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PostPosted: Sun Feb 26, 2017 3:03 am 
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More on Archaic Wǫkratąk. Citation forms are the first-person singular.

The subjunctive is used for hypothetical or counterfactual events.

bǫCaCCo SUBJUNCTIVE PAST
bęCaCCo SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT
bęC:aCCo SUBJUNCTIVE IMMINENT FUTURE
weCaCCo SUBJUNCTIVE FUTURE

Bǫsaktęt.
stand/3SG.SUBJ.PST
'Perhaps it stood.'

Bǫntom?
eat/2SG.SUBJ.PST
'Could you have eaten?' (cf. Nǫtom? 'Did you eat?')

Ṃbǫŋąr, bǫlaktęt.
go.out/1PL.INDIC.PST win/3SG.SUBJ.PST
'Because we went out, maybe he won.'

Ṃbǫŋąr, welaktęt.
go.out/1PL.INDIC.PST win/3SG.SUBJ.FUT
'Because we went out, he might win.'

The optative is used both when stating a hoped-for outcome of an event and for making requests. Prenasalized stops become plain voiced stops.

nǫCaCCo OPTATIVE PAST
nęCaCCo OPTATIVE PRESENT
iNCa~CCo OPTATIVE IMMINENT FUTURE (nasalization spreads to the first vowel in the stem; i~ > e~)
iNCaCCo OPTATIVE FUTURE

Nǫsaktę ne.
stand/3SG.OPT.PAST perhaps
'Perhaps it stood.' (Implication: I hope it stood.)

Ą kęndo e imbąŋąk. . .
2SG ask/1SG.INDIC.PRES that go.out/1SG.OPT.IMM.FUT
'I ask you if we may go out. . .'

The jussive is used for commands, requests, and imperatives. Due to the nature of the mood, only the two future tenses can be used with it.

oNCaCCo JUSSIVE IMMINENT FUTURE
oCaCCo JUSSIVE FUTURE

Onlakot!
win/2SG.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'Win (now)!'

Olaktet.
win/3SG.JUSS.FUT
'Let him win.'

Ą kęrto, opahtet.
2SG command/1SG.INDIC.PRES die/3SG.JUSS.FUT
'I command you to let him die.'

Bęṃṃbaŋer, mę ommagel.
go.out/2PL.SUBJ.IMM.FUT 3SG.INAN buy/2PL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'If you (are about to) go, buy it.'

And now for the passives. Hoo, boy, have I got my work cut out for me.

Subjunctives

obǫCaCCo
obęCaCCo
oC:aCCo
obiCaCCo (remade by analogy; otherwise collapses into the jussive future)

Obǫlmąk…
tell/1PL.PASS.SUBJ.PST
'If we had been told…'

Oddalti…
steal/3PL.PASS.SUBJ.PST
'Were they about to be stolen(, then)…'

Optatives

These were basically all remade by analogy because otherwise there'd be no way to tell what tense the verb was in if it wasn't the immediate future. The analogy worked like this: The -ñga- element was similar to the tense marker already, so basically when the forms merged the tense marking was added to the second vowel to distinguish it. Then, analogy kicked in again to level the immediate-future form and bring it in line with the rest of the "obvious" derivations.

oNCǫCCo
oNCęCCo
oNiC:aCCo
oNCiCCo

onlimąk
'that we (hopefully) be told'

onlikti
win/3PL.PASS.OPT.FUT
'that they (hopefully) be conquered'

Jussives

Again, analogy took place here because otherwise these would be identical to the active jussives. Basically what happened was the form was innovated on analogy with the nasal prefix of the optatives.

oñgaCaCCo
oNCaCCo

oñgalamki
inform/3PL.PASS.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'let them be told (right now)'

onlamki
inform/3PL.PASS.JUSS.FUT
'let them be told (in time)'

REFLEXIVES (a.k.a. kill me now)

Lots of analogy here as well because otherwise the system is an incredible mess. X stands for a reduplicant; N is an assimilatory nasal consonant that surfaces as /n/ in the absence of any place features.

iC:ǫXaCCo
iC:ęXaCCo
iñgaC:aCCo
iC:iXaCCo

iwwǫwagbę 'that he hit himself'
iwwęwagbę 'that he hits himself'
iñgawwagbę 'that he will hit himself (soon)'
iwwiwagbę 'that he will hit himself'

iNCǫXaCCo
iNCęXaCCo
iñgaC:aCCo
iNCiXaCCo

iñwǫwagbę 'that he (hopefully) hit himself'
iñwęwagbę 'that he (hopefully) hits himself'
iñgawwagbę 'that he (hopefully) will hit himself (soon)'
iñwiwagbę 'that he (hopefully) will hit himself'

oñgaC:aCCo (analogy here; ordinarily there would have -ṇg-)
oC:aCCo

oñgawwagbę 'let him hit himself'
owwagbę 'let him hit himself'

So let's see some of these in action.

Kęnno e iñkękanno.
want/1SG.INDIC.PRES that see/1SG.REFL.OPT.PRES
'I want to see myself.'

Kęrto e oñgawwageb.
order/1SG.INDIC.PRES that hit/2SG.REFL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'I command you to hit yourself.'

Oñgarratep!
clean/2PL.REFL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'Clean yourselves up!'

Oñgassakot!
stand/2SG.REFL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'Stand up!'

This last verb, √skt 'stand', shows how a reflexive can be used on an intransitive to convey intensive force. In some daughter languages this became a full-blown intensive.

Onraṃbod e ą bǫlamko…
consider/2SG.JUSS.IMM.FUT that 2SG tell/3SG.OPT.PST
'Suppose that he told you…'

NEGATION

The negative is a particle do that follows the negated word.

Pęląk e mę indaltę do!
want/2PL.INDIC.PRES that 3SG.INAN steal/3SG.OPT.FUT NEG
'We hope nobody steals it!'

Copular constructions

There is no copula.

Mę kanan.
3SG.INAN want/NMLZ
'It is a wish.'

Mę lakap do.
3SG.INAN lie.low/NMLZ NEG
'It is not a lowland area.'

The adverb tal 'then, at that time' is used for the past tense:

Mę kanan tal.
3SG.INAN want/NMLZ then
'It was his wish.'

Mę lakap do tal.
3SG.INAN lie.low/NMLZ NEG then
'It was not a lowland area.'

The future tenses use reflexive forms of the verb √ktl 'make, create' with the postposition de 'into (state)'.

Mę kanan de ikkakatlę.
3SG.INAN want/NMLZ into.state make/3SG.REFL.INDIC.IMM.FUT
'It will be (his, e.g.) wish.'

Mę lakap de ikkatlę.
3SG.INAN lie.low/NMLZ into.state become/3SG.REFL.INDIC.FUT
'It will be a lowland area.'

Notes and work-in-progress:


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PostPosted: Mon Feb 27, 2017 6:55 pm 
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All right, I've decided that I don't like the prenasalized stops. Thus, they will become implosives /ɓ ɗ ɠ/ ḅ ḍ ġ.

----

Some nominalized stems from the protolanguage created their own analogical patterns. In cases where there are more than four consonants in a word that became analogized, the first three were treated as the root with the rest being a "suffix".

idmǫw 'food' > a verb dęmwo 'I make food', ęddamwo 'I eat' (< 'I make food for myself')
ġarki (pl. ġoraką) 'morsel of food' > a verb ġęrko 'serve food', ęġġarko 'I gorge on'
iñgid 'deer' > ñęgdo 'I prance'
daged 'fox' > dęgdo 'I flee'
kęlir 'brick, ingot' (later > 'brickmaking') > kęlro 'I bake bricks'
ḍibam 'furnace' > ḍębmo 'I fire in a furnace'
kolsǫ 'dowry' > kęlso 'I arrange marriage for someone'
silat (pl. salatą) 'type of flower' > sęlto 'I bloom'
nolon (pl. naląn) 'type of plant' > ęnnalno 'I have allergies' (> nęlno 'I cause someone to suffer an allergic reaction')
malet (pl. malatą) 'type of plant' > ęmmalto 'I look pretty' (> męlto 'I make someone pretty')
dęlañ 'joy' > ęddalño 'I am happy' (> dęlño 'I make someone happy)
sirog (pl. sęragą) 'black' > sęrgo 'I char, I color something black'
dakrim (pl. dokramą) 'raincloud' > ęddakro 'I precipitate, I rain'
tasmǫb[b] (pl. [b]tesamąb) 'deciduous tree' > ęttasmo 'I shed my leaves' (> tęsmo 'I cover in leaves')
tilkales (pl. tilkaląs) 'cloud' > ęttalko 'I drift' (> tęlko 'I cause to drift')

By a similar process:

kęrto 'I command' >
ikrǫt 'code of laws' (mass resultative, typically uncountable, though sometimes you'll see a plural form ikratą when comparing two quantities)
karti (pl. koratą) 'law' (countable resultative)
ikrit (pl. ikratą) 'type of animal described as studious in folklore' (animal nominalizer)
keret (pl. kertą) 'type of animal' (another animal nominalizer)
karit (pl. karątą) 'procedure, due process' (process or result thereof; analogy kicked in to distinguish this plural from the plural of the base nominalizer by adding -ą)
kirat (pl. kirtą) 'judge's seat' (place nominalizer; analogy kicked into distinguish the singular from the base nominalizer)
kirtares pl. kirtarąs 'force of law'

dęmwo 'I make food' >
damwi pl. domawą 'prepared meal'
demew pl. demwą 'type of animal often eaten as food'
damiw pl. damąwą 'cooking process'
damǫw 'cost of food'
dęmaw 'hunger'
damwim pl. domwamą 'large place setting at a feast'
damwǫb pl. demawąb 'type of cereal grain'
dimwames pl. dimwamąs 'summer'

tęrso 'be furious' (√tr 'scream' + -s 'upward') >
itris (pl. itrasą) 'type of animal known to be vicious'
taris (pl. damąwą) 'fury'
tarǫs 'consequence of one's anger'
tęras 'rage'
tersim pl. tersamą 'bully (n.)'
tirsares pl. tirsarąs 'rage, fury (esp. as directed towards something)'

dęlto 'I steal' >
idlǫt 'haul, contraband'
dalti (pl. dolatą) 'stolen good'
dalit (pl. dalątą) 'thievery'
dalǫt 'guilt (as a matter of law)'
dęlat 'guilt (as a matter of conscience)'
diltales pl. diltaląs 'sinkhole'

dakrim (pl. dokramą) 'raincloud' >
dękro 'I precipitate, I rain'
ęddakro 'I drift'
idkǫr 'rain'
dakri (pl. dokarą) 'raindrop'
dakir (pl. dakąrą) 'rainstorm'
dikor (pl. dękarą) 'gray'
dikrakes pl. dikrakąs 'rainy climate'

tasmǫb (pl. tesamąb) 'deciduous tree' >
ęttasmo 'I shed my leaves'
itsǫm (pl. itsamą) 'pile of leaves'
tasmi (pl. tosamą) 'leaf'
tasim (pl. tasąmą) 'autumn'
tisam (pl. tismą) 'stand of trees'
tisom (pl. tęsamą) 'green'
tasmim (pl. tosmamą) 'heavy log'

tilkales (pl. tilkaląs) 'cloud' >
ęttalko 'I drift'
tęlko 'I cause to drift, I set something adrift'
telek pl. telką 'type of animal typically white in color'
tilak pl. tilką 'sky'
tilok pl. tęlaką 'white'

So you get these forms by analogy (some of which was from the singular to the plural or vice versa if one of those forms became identical to something else):

iCCǫC pl. iCCaCą – resultative (typically mass)
CaCCi pl. CoCaCą – resultative (typically instance)
iCCiC pl. iCCaCą – animal
CeCeC pl. CeCCą – animal
CaCeC pl. CaCaCą – plant
CaCiC pl. CaCąCą – process or result thereof
CiCaC pl. CiCCą – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
CaCǫC – price paid for something
CoCoC pl. CaCąC – plant
CęCaC – emotion or mental state (rarely, you'll see a plural CęCąC; this would typically be used for poetic effect or in a philosophical discussion)
CiCoC pl. CęCaCą – color
CaCCim pl. CoCCamą – large object with a given characteristic
CaCCǫb pl. CeCaCąb – yet another plant nominalizer
CiCCa2es pl. CiCCa2ąs – natural occurrence or process; force (the 2 indicates reduplication of the second radical; this was because the original word that instigated this analogy was *tilkeles, and the /l/ was reanalyzed as a reduplicant)

----

There are three main groupings of Wǫkratąk: High Wǫkratąk, spoken in the highlands; Low Wǫkratąk, spoken in the lowland and coastal areas; and East Wǫkratąk, spoken by the group that ended up in the depression between two mountain ranges to the south of the Urheimat.

High Wǫkratąk

High Wǫkratąk merged the implosives into the glottal stop /ʔ/ and coda /h/ became vowel length. /s/ debuccalized into /h/. /l/ fortited to /ɬ/ and /r/ became /l/. /ɛ ɛ̃/ raised to /i ĩ/ following palatalization of alveolars and velars before the latter. /w/ > /b/ if an /m/ preceded it in the stem; otherwise it became /j/, which became a glottal stop following a high front vowel (geminate /j/ became a long glottal stop).

Nǫsaktę ne > Nǫhaksį ni
Ą kęndo e imḅąŋąk > Ą kįndo i imʔąñąk
Olaktet > Ołaktit
Ą kęrto, opahtet > Ą kįlto, opa·tit
Iwwiwagbę > Iʔʔiʔagbį
Kirto > Cilto
Hatim > Hasim
Miwho > Miʔho
Iklat > Ikłat
Onlikti > Onśiksi
ęddamwo > ęddamyo

Low Wǫkratąk

Old Low Wǫkratąk retained the implosives as implosives; various reflexes developed in the different dialects. Original /h/ became the glottal stop /ʔ/; original /g/ became the fricative /h/. Nasal vowels became long vowels and lost their nasality. The third-person singular consonant cluster becomes a geminate of the first consonant, conditioned by the reduplicant at the end of the word. /w/ became /b/ if a labial consonant other than /w/ existed elsewhere in the stem.

Nǫsaktę ne > No·sakte· ne
Ą kęndo e imḅąŋąk > A· ke·ndo e imḅa·ña·k
Olaktet > Olakket
Ą kęrto, opahtet > A· ke·lto, opaʔtet
Iwwiwagbę > Ibbibahbe·
Kirto > Kirto
Hatim > ʔatim
Miwho > Mibʔo
Iklat > Iklat
Onlikti > Onlikti
ęddamwo > ęddambo

East Wǫkratąk

East Wǫkratąk merged the implosives with the corresponding nasals. Postvocalic /w/ became /ʔ/ after /i/; geminates became the sequence /ʔw/. /ŋ/ > /x/. /l/ > /j/.

Nǫsaktę ne > Nǫsaktę ne
Ą kęndo e imḅąŋąk > Ą kęndo e immąxąk
Olaktet > Oyaktet
Ą kęrto, opahtet > Ą kęrto, opahtet
Iwwiwagbę > Iʔwiʔagbę
Kirto > Kirto
Hatim > Hatim
Miwho > Miʔho
Iklat > Ikyat
Onlikti > Onyikti
ęddamwo > ęddamwo

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Redoing a few things: The instance resultative is CoCCi by analogy with its plural due to conflation with the passive adjectival form.

nissam pl. nisasmą 'mountain' > CiC:aC pl. CiCaXCą 'landform'

Verbs ('I am mountainous', 'I am characteristic of rivers', that sort of thing) are derived from these roots. In High and Low Wǫkratąk, this pattern becomes the standard agent nominalizer for reflexive verbs.

√kls 'marry off, arrange marriage for'
> ękkalso 'get married'
> iklǫs pl. iklasą 'matrimony'
> kolis pl. kolsą 'family'
> kalas pl. kaląsą 'wedding'
> kalǫs pl. oklasą 'dowry'
> kęlas 'apprehension related to a wedding, "cold feet" (so to speak)'
> kalos pl. kilsǫ 'mother-in-law'

√kps 'reach'
> kepes pl. kepsą 'giraffe'
> kipas pl. kipsą 'type of tall flower'
> kopos pl. kapąs 'vine'
> kǫps pl. kǫpąs 'arm'
> kokpis pl. kokpąs 'flamingo'
> kąppis pl. kappąs 'swan'
> kippas pl. kipapsą 'summit, peak'

√krñ 'play a musical instrument'
> kęrño 'I write a song (for instruments)'
> ękkarño 'I play a musical instrument'
> karñǫk pl. karñąk 'musician'
> korñǫk pl. korñąk 'musical instrument'
> ikrǫñ pl. ikrañą 'instrumental music'
> koriñ pl. korñą 'instrumental song'
> karañ pl. karąñą 'musicianship; composition'
> kirañ pl. kirñą 'bazaar'
> kęrañ 'concentration on playing an instrument'
> karñim pl. korñamą 'drum'
> kirñares pl. kirñarąs 'creative genius related to musical instruments'
> karoñ pl. kirñǫ 'master musician'

√nlr 'sing'
> nalrǫk pl. nalrąk 'songwriter, poet'
> inlǫk pl. inlaką 'vocal music, poetry'
> nolik pl. nolką 'song, poem'
> nalak pl. naląką 'composition'
> nilak pl. nilką 'desk'
> nęlak 'creativity'
> nilkales pl. nilkaląs 'inspiration, burst of creativity'
> nǫlk pl. nǫląk 'mouth'
> nonlik pl. nonląk 'songbird'
> nalok pl. nilkǫ 'ashik, bard'

√nsm 'be mountainous'
> ęnnasmo 'I am mountainous'
> nasmǫk pl. nasmąk 'piedmont'
> nasim pl. nasąm 'mountainous'
> Nosim 'a specific mountain'
> insim pl. insamą 'type of bird found at high altitudes'
> nesem pl. nesmą 'type of mammal found at high altitudes'
> nasem pl. nasmą 'type of tree found at high altitudes'
> nisam pl. nismą 'mountain range'
> nosom pl. nasąm 'type of plant found at high altitudes'
> nęsam 'wanderlust'
> Nasmim 'a specific mountain'
> nasmǫb pl. nesmąb 'type of plant found at high altitudes'
> nasom pl. nismǫ 'mountain-dweller'
> nissam pl. nisasmą 'mountain'

√ppt 'be powerful, have force to back up a threat'
> papat pl. papąt 'threat (party)'
> ippǫt pl. ippatą 'destruction'
> popti pl. poptą 'show of force'
> ippit pl. ippatą 'type of dangerous animal'
> papat pl. papątą 'threat (ultimatum)'
> papǫt pl. oppatą 'bribe, hush money'
> pępat 'fear'
> paptim pl. poptamą 'obstacle, hazard, danger, trap'
> piptapes pl. piptapąs 'hurricane'
> pąppit pl. pappąt 'shark'

√skt 'shine'
> sakat pl. sakątą 'light'
> sokot pl. sakąt 'type of flower'
> sikot pl. sęktą 'yellow'
> saktǫb pl. sektąb 'lichen, moss'
> siktakes pl. siktakąs 'sun'
> saktǫt pl. sektąr 'eye'
> soskit pl. soskąt 'type of bird'
> sąkkit pl. sakkąt 'cuttlefish, squid, octopus'

√tkt 'be foreign; trade'
> ęttoktok 'I am foreign'
> ittokit pl. ittakąt 'foreign'
> tękot 'I trade'
> taktǫk pl. taktąk 'trader, tradesman'
> takit pl. takąt 'trading, for trade, dealing with trade'
> tokit pl. tokąt 'traded'
> itkǫk pl. itkatą 'trade; economy'
> tokit pl. toktą 'deal, transaction'
> tękat 'foreign mindset'
> taket pl. tektǫ 'trade goods'
> takot pl. tiktǫ 'foreigner'

√tlk 'cloud'
> ęttalko 'I drift'
> tęlko 'I cause to drift, I set something adrift'
> telek pl. telką 'type of animal typically white in color'
> tilak pl. tilką 'sky'
> tilok pl. tęlką 'white'
> tilkales pl. tilkaląs 'cloud'
> talkǫk pl. telkąr 'white of the eye'
> tąllik pl. talląk 'type of whale'
> talok pl. tilkǫ 'transient'

wtk 'stretch'
> wǫwǫtkǫk pl. wǫwtakąk 'sky'
> witak pl. witką 'type of plant'
> wotok pl. watąk 'type of plant'
> watkim pl. wotkamą 'bridge'
> wǫtk pl. wǫtąk 'lower jaw'
> watok pl. witkǫ 'person who makes rope'
> iwwotak pl. iwwitką 'type of flower'
> iwwotak 'pain due to torture'
> węwwotǫk pl. węwwitąk 'throat'
> iwwotok pl. iwwitkǫ 'acrobat, performer'

----

The nisba-type form in this language was originally a postpositive hę. Sandhi rules have transformed it into a suffix that will cause, when appropriate, gemination of the final consonant or deletion of penult /a/. These forms, unlike in Arabic, cannot stand on their own and require a referent (they do not have plural forms).

nalrǫk > nalrǫkkę 'relating to a songwriter'
nolik > nolikkę 'poetic'
ikrǫñ > ikrǫññę 'musical'
ippǫt > ippǫttę 'destructive'
nisam > nismę 'endemic to a mountain range'
nęsam > nęsmę 'dealing with wanderlust, full of wanderlust'
witak > witkę 'relating to the witak plant'
iwwotak > iwwotkę 'relating to the iwwotak plant'

----

Also thinking about having ñ > g in onset in East Wǫkratąk.

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PostPosted: Wed Mar 01, 2017 2:26 am 
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 02, 2017 2:38 am 
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Ḅǫñrǫkkę should be Mǫñrǫkkę, shouldn't it? That dialect merged the implosives with the nasals. And Nasommę should be Nahommį.

For reference purposes:


Personal pronouns

to 1SG > N to, T to, M to
ą 2SG > N ą, T a·, M ą
ęr 3SG.M > N įl, T e·r, M ęr
oḍ 3SG.F > N oʔ, T oḍ, M om
mę 3SG.INAN > N mį, T me·, M mę

są 1PL > N hą, T sa·, M są
eḅ 2PL > N iʔ, T eḅ, M em
ihhi 3PL.M > N i·hi, T iʔʔi, M ihhi
aḍor 3PL.F > N aʔol, T aḍor, M anor
eti 3PL.INAN > N isi, T eti, M eti

Thinking of changing the "past" adverb from tal to al. Then it can attach itself to the verb, and since I want to introduce metathesis at some point, it could get incorporated into the pattern for past verbs from a construction PRESENT + 'then' meaning "having just" done whatever. Then the l can assimilate and cause a new pattern which will ultimately replace the original past construction. This would probably happen in Tikal. Not sure if I want it to happen in Nahommį. Either way, it is less likely that it will occur in Mǫñrǫkkę.

dęmwo al 'I have just made food' > dęmwoal > dęmwol > dęmlow > dęmmow > de·mmow

This metathesis of "suffix" consonant plus last radical of the pattern occurs in other forms as well:

wagbim pl. wogbamą > wahmib pl. wohmɨb
tasmǫb pl. tesmąb > taspo·m pl. tespa·m (the b assimilates in voicing to the consonant with which it is in contact)
taksǫs pl. tekasąr > takso·s pl. tekɨra·s 'knee' (no assimilation of r because no consonant in contact with it)
nissam pl. nisasmą 'mountain' > nisasma· pl. nisɨsma·

More on Tikal

h → ʔ
g → h
V~ → V:
3SG middle radical geminates
w…P P…w → b…P P…b / $_$
a a: → ɨ ɨ: / _(C)C{a,ã}(:)
a(:) → Ø / VC_#
Vm → V· / $_#
nCa: → C / V_#
e: → i:





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PostPosted: Sun Mar 05, 2017 4:20 am 
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Reposting the Lardil-esque language from the Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread here:

/m n̪ n ɲ ŋ/ m ṉ n ñ ng (geminate /ŋː/ is written ngg)
/p t̪ t tʲ k ʔ/ p d t j k ʔ
/s̪ s ʃ h/ z s š h
/w l̪ l j/ w ł l y

/u o ɔ a ə ɛ e i/ u o ɔ a ə ɛ e i

(C)V(C)

Some sort of assimilation will occur with the coronals, not sure exactly how it's going to work yet.

I'm thinking about collapsing the dental-alveolar-palatal distinction in the daughter languages (in the obstruents at least).

Some possible sound changes (not all for the same language!) that I've spitballed:



Actually…it occurs to me that palatal > dental, without an apparent alveolar intermediate (?!), is attested in some Bantu languages (I want to say specifically in Sam somewhere?), so that's another option. A weird option, but an option nonetheless.

Also, take a note: l-stopping.

--------

łəy epłəʔij
łəy e-płə-ʔ-ij
1SG.M APPL.BEN-kill-IRR-3SG.M.M
'I would kill for him'

The irrealis is more like a tense here, but even then it's kind of weird. Only the irrealis form can be negated.

łəy opłəʔij
łəy płə-ʔ-ij
1SG.M kill-IRR-3SG.M.M
'I would kill him'

łəy opłəʔijye
łəy płə-ʔ-ij-ye
1SG.M kill-IRR-3SG.M.M-NEG
'I would not kill him'/'I did not kill him'

It is also mandatorily marked along with the future tenses.

əj dɛpłəʔtuye
əj dɛ-płə-ʔ-tu-ye
3SG.M.M NFUT-kill-IRR-1SG.M-NEG
'he is not about to kill me', 'he will not kill me now'

əj ṉopłəʔtu
əj ṉ-płə-ʔ-tu
3SG.M.M. FUT-kill-IRR-1SG.M
'he will kill me (at some later time)'

The past only takes an irrealis if it's talking about possibilities not realized (or if it's being negated).

əj ɛññepłəʔtu
əj ɛññe-płə-ʔ-tu
3SG.M.M DPST-kill-IRR-1SG.M
'he could have killed me (long ago)'

əj ɛññepłəʔtuye
əj ɛññe-płə-ʔ-tu-ye
3SG.M.M DPST-kill-IRR-1SG.M-NEG
'he didn't kill me (long ago)'

--------

-ye here is classified as a suffix rather than a clitic since it is subject to assimilation:

opłəʔɛnle
łəy płə-ʔ-ɛn-le
1SG.M kill-IRR-2SG.M-NEG

Its "default" form is -ye; it only assimilates to the coronal consonants:

əj ngəʔangye
əj ng-ə-ʔ-ang-ye
3SG.M.M APPL.LOC-exist-IRR-1PL.M-NEG
'we don't have it'

--------

Up until now, we've seen certain object affixes. Some of them have M.M in the gloss. That isn't a typo. Turns out, what pronouns and affixes you use depend on whether you're male or female.

If you're male, you use these pronouns and affixes:

1SG łəy, -y
2SG.M iṉṉɛn, -ṉṉɛ
2SG.F tangja, -ngja
3SG.M əj, -ij
3SG.F dahay, -dahay

1PL jang, -ang
2PL.M lɔk, -lɔ
2PL.F ɔd, -d
3PL.M mɛngna, -nna
3PL.F ləng, -lə

If you're female, you use these:

1SG itul, -tu
2SG.M hɛš, -h
2SG.F ngɛṉ, -ngɛ
3SG.M łiš, -iš
3SG.F zahɛ, -z

1PL.MIXED ɛṉkin, -ṉkin
1PL.F nɔs, -nɔ
2PL.M tanggal, -ngal
2PL.MIXED dɔjja, -ajja
2PL.F zimzɛm, -zi
3PL.M əkim, -ki
3PL.F dɔłək, -ə

You refer to non-sapient referents with the same third-person gender that you are—males use the masculine pronoun, females use the feminine. For males, mixed groups default to the feminine forms of the plural.

In the gloss, I mark the speaker first before the referent—M.F means 'male speaker, referring to female'.

--------

If an impermissible cluster (that is, one that is not a two-consonant intervocalic cluster) occurs, a dummy vowel is appended in the appropriate location. Before a labial or velar consonant, the vowel added is o. Before glottal consonants, it is ə. Before other consonants, it is e.

--------

I'm trying to get into applicatives here. We've got a few.

ng- LOCATIVE APPLICATIVE
e-/y- BENEFACTIVE APPLICATIVE
ay- INSTRUMENTAL APPLICATIVE
k- MALEFACTIVE APPLICATIVE
jə- COMITATIVE APPLICATIVE
w- CAUSATIVE

łəy ngetilʔij
łəy ng-til-ʔ-ij
1SG.M APPL.LOC-eat-IRR-3SG
'I would eat there'

łəy ngetilij
łəy ng-til-ij
1SG.M APPL.LOC-eat-IRR-3SG
'I'm eating there'

Oftentimes you can create ditransitives with such sentences.

łəy pəjɔu ngetilij
łəy pəjɔu ng-til-ij
1SG.M porridge APPL.LOC-eat-IRR-3SG
'I'm eating porridge there'

Speaking of eating…

pəjɔu letilel
pəjɔu e-til-y
porridge APPL.BEN-eat-1SG.M
'I'm eating (my) porridge'

The benefactive applicative has the allomorph y- when the root would have a prothetic e-:

etlo
tlo
'steal'

yejyoʔeṉṉɛ
e-tlo-ʔ-ṉṉɛ
APPL.BEN-steal-IRR-2SG.M.M
'would steal for you (male)' (spoken by male)

"But wait!" you might be saying. "You said it had an allomorph y-, but you didn't say anything about anything else changing! You've wrecked the stem!" That's not a typo either, which brings us to…

--------

Assimilation occurs between the coronals (ṉ, n, ñ, d, t, j, z, s, š, ł, l, y). They assimilate to the preceding coronal, if applicable.

kij
kij
'ruin, wreck, destroy'

kijyɔ
kij-lɔ
ruin-2PL.M.M
'ruin y'all (male)' (spoken by male)

-dahay
-dahay
3SG.M.F

kijjahay
kij-dahay
ruin-3SG.M.F
'ruin her (female)' (spoken by male)

-lə
-lə
3PL.M.F

kijyə
kij-lə
ruin-3PL.M.F
'ruin them (females)' (spoken by male)

-zɛ
-zɛ
3SG.F.F

kijšɛ
kij-zɛ
ruin-3SG.F.F
'ruin her' (spoken by female)

-nɔ
-nɔ
1PL.F.F

kijñɔ
kij-nɔ
ruin-1PL.F.F
'ruin us (females)' (spoken by females)

-zi
-zi
2PL.F.F

kijši
kij-zi
ruin-2PL.F.F
'ruin you (females)' (spoken by female)

This process occurs before epenthetic vowels are placed to break up illegal clusters:

-y
-y
1SG.M

dil
dil
'save'

dilel
dil-y
save-1SG.M
'save me' (spoken by male)

-ṉṉɛ
-ṉṉɛ
2SG.M.M

dilennɛ
dil-ṉṉɛ
save-2SG.M.M
'save you (male)' (spoken by male)

kijej
kij-d
ruin-2PL.M.F
'ruin y'all (females)' (spoken by male)

kijeñña
kij-nna
ruin-3PL.M.M
'ruin them (male)' (spoken by male)

-z
-z
3SG.F.F

kiješ
kij-z
ruin-3SG.F.F
'ruin her' (spoken by female)

-ṉkin
-ṉkin
1PL.MIXED

kijeñkin
kij-ṉkin
ruin-1PL.F.MIXED
'ruin us (mixed group)' (spoken by female)

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PostPosted: Sun Mar 05, 2017 2:05 pm 
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I want to call this family Dujajikiswə. Now I just have to make some morphemes to make it work…

dujajikiswə
duj-ajik-i-swə
tree-person-PL-GEN

There we go.

----

Reflexives always have some sort of applicative; if there's no other pertinent argument, they take a benefactive or a malefactive.

əj ejʔɛššej
əj e-j-ʔɛš-st
3SG.M.M APPL.BEN-PST-learn-RFLX.M.M
'he studied'

əj kedzɛzzed
əj k-j-zɛz-st
3SG.M.M APPL.MAL-PST-hit-RFLX.M.M
'he struck himself'

--------

No daughter language preserves every tense. There are quite a few.

ngay- REMOTE PAST
ɛññe- DISTANT PAST
j- PAST
łɛ- HESTERNAL PAST
š- HODIERNAL PAST
əl- IMMEDIATE PAST (venir de)
Ø- PRESENT
w-/ɔ- IMMEDIATE FUTURE
dɛ- NEAR FUTURE
ṉ- FUTURE
əl- REMOTE FUTURE

"Remote" here basically means "beyond one's lifespan". "Distant past" is within one's lifespan but beyond more than six years or so; "past" is for anything between yesterday and that time. "Hesternal" and "hodiernal" imply "yesterday" and "earlier today", respectively; "immediate past" carries the connotation of "I've just finished doing X", similar to French venir de. "Immediate future" is much the same except it connotes that one is about to do something (does aller de have the same force? It's been awhile since I've had French classes). "Future" is anything from later today to about six years from now; "distant future" is beyond that to within a reasonable estimate of one's lifespan, and "remote future" is farther still.

ləng nəʔngayjeyjahay
ləng nəʔ-ngay-tley-dahay
3PL.M.F APPL.ABL-REM.PST-go-3SG.M.F
'they left (a long time ago)'

łiš ngɛññełeñidahay
łiš ng-ɛññe-łeñi-dahay
1SG.M APPL.LOC-D.PST-live-3SG.M.F
'back in my day, I lived here'

łiš kejpełəij
łiš k-j-płə-ij
1SG.M APPL.MAL-PST
'I killed him'

eəltilel
e-əl-til-y
APPL.BEN-IMM.PST-eat-1SG.M
'I just ate'

əj yalloset
əj e-Ø-allo-st
3SG.M.M APPL.BEN-PRES-recognize-RFLX.M.M
'he recognizes himself'

Recall that all future tenses must be irrealis:

əj kɔpłəʔey
əj k-ɔ-płə-ʔ-y
3SG.M.M APPL.MAL-IMM.FUT-kill-IRR-1SG.M
'he's going to kill me', 'he's about to kill me'

dahay edɛtilʔey
dahay e-dɛ-til-ʔ-y
3SG.M.F APPL.BEN-FUT-eat-IRR-1SG.M
'I'll eat it'

łiš ngeṉdełeyʔedahay
łiš ng-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M APPL.LOC-DIST.FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go there (eventually)'

mɛngna nəʔəletleyʔedahay
mɛngna nəʔ-əl-tley-ʔ-dahay
3PL.M.M APPL.ABL-REM.FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'they will leave there (in the end)'

----

nəʔ- ABLATIVE APPLICATIVE

ɔd nəʔɔtleyjahay
ɔd nəʔ-ɔ-tley-dahay
2PL.M.F
'y'all (female or mixed group) are about to leave'

ləng nəʔsetleyšəjʔɔ
ləng nəʔ-š-tley-zəjʔɔ
3PL.M.F APPL.ABL-HOD.PST-go-RFLX.MIXED
'they split up'

----

The clitic p- attaches to the beginning of a clause to indicate purpose:

peləng ɔššii dɛtkɔñyə, ləng nəʔsetleyšəjʔɔ
p=ləng ɔšši-i dɛ-tkɔñ-lə ləng nəʔ-š-tley-zəjʔɔ
PURPOSE=3PL.M.F track-PL NEAR.FUT-look.for-3PL.M.F 3PL.M.F APPL.ABL-HOD.PST-go-RFLX.MIXED
'they split up to search for clues'

pɔskayə, łiš ešjilel
p=ɔ-skayə łiš e-š-til-y
PURPOSE-IMM.FUT-walk 1SG.M APPL.BEN-HOD.PST-eat-1SG.M
'I ate because I will take a walk later'

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PostPosted: Sun Mar 05, 2017 9:55 pm 
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A bunch of new applicatives in this post, plus one sort-of idiomatic phrase.

dahay nəʔjejyeyeš
dahay nəʔ-j-tley-z
3SG.M.F APPL.ABL-PST-go-REFL.M.F
'it split, it broke, it split apart'

--------

tul- INESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway tultetleyjahay
əj kawway tul-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.INESS-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went in the house'

--------

yɛ- INTRATIVE APPLICATIVE (always takes a plural object suffix)

əj kawwayi yɛjjeyeyyə
əj kawway-i yɛ-j-tley-lə
3SG.M.M house-PL APPL.INTRA-PST-go-3PL.M.F
'he went between the houses'

--------

ngɔh- SUBESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway ngohjejyeyjahay
əj kawway ngoh-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.SUBESS-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went under the house', 'he went to the bottom of the house'

--------

keng- SUPERESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway kengjejyeyjahay
əj kawway keng-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.SPRESS-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went over the house', 'he went on top of the house', 'he went to the top of the house'

--------

m- EGRESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway mejjeyeyjahay
əj kawway m-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.EGR-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went starting from the house', 'he left the house'

--------

əhəm- PERLATIVE APPLICATIVE

Typically refers to movement along some (exterior) surface.

əj ked əhəmjejyeyjahay
əj ked əhəm-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M path APPL.PERL-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went along the path'

--------

jaj- ACCUSATIVE APPLICATIVE

This is "accusative" in the sense of time/duration, though it can also be used with other referents. In this latter case, it has the sense of an instrumental referring to a large quantity of the referent—a good example of the sense of it would be "he went through a hundred ball-point pens before he found one that worked".

əj ngɛngi jajjejkoñyə
əj ngɛng-i jaj-j-tkoñ-lə
3SG.M.M time.unit-PL APPL.ACC-PST-search-3PL.M.F
'he searched for hours'

--------

ij- ESSIVE APPLICATIVE

Used with respect to time. Some dialects have subsumed the function of this into that of the locative or the inessive.

əj kɔzeṉ ngɛng ijñejyeyʔedahay
əj kɔz-n ngɛng ij-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M two-ORDINAL time.unit APPL.ESS-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go at two', 'he will come at two'

The above sentence is a bit ambiguous; there's a way to deal with that which I will describe later.

--------

aṉ- DURATIVE APPLICATIVE

Another time applicative, this time referring to something happening while something else is coming on.

əj ingkay aṉṉedłeyʔedahay
əj ingkay aṉ-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M feast APPL.DUR-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go during the feast', 'he will come during the feast'

--------

uʔ- ANTERIOR APPLICATIVE

This basically means "before something happens" or "by the time of".

əj ingkay uʔṉedłeyʔedahay
əj ingkay uʔ-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M feast APPL.ANT-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go before the feast', 'he will come by the time the feast starts'

--------

ṉɛʔ- POSTERIOR APPLICATIVE

This basically means "after" or "once an event has ended".

əj ingkay ṉɛʔṉedłeyʔedahay
əj ingkay ṉɛʔ-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M feast APPL.POST-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go after the feast', 'he will come once the feast is over'

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PostPosted: Tue Mar 07, 2017 11:47 pm 
Avisaru
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A quick aside regarding the Tlar Kyanà language.

Proto-Tlar Kyanà phonology

/m n ŋ/
/p b ⁿb t d ⁿd k g ⁿg ʔ/
/ɸ β s z x ɣ h/
/l ɾ/
/w j/

/u o ɔ a ɛ e i/

Tones: *A *B *C *D

(C)(ɾ)(l)(w/j)VT(l/ɾ)(N)(S)

m p b ⁿb ɸ β ŋ k g ⁿg x ɣ → mɲ pʃ bʒ ⁿbʒ ɸʃ βʒ ɲ c ɟ ⁿɟ ç ʝ / _{j,i}
t d ⁿd s z k g ⁿg x ɣ → tʃ dʒ ⁿdʒ ʃ ʒ p b ⁿb ɸ β / _w
{w,j} → Ø / C_V
Sɾ → Sʰ
VN → V[+ nasalized] / _(C)%
ɾ → Ø / V_(C)%
ɾ → l
u o ɔ ɛ e i → oi̯ u o e i ei̯
l → ɹ / _(N)(S)%
a → o / _K
Development of register: Aspirated stop/voiceless fricatives → register one; else, register two
Voiced/voiceless merger; prenasalized stops become plain voiced
ei̯ → ai̯
ʔ → Ø
Ba Ea → u̯a i̯a → ɔ ɛ
B E → u̯ i̯ / _V
Nasals assimilate to the place of a following obstruent
tl → tɬ (male speech)
h → Ø / ! #_
ç ʝ → ʃ ʒ
x ɣ → i̯ / before full vowels (i.e., not onglides)
x ɣ → Ø

Phonology at the time the writing was standardized:

/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n (~ hn) ny ng
/p b t d c ɟ k g/ p b t d ky gy k g
/ɸ β s z ʃ ʒ h/ f v s z sy zy h (/h/ is only ever word-initial)
/l ~ ɹ/ l ~ r (realized as a rhotic in the coda)

The clusters [ɲɟ ŋg] are written ngy and ngg, respectively.

/u o ɔ a ɛ e i/ u o ɔ a ɛ e i
/oi̯ ai̯/ oy ay
/u̯V i̯V/ uV iV

[+nas] Vn (An h is used if a coda /n/ is pronounced, in which case the coda is written hn, or following n if the next syllable has no onset, in which case the sequence is written VnhV. VnV indicates a non-nasalized syllable with /n/ as the onset of the next syllable.)

Development of Tones

Muy Baon

A1 → mid
A2 → low trailing
B1 → high rising
B2 → low dropping (glottalized unless _S)
C1 → dipping
C2 → high rising (glottalized)
D1 → high rising
D2 → low dropping (glottalized unless _S)

oi̯ ai̯ → ui̯ a
ŋ → n / #_
mɲ ɸʃ βʒ → mj ɸj βj
b d ɟ g → β z ʒ ɣ / #_V[+ high] (includes diphthongs and triphthongs)
ũ ĩ → õ ẽ

Nguyna

A1 → mid
A2 → low trailing
B1 → low (dipping unless _S)
B2 → low (dipping unless _S)
C1 → mid rising
C2 → high rising (glottalized)
D1 → low (dipping unless _S)
D2 → low (dipping unless _S)

N → ŋ / _%
V[- high] → Ø / V[- high]_
oi̯ → ai̯
c ɟ → tʃ dʒ
õ ẽ → ɔ̃ ɛ̃

Nikyuwar

A1 → mid level
A2 → low falling
B1 → low rising (glottalized)
B2 → high-mid (glottal stop)
C1 → high rising
C2 → high-mid
D1 → high-mid
D2 → high-mid

S → F / _(C)%
tl → dl (female speech)
ai̯ → oi̯
õ {ɔ̃,ɛ̃} ẽ → ũ ã ĩ
ʃ ʒ → x ɣ

Orthographic tone

A1 u o ɔ a ɛ e i
A2 ù ò ɔ̀ à ɛ̀ è ì
B1 ǔ ǒ ɔ̌ ǎ ɛ̌ ě ǐ
B2 û ô ɔ̂ â ɛ̂ ê î
C1 ú ó ɔ́ á ɛ́ é í
C2 ủ ỏ ɔ̉ ả ɛ̉ ẻ ỉ
D1 ū ō ɔ̄ ā ɛ̄ ē ī
D2 ȕ ȍ ɔ̏ ȁ ɛ̏ ȅ ȉ

Sỉsǒk Tlar Kyanà
Mȕy Bǎȍn
Ngùynâ
Nǐkyúwār


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PostPosted: Thu Mar 09, 2017 2:36 am 
Avisaru
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Personal pronouns. Forms are cited in the pattern Proto-Nyar Toler Kyanà → Middle Sỉsǒk Tlar Kyanà → Mȕy Bǎȍn : Ngùynâ : Nǐkyúwār / Orthographic.

1SG *hiw A → hai̯ A1 → ha˧ : hai̯˧ : hoi̯˧ / hay
1DL.INCL *hɾwo D → hlu D2 → hluˀ˨˩ : hlu˨˩˨ : hlu˥˧ / hlȕ
1DL.EXCL *βo A → ɸu A2 → ɸu˨˩ : ɸu˨˩ : ɸu˨˩ / fù
1PL.INCL *kjɛ C → ce C2 → ceˀ˦˥ : tʃeˀ˦˥ : ce˥˧ / kyẻ
1PL.EXCL *βu C → ɸoi̯ C2 → ɸuˀi̯˦˥ : ɸaˀi̯˦˥ : ɸoi̯˥˧ / fủy

2SG.M *glu A wɾij A → kloi̯ A2 wai̯ A2 → klui̯˨˩ wa˨˩ : klai̯˨˩ wai̯˨˩ : kloi̯˨˩ woi̯˨˩ / klùywày
2DL.M *kej A tu B → kai̯ A2 toi̯ B2 → ka˨˩ tuˀi̯˨˩ : kai̯˨˩ tai̯˨˩˨ : koi̯˨˩ toi̯ʔ˥˧ / kàytûy
2PL.M *glom D → klũ D2 → klõˀ˨˩ : klũ˨˩˨ : klũ˥˧ / klȕn

2SG.F *ŋlim C → ŋlãi̯ C2 → nlãˀ˦˥ : nlãˀi̯˦˥ : nlõi̯˥˧ / nlảyn
2DL.F *ⁿbwɛb B → bep B2 → bep˨˩ : bep˩ : beɸʔ˥˧ / bêp
2PL.F *ɣɔj A → i̯oi̯ A2 → i̯oi̯˨˩ : i̯ai̯˨˩ : i̯oi̯˨˩ / iùy

3SG.M *kɾɛ A → ke A1 → ke˧ : ke˧ : ke˧ / ke
3DL.M *dljɔnⁿg A → dlõg A2 → dlõg˨˩ : dlɔ̃g˨˩ : dlũɣ˨˩ / dlòn'g (if the coda were instead a velar nasal, it would be written dlòng(h); the non-nasal vowel with the velar nasal coda would be dlòhng)
3PL.M *βje C → ɸʃi C2 → ɸjeˀ˦˥ : ɸʃiˀ˦˥ : ɸʃi˥˧ / fsyỉ

3SG.F *ⁿbji A → bʒai̯ A2 → βi̯a˨˩ : bʒai̯˨˩ : bʒoi̯˨˩ / bzyày
3DL.F *sin B → sãi̯ B1 → sã˦˥ : sãi̯˨˩˨ : sũˀi̯˩˨ / sǎyn
3PL.F *ɸjew D → ɸʃiw D1 → ɸjew˦˥ : ɸʃiw˨˩˨ : ɸʃiw˥˧ / fsyīw

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PostPosted: Sat Mar 11, 2017 6:07 am 
Avisaru
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Quick update—via sound change, I've discovered the following sentence in Middle Sỉsǒk Tlar Kyanà:

Bsyày bsyảy bsyày bsyȁy bsyày.
bsyày bsyảy bsyày bsyȁy bsyày
3SG.F carve rich partial.hole well
'she carves a wealthy hole in (as opposed to through) the well'

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PostPosted: Sun Mar 12, 2017 4:12 am 
Avisaru
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I love you, Chaotic Shiny.

----------------

So this is the story of the Balloon War. (This is going to be told with a little more levity than usual because it's 5:00 AM here and I haven't gotten to sleep yet.)

One of the several empires that the Tim Ar got passed around was at war with a neighbor. There was one region in particular, situated on the border, that just would not fall to siege or sword. It had supply lines, resources, population, and a chokehold on moving people deeper into enemy territory. This ruffled quite a few feathers at home, because this particular city was vital if they wanted to make their way into the interior.

Enter some genius who was basically the analogue of the Montgolfier brothers. He builds a working hot-air balloon and gets the bright idea that, hey, maybe these things can be used for more than just impressing scientists. We can stake them into the ground and use them for aerial reconnaissance (as was done during the Civil War, incidentally). Then he gets another idea—maybe we can use them to drop troops or bombs on things. The wind currents were favorable at this location for sending balloons across enemy territory and then back into friendly areas (provided they could stay up that long, of course), so it wasn't necessarily a suicide mission.

Not-Montgolfier figures out how to keep the things aloft long enough for them to actually be of use and gives a demonstration. Laden with assorted pieces of garbage as ballast, he lifts into the air drops things on a field while inviting archers to shoot at him. Naturally something goes wrong and a few people die because A) he didn't properly anticipate where the things would actually fall (because air resistance, drag, what have you) and B) some people were idiots and wandered onto the field, but the balloon itself manages to avoid being turned into a pincushion. The brass is impressed enough that instead of summarily executing him they put him in charge of the invasion.

Ersatz Montgolfier was a brilliant scientist. He was a not-so-brilliant tactician. The balloons he designed were larger, less stable, not tested adequately, and in some cases jury-rigged. His weapons were scaled-up versions of typical incendiary devices and large pieces of debris, but at least these worked satisfactorily.

The day the invasion is scheduled to take place, there is poor visibility and high winds. The launch goes ahead anyway, with a hundred and fifty balloons. Of those, two ignite on the ground before properly inflating. One's canopy rips away just prior to takeoff and blunders into another, which catches on fire in the staging area. One collides with a building before gaining sufficient altitude to clear it and ends up wrapped around a bell tower; the balloon then catches the bell tower on fire, and the fire quickly spreads to envelop the local residential district. One is destroyed in the air when one of the onboard incendiary devices ignites; the balloon drifts into another, which somehow avoids burning up, and another, which isn't so lucky. One smacks into a mountain (it did not set the mountain on fire). Twenty-five manage to avoid bursting into flames long enough to discover that they have leaks and slowly lose altitude while in friendly territory; the canopy of another violently loses integrity several miles short of its target, sending it hurtling downward into a forest and sparking a massive wildfire. One crew pilots the balloon too high, passes out, and doesn't come to until they've missed all the action and wound up much farther away than planned. An additional twelve catch fire in the air en route to the city they're supposed to attack and lose their ability to do anything except plummet to the ground and kill the occupants. Seven more are destroyed when they drift under the trajectory of some of the rubble that was dropped. A final balloon suffers the misfortune of having the wires connecting the gondola to the envelope catching fire; the envelope continues on, blazing, while the gondola discovers why lithobraking is not a good idea if you're not a Kerbal.

For all the failure that occurs on behalf of the instigators, the people of the region below are taken unaware and completely demoralized. The air is foggy, but the day is otherwise normal until things start falling from the sky (blowing up in some cases) and destroying things. On top of that, there are a couple of huge, floating, flaming monstrosities that slowly drift downward, covering a large area with a blanket of fire before destroying themselves and everything they touch. Not to mention the huge forest fire that suddenly erupted relatively close to the city…

TL;DR: Despite everything going wrong, mission still somehow accomplished.

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PostPosted: Tue Mar 14, 2017 10:18 pm 
Avisaru
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I've decided this planet will have two moons with a 243:395 resonance in their orbital periods (same as Earth and Venus). Once certain groups figure out astronomy, the "restart" of the cycle will become a major holiday for those religions. Now I just have to figure out the calendar. One of the moons is pretty close in parameters to ours; the other is quite a bit further out and smaller (and has a higher albedo, to boot). I figure the tides will be somewhat more severe (and the cycles more of a headache) on this planet as a consequence.

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PostPosted: Thu Mar 16, 2017 1:49 am 
Avisaru
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