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zompist bboard • View topic - Täptäg

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 Post subject: Täptäg
PostPosted: Tue Mar 08, 2016 4:22 am 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Posts: 894
Location: Ohio
Protolanguage phonology

/m n/
/p b t d k g ʔ/
/s/
/ɾ/

/u ũ o õ ɔ ɔ̃ a ã ɛ ɛ̃ e ẽ i ĩ/

(C)(ɾ/s)V(C)

If I did this right, this is the phonology after the sound changes I applied; I will post the phonix rules in a separate post. The voiceless diacritic indicates slack voice.

Standard Täptäg phonology

/m m̥ n n̥ ɲ ɲ̊/
/p pʲ pʰ pʲʰ b bʲ b̥ b̥ʲ t tʲ tʰ tʲʰ d dʲ d̥ d̥ʲ c cʰ ɟ ɟ̊ k kʰ g g̊/
/s z ʃ ʒ/
/w j/

/u ũ o õ ɑ ɑ̃ æ æ̃ e ẽ i ĩ/

Gemination is contrastive on consonants.

Basic syllable structure: (C)(s/z/ʃ/ʒ)V(C), where C cannot be a resonant if it precedes a sibilant in the syllable onset.

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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Tue Mar 08, 2016 4:23 am 
Avisaru
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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Wed Mar 09, 2016 4:42 am 
Avisaru
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Proto-Täptäg verb template:

ROOT-ASPECT-PERSON.TENSE<NEGATION>

There exist positive and negative conjugations for each verb instead of using a particle or other word for negation.

PERSONAL ENDINGS

An epenthetic *-t- is inserted between a final vowel and a vowel-initial suffix.

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

1SG *-ki
2SG *-s(ɛ) (the *-ɛ appears if the suffix follows another consonant)
3SG *-Ø

1PL *-ʔkã (the *-ʔ- drops out after another consonant)
2PL *-dɔ̃
3PL *-nẽ

Negative conjugation:

1SG *-ke
2SG *-ka
3SG *-e

1PL *-ɾɔ
2PL *-si
3PL *-ne

PAST TENSE

Positive conjugation:

1SG *-ɾɔ̃
2SG *-sen
3SG *-tõ

1PL *-bi
2PL *-ɾĩ
3PL *-tɾu

Negative conjugation:

1SG *-i
2SG *-us
3SG *-op

1PL *-ɾĩ
2PL *-ɛ̃ɾi
3PL *-ɛt

EXAMPLES

*nonsɛn > nunzen

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*nonsɛnki > nunzinkʲi
*nonsɛnsɛ > nunzinza
*nonsɛn > nunzen
*nonsɛnkrã > nunziŋ̊kʰã
*nonsɛndɔ̃ > nunzinːã
*nonsɛnnẽ > nunzeɲːã

Negative conjugation:

*nonsɛnke > nunziŋkʲa
*nonsɛnka > nunziŋka
*nonsɛne > nunzeɲa
*nonsɛnɾɔ > nunzen̥a
*nonsɛnsi > nunzinʒi
*nonsɛnne > nunzeɲːa

PAST TENSE

*nonsɛnɾɔ̃ > nunzen̥ã
*nonsɛnsen > nunzinʒan
*nonsɛntõ > nunzinːwã
*nonsɛnbi > nunzinbʲi
*nonsɛnmɾã > nunziɲ̊ẽ
*nonsɛntru > nunzin̥ːu

*nonsɛni > nunzeɲi
*nonsɛnus > nunzenus
*nonsɛnop > nunzenwap
*nonsɛnrĩ > nunzeɲ̊ẽ
*nonsɛnɛ̃ri > nunzenãji
*nonsɛnɛt > nunzenat

*nɛtsã > nætsæ̃

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*nɛtsãʔki > nætsæ̃kʲi
*nɛtsãs > nætsæ̃s
*nɛtsã > nætsæ̃
*nɛtsãkɾã > nætsæ̃g̊æ̃
*nɛtsãdɔ̃ > nætsæ̃dæ̃
*nɛtsãnẽ > nætsæ̃ɲæ̃

Negative conjugation:

*nɛtsãke > nætsæ̃gʲæ
*nɛtsãka > nætsæ̃gæ
*nɛtsãte > nætsæ̃dʲæ
*nɛtsãɾɔ > nætsæ̃ɦæ
*nɛtsãsi > nætsæ̃ʒi
*nɛtsãne > nætsæ̃ɲæ

PAST TENSE

*nɛtsãrɔ̃ > nætsæ̃ɦæ̃
*nɛtsãsen > nætsæ̃ʒæn
*nɛtsãtõ > nætsæ̃twæ̃
*nɛtsãbi > nætsæ̃bʲi
*nɛtsãrĩ > nætsæ̃jẽ
*nɛtsãtru > nætsæ̃d̥u

*nɛtsãti > nætsæ̃dʲi
*nɛtsãtus > nætsæ̃dus
*nɛtsãtop > nætsæ̃twap
*nɛtsãrĩ > nætsæ̃jẽ
*nɛtsãtɛri > nætsæ̃dæji
*nɛtsãtɛt > nætsæ̃dæt

*bɔp > bap

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*bɔpki > bapkʲi
*bɔpsɛ > bapsa
*bɔp > bap
*bɔpkã > bapkã
*bɔpdɔ̃ > babdã
*bɔpnẽ > bumɲã

Negative conjugation:

*bɔpke > bapkʲa
*bɔpka > bapka
*bɔpe > babʲa
*bɔpnɾɔ > bum̥n̥a
*bɔpsi > bapʃi
*bɔpnẽ > bumɲa

PAST TENSE

*bɔprɔ̃ > bab̥ã
*bɔpsen > bapʃan
*bɔptõ > baptwã
*bɔpbi > babʲːi
*bɔprĩ > bab̥ʲẽ
*bɔptru > bapʰtʰu

*bɔpi > babʲi
*bɔpus > babus
*bɔpop > bapwap
*bɔprĩ > bab̥ʲẽ
*bɔpɛrĩ > babajẽ
*bɔpɛt > babat

*begtrɛg > bʲekʰtʰag

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*begtrɛgki > bʲekʰtʰakʲːi
*begtrɛgsɛ > bʲekʰtʰaksa
*begtrɛg > bʲekʰtʰag
*begtrɛgkã > bʲekʰtʰakːã
*begtrɛgdɔ̃ > bʲekʰtʰagdã
*begtrɛgnẽ > bʲekʰtʰiŋɲã

Negative conjugation:

*begtrɛgke > bʲekʰtʰakʲːa
*begtregka > bʲekʰtʰakːa
*begtrɛge > bʲekʰtʰagʲa
*begtrɛgɾɔ > bʲekʰtʰag̊a
*begtrɛgsi > bʲekʰtʰakʃi
*begtrɛgne > bʲekʰtʰaŋɲe

PAST TENSE

*begtrɛgrɔ̃ > bʲekʰtʰag̊ã
*begtrɛgsen > bʲekʰtʰakʃan
*begtrɛgtõ > bʲekʰtʰaktwã
*begtrɛgbi > bʲekʰtʰagbʲi
*begtrɛgrĩ > bʲekʰtʰag̊ʲẽ
*begtrɛgtru > bʲekʰtʰakʰtʰu

*begtrɛgi > bʲekʰtʰagʲi
*begtrɛgus > bʲekʰtʰagus
*begtrɛgop > bʲekʰtʰagwap
*begtrɛgrĩ > bʲekʰtʰag̊ʲẽ
*begtrɛgɛ̃ri > bʲekʰtʰagãji
*begtrɛgɛt > bʲekʰtʰagat

*gɾɛm > g̊em

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*gɾɛmki > g̊imkʲi
*gɾɛmsɛ > g̊imza
*gɾɛm > g̊em
*gɾɛmkã > g̊imkã
*gɾɛmdɔ̃ > g̊imdã
*gɾɛmnẽ > g̊imɲã

Negative conjugation:

*gɾɛmke > g̊imkʲa
*gɾɛmka > g̊imka
*gɾɛme > g̊emʲa
*gɾɛmɾɔ > g̊em̥a
*gɾɛmsi > g̊imʒi
*gɾɛmne > g̊imɲa

PAST TENSE

*grɛmrɔ̃ > g̊em̥ã
*grɛmsen > g̊imʒan
*grɛmtõ > g̊imtwã
*grɛmbi > g̊imbʲi
*grɛmrĩ > g̊em̥ʲẽ
*grɛmtru > g̊im̥tʰu

*grɛmi > g̊emʲi
*grɛmus > g̊emus
*grɛmop > g̊emwap
*grɛmrĩ > g̊em̥ʲẽ
*grɛmɛ̃ri > g̊emãji
*grɛmɛt > g̊emat

*kɾẽd > kʲʰãd

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*kɾẽdki > kʲʰẽtkʲi
*kɾẽdsɛ > kʲʰẽtsa
*kɾẽd > kʲʰãd
*kɾẽdkã > kʲʰãtkã
*kɾẽddɔ̃ > kʲʰẽdːã
*kɾẽdnẽ > kʲʰẽɲːã

Negative conjugation:

*kɾẽdke > kʲʰẽtkʲa
*kɾẽdka > kʲʰẽtka
*kɾẽde > kʲʰẽdʲa
*kɾẽdrɔ > kʲʰẽd̥a
*kɾẽdsi > kʲʰẽtʃi
*kɾẽdne > kʲʰẽɲːa

PAST TENSE

*krẽdrɔ̃ > kʲʰẽd̥ã
*krẽdsen > kʲʰẽtʃan
*krẽdtõ > kʲʰẽtːwã
*krẽdbi > kʲʰẽdbʲi
*krẽdrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽdtru > kʲʰẽtʰːu

*krẽdi > kʲʰẽdʲi
*krẽdus > kʲʰẽdus
*krẽdop > kʲʰẽdwap
*krẽdrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽdɛ̃ri > kʲʰẽdãji
*krẽdɛt > kʲʰẽdat

*kɾẽt > kʲʰãt

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*kɾẽtki > kʲʰẽtkʲi
*kɾẽtsɛ > kʲʰẽtsa
*kɾẽt > kʲʰãt
*kɾẽtkã > kʲʰãtkã
*kɾẽtdɔ̃ > kʲʰẽdːã
*kɾẽtnẽ > kʲʰẽɲːã

Negative conjugation:

*kɾẽtke > kʲʰẽtkʲa
*kɾẽtka > kʲʰẽtka
*kɾẽte > kʲʰẽdʲa
*kɾẽtrɔ > kʲʰẽd̥a
*kɾẽtsi > kʲʰẽtʃi
*kɾẽtne > kʲʰẽɲːa

PAST TENSE

*krẽtrɔ̃ > kʲʰẽd̥ã
*krẽtsen > kʲʰẽtʃan
*krẽttõ > kʲʰẽtːwã
*krẽtbi > kʲʰẽdbʲi
*krẽtrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽttru > kʲʰẽtʰːu

*krẽti > kʲʰẽdʲi
*krẽtus > kʲʰẽdus
*krẽtop > kʲʰẽtwap
*krẽtrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽtɛ̃ri > kʲʰẽdãji
*krẽtɛt > kʲʰẽdat

*dsĩ > dʒẽ

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*dsĩʔki > dʒẽkʲa
*dsĩs > dʒẽs
*dsĩ > dʒẽ
*dsĩkã > dʒẽgã
*dsĩdɔ̃ > dʒẽdã
*dsĩnẽ > dʒẽɲã

Negative conjugation:

*dsĩke > dʒẽgʲa
*dsĩka > dʒẽga
*dsĩte > dʒẽdʲa
*dsĩɾɔ > dʒẽɦa
*dsĩsi > dʒẽʒi
*dsĩne > dʒẽɲa

PAST TENSE

*dsĩrɔ̃ > dʒẽɦã
*dsĩsen > dʒẽʒan
*dsĩtõ > dʒẽtwã
*dsĩbi > dʒẽbʲi
*dsĩrĩ > dʒẽjẽ
*dsĩtru > dʒẽd̥u

*dsĩti > dʒẽdʲi
*dsĩtus > dʒẽdus
*dsĩtop > dʒẽtwap
*dsĩrĩ > dʒẽjẽ
*dsĩtɛ̃ri > dʒẽdãji
*dsĩtɛt > dʒẽdat

*ukbɾɛ̃k > ug̊b̥ãk

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*ukbɾɛ̃kki > ug̊b̥ãkʲːi
*ukbɾɛ̃ksɛ > ug̊b̥ãksa
*ukbɾɛ̃k > ug̊b̥ãk
*ukbɾɛ̃kkã > ug̊b̥ãkːã
*ukbɾɛ̃kdɔ̃ > ug̊b̥ãgdã
*ukbɾɛ̃knẽ > ug̊b̥ẽŋɲã

Negative conjugation:

*ukbɾɛ̃kke > ug̊b̥ãkʲːa
*ukbɾɛ̃kka > ug̊b̥ãkːa
*ukbɾɛ̃ke > ug̊b̥ãgʲa
*ukbɾɛ̃kɾɔ > ug̊b̥ãg̊a
*ukbɾɛ̃ksi > ug̊b̥ãkʃi
*ukbɾɛ̃kne > ug̊b̥ẽŋɲa

PAST TENSE

*ukbrɛ̃krɔ̃ > ug̊b̥ãg̊ã
*ukbrɛ̃ksen > ug̊b̥ãkʃan
*ukbrɛ̃ktõ > ug̊b̥ãktwã
*ukbrɛ̃kbi > ug̊b̥ãgbʲi
*ukbrɛ̃krĩ > ug̊b̥ãg̊ʲẽ
*ukbrɛ̃ktru > ug̊b̥ãkʰtʰu

*ukbrɛ̃ki > ug̊b̥ãgʲi
*ukbrɛ̃kus > ug̊b̥ãgus
*ukbrɛ̃kop > ug̊b̥ãkwap
*ukbrɛ̃krĩ > ug̊b̥ãg̊ʲẽ
*ukbrɛ̃kɛ̃ri > ug̊b̥ãgãji
*ukbrɛ̃kɛt > ug̊b̥ãgat

*ĩbto > jẽptwa

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*ĩbtoʔki > jẽptokʲi
*ĩbtos > jẽptwas
*ĩbto > jẽptwa
*ĩbtokã > jẽptogã
*ĩbtodɔ̃ > jẽptodã
*ĩbtonẽ > jẽptoɲã

Negative conjugation:

*ĩbtoke > jẽptogʲa
*ĩbtoka > jẽptoga
*ĩbtote > jẽptodʲa
*ĩbtoɾɔ > jẽptoɦa
*ĩbtosi > jẽptoʒi
*ĩbtone > jẽptoɲa

PAST TENSE

*ĩbtorɔ̃ > jẽptoɦã
*ĩbtosen > jẽptoʒan
*ĩbtotõ > jẽptotwã
*ĩbtobi > jẽptobʲi
*ĩbtorĩ > jẽptujẽ
*ĩbtotru > jẽptod̥u

*ĩbtoti > jẽptodʲi
*ĩbtotus > jẽptodus
*ĩbtotop > jẽptotwap
*ĩbtorĩ > jẽptujẽ
*ĩbtotɛ̃ri > jẽptodãji
*ĩbtotɛt > jẽptodat

*gsɔpʔɛ > gzapa

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*gsɔpʔɛʔki > gzapakʲi
*gsɔpʔɛs > gzapas
*gsɔpʔɛ > gzapa
*gsɔpʔɛkã > gzapagã
*gsɔpʔɛdɔ̃ > gzapadã
*gsɔpʔɛnẽ > gzapeɲã

Negative conjugation:

*gsɔpʔɛke > gzapagʲa
*gsɔpʔɛka > gzapaga
*gsɔpʔɛte > gzapadʲa
*gsɔpʔɛrɔ > gzapaɦa
*gsɔpʔɛsi > gzapaʒi
*gsɔpʔɛne > gzapeɲa

PAST TENSE

*gsɔpʔɛrɔ̃ > gzapaɦã
*gsɔpʔɛsen > gzapaʒan
*gsɔpʔɛtõ > gzapatwã
*gsɔpʔɛbi > gzapabʲi
*gsɔpʔɛrĩ > gzapajẽ
*gsɔpʔɛtru > gzapad̥u

*gsɔpʔɛti > gzapadʲi
*gsɔpʔɛtus > gzapadus
*gsɔpʔɛtop > gzapatwap
*gsɔpʔɛrĩ > gzapajẽ
*gsɔpʔɛtɛ̃ri > gzapadãji
*gsɔpʔɛtɛt > gzapadat

*dɛ̃nɾik > dẽɲ̊ik

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*dɛ̃nɾikki > dẽɲ̊ikʲːi
*dɛ̃nɾiksɛ > dẽɲ̊iksa
*dɛ̃nɾik > dẽɲ̊ik
*dɛ̃nɾikkã > dẽɲ̊ikːã
*dɛ̃nɾikdɔ̃ > dẽɲ̊igdã
*dɛ̃nɾiknẽ > dẽɲ̊iŋɲã

Negative conjugation:

*dɛ̃nɾikke > dẽɲ̊ikʲːa
*dɛ̃nɾikka > dẽɲ̊ikːa
*dɛ̃nɾike > dẽɲ̊igʲa
*dɛ̃nɾikrɔ > dẽɲ̊ig̊a
*dɛ̃nɾiksi > dẽɲ̊ikʃi
*dɛ̃nɾikne > dẽɲ̊iŋɲa

PAST TENSE

*dɛ̃nrikrɔ̃ > dẽɲ̊ig̊ã
*dɛ̃nriksen > dẽɲ̊ikʃan
*dɛ̃nriktõ > dẽɲ̊iktwã
*dɛ̃nrikbi > dẽɲ̊igbʲi
*dɛ̃nrikrĩ > dẽɲ̊ig̊ʲẽ
*dɛ̃nriktru > dẽɲ̊ikʰtʰu

*dɛ̃nriki > dẽɲ̊ig̊ʲi
*dɛ̃nrikus > dẽɲ̊igus
*dɛ̃nrikop > dẽɲ̊ikwap
*dɛ̃nrikrĩ > dẽɲ̊ig̊ʲẽ
*dɛ̃nrikɛ̃ri > dẽɲ̊igãji
*dɛ̃nrikɛt > dẽɲ̊igat

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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Wed Mar 09, 2016 9:08 pm 
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/m m̥ mʲ m̥ʲ n n̥ ɲ ɲ̊/ <m mh mi mhi n nh ni nhi>
/p pʲ pʰ pʲʰ b bʲ b̥ b̥ʲ t tʲ tʰ tʲʰ d dʲ d̥ d̥ʲ k kʰ kʲ kʲʰ g g̊ gʲ g̊ʲ/ <p pi ph phi b bi bh bhi t ti th thi d di dh dhi k kh ki khi g gh gi ghi>
/s z ʃ ʒ/ <s z si zi>
/w j/ <w j>

/u ũ o õ ɑ ɑ̃ æ æ̃ e ẽ i ĩ/ <u ų o ǫ a ą ä ą̈ e ę i/ai į/aį> (<ai aį> are used when the /i/ is non-palatalizing, as in /g̊im̥tʰu/ <ghaimhthu>)

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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Wed Mar 09, 2016 9:19 pm 
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I like the resulting sound system. It kind of sounds like a hybrid of some Indo-Aryan language and Ojibwe.

Also, I note that the post with the transcription has slack voiced labial nasals, while the original post doesn't. Were they meant to be there?

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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Wed Mar 09, 2016 10:06 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Sun Mar 13, 2016 3:56 am 
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Numbers for Janko:

1. *gsɛ > gzæ gzä
2. *dɾɛ̃s > d̥æ̃s dhą̈s
3. *ksẽɾe > kʃẽja księja
4. *pektɾɛ > pʲekʰtʰa piekhtha
5. *brẽpgɾɔ > b̥ʲẽb̥g̊a bhiębhgha
6. *nseɾ > anʒah anziah
12. *sĩʔtɾe > ʃẽtʲʰa sęthia
36. *ɾĩgɾũ > jẽg̊wõ jęghwǫ
216. *ben > bʲan bian

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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Sat Apr 02, 2016 12:10 am 
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Pronouns in Täptäg generally don't distinguish number for the second and third person; the Täptäg languages in general share this trait and it is generally reconstructed as being the case in the protolanguage.

*kse > kʃa ksia 1SG
*mɾogsĩ > m̥okʃẽ mhoksię 1PL
*brĩ > b̥ʲẽ bhię 2
*mɛ̃ɾe > mæ̃jæ mą̈jä 3

Context usually clears up whether the second- or third-person referent is singular or plural. It is considered nonstandard, but occasionally you'll hear analogical forms mhoghbhię 2PL and mhokmą̈jä 3PL.

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 Post subject: Re: Täptäg
PostPosted: Sat Apr 09, 2016 3:37 am 
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Proto-Täptäg had thirty-one noun classes, which are listed below.

1: *d(i)- – sentient beings
2: *ip- – kinship terms
3: *t(i)- – plural sentient beings/kinship
4: *ɛ̃- – small animals
5: *nĩ- – large animals
6: *ɾ(ɔ)- – aquatic animals
7: *ũ- – plural animals
8: *kaʔ- – action nominals/gerunds
9: *Ø- – infinitive; inanimate
10: *ĩ- – plural inanimate
11: *kɾ(ɔ)- – trees
12: *at- – shrubs
13: *mɾẽ- – flowers
14: *sõ- – weeds
15: *sasõ- – other terrestrial plants
16: *nẽ- – plural terrestrial plants
17: *mɾit- – aquatic plants
18: *ĩɾ- – plural aquatic plants
19: *ɾĩ- – body parts
20: *bos- – dual body parts
21: *ãɾ- – plural body parts
22: *te- – words dealing with time
23: *ag(i)- – abstract and mass nouns
24: *o- – foods
25: *in- – plural foods
26: *ãk- – units of measurement
27: *poʔ- – liquids and gases
28: *ɛ̃ʔ- – quality associated with something
29: *s(i)- – locative (at, near, on top of, outside of)
30: *nsɔ̃ʔ- – locative (inside, under, part of, within)
31: *daɾã- – locative (away from, far from, on the other side of, across from)

Words or stems beginning with *ɾ- produced an interesting result in Standard Täptäg. Initial *ɾ was lost, but when a prefix occurred it was no longer initial and was retained. Then the aspiration/slack-voice process happened leading to a few noun subclasses—basically, if a prefix ended in a consonant (other than *ɾ), that consonant then became aspirated or slack-voiced.

As an example, noun class 1: Given a vowel-initial stem, the *d- > d- (class 1a in Standard Täptäg); but if the stem began with *ɾ-, *dɾ- > d̥- (and if palatalization rules apply, d̥ʲ-) (class 1b in Standard Täptäg). Subclasses for which no voicing change occurs are denoted as class Xa; when voicing changes do occur, that is class Xb.

I have not yet decided fully on which noun classes merge in Standard Täptäg, but have the following ideas. I am fairly certain that classes 10 and 19 will merge due to the influence of sound changes; 13 merges into 12, and 15 merges into 14. 26 and 27 merge into 23. 6 merges into 4 or 5, as appropriate (some regions have slight differences here). Class 20 is kept as a variant of class 21 for body parts that come naturally in pairs but otherwise falls out of use.

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