dual is marked with the suffix -/rɛ/ and the plural with suffix -/ra/. However, if the preceding syllable ends with a consonant, -/lɛ/ and -/la/ are used, respectively, for dual and plural.

<mona> /ˈmɔ.na/ “man” <źur> /ˈʒur/ “tree”
<monare> /mɔ.ˈna.rɛ/ “ two men” <źurle> /ˈʒur.lɛ/ “two trees”
<monara> /mɔ.ˈna.ra/ “ men” <źurla> /ˈʒur.la/ “trees”

Possessiveness

Sernećlaća marks two types of possession, inalienable or organic and alienable or proprietary. Kinship terms(mother, son, uncle), body parts (hand, legs), possessed noun is originated from the possessor (tear, sweat), mental states, processes (idea, mind, fear), and attributes (height, age, name) fall under unalienable possession. All others are alienable.

Inalienable form

Sernećlaća nouns of the inalienable form are expressed by the following suffixes:
-/kɪ/, 1sg: <j́avj́iki> /ˈʤav.ʤɪ.kɪ/ "my head" <kućriki> /ˈkʊʧ.rɪ.kɪ/ “my heart”.
-/ʊp/, 2sg : <kovup> /ˈkɔ.vʊp/ “your eye” <bukcup> /ˈbʊk.ʦʊp/ “your leg”.
-/vʊ/, 3sg: <kaj́savu> /ˈkaʤ.sa.vʊ/ “his/her brother” <śeńsu> /ˈʃɛɲ.sa.vʊ/ “his/her son”.

-/(t)vɪ/, 1pl: <j́ávj́iratvi> /ˈʤav.ʤɪ.rat.vɪ/ "our heads" <kúćriratvi> /ˈkʊʧ.rɪ.rat.vɪ/ “our hearts”.
-/ʃʊ/, 2pl: <kóviraśu> /ˈkɔ.vɪ.ra.ʃʊ/ “your eyes” <búkcirati> /ˈbʊk.ʦɪ.ra.tɪ/ “your legs”.
-/ˈa/, 3pl: <kaj́sá> /kaʤ.ˈsa/ “their brother” <śeńsá> /ʃɛɲ.ˈsa/ “theirs son”.

Alienable form

Sernećlaća nouns of the alienable form are expressed by the following suffixes:
-/sɪ/, 1sg: <triśsi> /ˈtrɪʃ.sɪ/ "my book";
-/ʒɪ/, 2sg: <triśźi> /ˈtrɪʃ.ʒɪ/ "your book";
-/ɪ/, 3sg: <triśi> /ˈtrɪ.ʃɪ/ "his/her book".

-/tɪ/, 1pl: <unti> /ˈʊn.tɪ/"our home";
-/ʃʊʒ/ 2pl: <unśuź> /ˈʊn.ʃʊʒ/ "your home";
-/ʒa/ 3pl: <unźa>/ˈʊn.ʒa/ "their home".

Obs: Unlike the pronouns (soon), the dual and plural aren't distinguished from one another on possessive suffixes.


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 Post subject: Re: Sernećlaća
PostPosted: Tue Jun 30, 2015 5:02 am 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Wed Mar 30, 2005 4:22 pm
Posts: 370
Location: UK
Interestingly complex phonotactics. I like it.

Could you say "j́avj́isi" to refer to, say, a sculpture you owned?


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 Post subject: Re: Sernećlaća
PostPosted: Wed Jul 01, 2015 1:20 pm 
Lebom
Lebom

Joined: Sun Jun 01, 2014 1:35 pm
Posts: 134
Mornche Geddick wrote:
Interestingly complex phonotactics. I like it.

Could you say "j́avj́isi" to refer to, say, a sculpture you owned?

If it made sense in context, sure. But alone, it would be ungrammatical.


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 Post subject: Re: Sernećlaća
PostPosted: Wed Sep 23, 2015 8:24 pm 
Lebom
Lebom

Joined: Sun Jun 01, 2014 1:35 pm
Posts: 134
Case

In Sernećlaća nouns are marked for 7 cases:

Nominative: Marks of the subject of the sentence, that is, the case of the noun performing the action of the verb. It is unmarked.

Accusative: Mark the direct object of a transitive verb. Marked with -/nɛs/.

Genitive: Marks possession, composition, reference, or source. Marked with -/ɔm/.

<kikámsom un>
/kɪ.’kam.sɔm ʊn/
1.SG.POSS-mother-GEN house
“My mother’s house”

Dative: Marks the indirect object of an transitive verb, or the recipient of an action. Marked with -/mʊs/.

Comitative: Marks the someone or something with which the action is done by, with or through. Marked with -/vɪ/.

Ablative: Marks separation, movement away from something or someone. Marked with -/ʒɔs/.

Locative: Marks location, place where an action is performed. Marked with -/ɔʒ/.

When i finish verbs i will comeback to this.

Verbs

In the Sernećlaća language, the morphological structure of verbs is peculiar by its difficulty. A rather large quantity of prefixes, suffixes and reduplication, both partial and full, are used to express different verbal categories.

Reciprocal/Reflexive + Subject + Object + Applicative + Negation + Causative/Involuntative + Preverb + Root + Aspect + Tense + Voice + Negation + Mood/Potential/Evidential + Interrogative.

Reciprocity

The verb in the reciprocal form expresses that the subject and the object(s) act on each other simultaneously. The reciprocal prefix is /rɪ/-.

<ricaźłepło>
/rɪ.tsa.’ʒʎɛp.ʎɔ/
RECP-1PL-left-PRET
“We left each other”

Reflexivity

The verb in the reflexive form expresses that the subject of the action is the same as the object. The reflexive preffix is /zɪ/-.

<zisebererla>
/zɪ.sɛ.’bɛ.rɛr.la/
REFL-1SG-carry-PRES
“I carry myself”

Subject & Object

Sernećlaća distinguishes three persons, first, second and third, and three numbers singular, dual and plural. Verbal person markers indicate the person of the subject and then object of a verb.

Subject markers:

/sɛ/-, 1 sg. /ʣɛ/-, 1 du. /tsa/-, 1 pl.
/vɛ/-, 2 sg. /fɛ/-, 2 du. /kɔ/-, 2 pl.
/ma/-, 3 sg. /mɔ/-, 3 du. /ʃa/-, 3 pl.

Object markers:

-/s/-, 1 sg. -/z/-, 1 du. -/d/-, 1 pl.
-/f/-, 2 sg. -/v/-, 2 du. -/b/-, 2 pl.
-/l/-, 3 sg. -/ʎ/-, 3 du. -/r/-, 3 pl.


Indefinite Person

The affix -/kɛ/- express that the verb’s subject or object is indefinite or unknown to the speaker. Therefore, it replaces the respective subject or object affix.

Applicative

The verb in the applicative voice expresses for whose benefit the action is performed. Its preffix -/(a)n/ is placed immediately after the prefix for the subject & object whose benefit the action is performed.

<sefanvreźło>
/sɛ.fan.’vrɛʒ.ʎɔ/
1SG-2SG-APPL-write-PRET
“I wrote for you”

Negation

The negation of the verb is expressed with the preffix /rɔm/-.

<seromźłepla>
/sɛ.rɔm.’ʒʎɛp.la/
1SG-NEG-leave-PRES
“I’m not leaving.”

Causative

The verb in the causative category indicates that the subject makes someone or something else, usually the object, to do or be the action expressed by the verb. The prefix is /da/-.

makalé mavégrasnes mafá
/ma.ka.’lɛ ma.‘vɛ.gras.nɛs ma.‘fa/
DEF-boy-[NOM] DEF-field-ACC 3SG-go
“The boy goes into the field.”

mapeśaśa makalenes mavégrasnes madafá
/pɛ.’ʃa.ʃa ma.ka.’lɛ.nɛs ma.‘vɛ.gras.nɛs ma.da.‘fa/
DEF-Girl-[NOM] DEF-boy-ACC DEF-field-ACC 3SG-CAUS-go
“The girl sends the boy into the field.”
Causative can also be used with verb in the reflexive form.

Zigałerkkój
/zɪ.ga.ʎɛrk.’kɔdz/
REFL-CAUS-hit
“To make someone hit himself”

Involuntative

The verb in the involuntative category expresses that the subject performed the action expressed by the verb unintentionally. The prefix is /ɔʃ/-.

mapeśaśa makalenes malośłerkkój
/pɛ.’ʃa.ʃa ka.’lɛ.nɛs ma.lɔʃ.ʎɛrk.’kɔdz/
DEF-Girl-[NOM] DEF-boy-ACC 3SG-3SG-INVOL-hit
“The girl hit the boy (unintentionally)”

Thats it for now.


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