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PostPosted: Mon Jun 13, 2016 5:22 pm 
Smeric
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I'm working on an alternate history where the King of France makes the dialect of Soissons (border between French and Picard) the standard dialect of the French language in the mid-17th century. I doubt that any resources exist for that dialect in that time period, but can anyone either find resources or suggest a reasonable conlang to work as that dialect (I only know about French). Once I understand the phonology, I'll make a somewhat phonemic orthography based off of the French one and post it here. The language would go under some sound changes after the standardisation bringing it closer to Parisien (the most spoken and influential dialect) and Tourangeau (the prestige dialect), dialects of French, and replace many Picard words with borrowings from those two dialects. It would then go under the same historical sound changes as French did in the 18th century (I am not developing the alternate history beyond some date in 1814-1838 which I have yet to choose).

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ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 14, 2016 4:40 am 
Smeric
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mèþru wrote:
I'm working on an alternate history where the King of France makes the dialect of Soissons (border between French and Picard) the standard dialect of the French language in the mid-17th century.

Why would that happen? The dialect of the Île de France became the basis of the French standard, because the region had been the main center of the French kingdom since Frankish times, and I'd say the 17th century is too late to change that. If you want to be realistic, I think you need an earlier PoD (12th/13th century or so).


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PostPosted: Tue Jun 14, 2016 7:02 am 
Smeric
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The King moves the capital to Soissons (the next king moves the royal residence back to Paris in 1673 or 1674, but the capital stays in Soissons). One point is that as a border between Picard and French, Soissons shouldn't be too different from the standard French of Touraine. Also, Soissons was part of the Île de France (albeit on the edge of its territory) in that time period (the area's borders changed since then). The main reason why the reform is accepted is because the dialect is not too different from the previous standard and orthographical reforms make spelling from pronunciation possible without knowing the word.

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ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 14, 2016 8:42 am 
Smeric
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Sorry for being so nit-picky; you're of course free to ignore all my remarks, after all, it's your party...
mèþru wrote:
The King moves the capital to Soissons (the next king moves the royal residence back to Paris in 1673 or 1674, but the capital stays in Soissons).

Administration in Soissons, but royal residence in Paris? That should work even less; it's the time when the French kings centralized the administration around their court. With Versailles that worked bacause it's not so far from Paris, and Paris had sufficient pull to keep the administrative offices. And with the court, and the country's élte, in Paris, good luck for the Soissons dialect influencing anything. More likely, Soissons becomes totally Parisian-speaking.

mèþru wrote:
One point is that as a border between Picard and French, Soissons shouldn't be too different from the standard French of Touraine. Also, Soissons was part of the Île de France (albeit on the edge of its territory) in that time period (the area's borders changed since then).

Than what's the Point of your whole scènario, if nothing really changes in the standard?


mèþru wrote:
The main reason why the reform is accepted is because the dialect is not too different from the previous standard and orthographical reforms make spelling from pronunciation possible without knowing the word.

On the whole, I think you have the wrong idea about how such things work. Standardization processes work around what prestigious people already speak and write, and then sort out some issues about which prestige speakers disagree; they also may cement the victory of one set of standards over competing sets of standards. I'm not aware that in 17th century France there was a Picardy standard competing nationwide with what later became Standard French. Even a 17th century absolute French monarch cannot simply set a new standard ignoring what had been ongoing before. That's why I'm saying that you need an earlier PoD, so that Picard becomes a serious competitor for standard or even a main influence on it. (One scenario would be the English occupying Paris for a century or two during the 100 years war, with the French kings moving the de-facto capital to the Picardie and leaving it there after they reconquer Paris, using Paris only for coronations and suchlike, but not as residence or administrative capital.)


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PostPosted: Tue Jun 14, 2016 5:05 pm 
Smeric
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hwhatting wrote:
Sorry for being so nit-picky; you're of course free to ignore all my remarks, after all, it's your party...
mèþru wrote:
The King moves the capital to Soissons (the next king moves the royal residence back to Paris in 1673 or 1674, but the capital stays in Soissons).

Administration in Soissons, but royal residence in Paris? That should work even less; it's the time when the French kings centralized the administration around their court. With Versailles that worked bacause it's not so far from Paris, and Paris had sufficient pull to keep the administrative offices. And with the court, and the country's élte, in Paris, good luck for the Soissons dialect influencing anything. More likely, Soissons becomes totally Parisian-speaking.
I guess the parliament would move back to Paris. Also, this King who moved back to Paris lost a lot of power and had to sign something like the English Bill of Rights after a huge civil war early in his reign.
hwhatting wrote:
mèþru wrote:
One point is that as a border between Picard and French, Soissons shouldn't be too different from the standard French of Touraine. Also, Soissons was part of the Île de France (albeit on the edge of its territory) in that time period (the area's borders changed since then).

Than what's the Point of your whole scènario, if nothing really changes in the standard?
The main change, which is what makes the reform popular, is that the orthography is more phonemic. The language aspect isn't even an important part of the alternate history.
hwhatting wrote:
mèþru wrote:
The main reason why the reform is accepted is because the dialect is not too different from the previous standard and orthographical reforms make spelling from pronunciation possible without knowing the word.

On the whole, I think you have the wrong idea about how such things work. Standardization processes work around what prestigious people already speak and write, and then sort out some issues about which prestige speakers disagree; they also may cement the victory of one set of standards over competing sets of standards. I'm not aware that in 17th century France there was a Picardy standard competing nationwide with what later became Standard French. Even a 17th century absolute French monarch cannot simply set a new standard ignoring what had been ongoing before. That's why I'm saying that you need an earlier PoD, so that Picard becomes a serious competitor for standard or even a main influence on it. (One scenario would be the English occupying Paris for a century or two during the 100 years war, with the French kings moving the de-facto capital to the Picardie and leaving it there after they reconquer Paris, using Paris only for coronations and suchlike, but not as residence or administrative capital.)
There was no Picardy standard - the previous standard refers to the standard French of the 17th century. Picard actually was a big influence on the history of French. The reason why the French monarch chose Soissons was that he felt that he needed to move to an area more friendly to his reign than Paris, which was filled with the supporters of Mazarin - a former rival who he forced into retiring from the position of Chief Minister. This monarch did not have the massive support that Louis XIV did from prominent figures of Louis XIII reign - he was enemies with many of them in fact. (In this alternate history, Anne of Austria had no children and Gaston, Duke of Orléans becomes king. He is the one who moves to Soissons. Louis, Grand Condé is the next king, and he moves back to Paris.)


I did realise before that standard French would dominate - what would happen is that the Soissons dialect quickly becomes Parisianised after the reform, leaving a mix of an already borderline dialect with Parisien French. Some Picard phonemes that merged in French would merge in this standard. The vocabulary would be mainly French and not Picard. The reform is essentially a slightly Picardised Parisien French with a more phonemic orthography.

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ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!
kårroť


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PostPosted: Wed Jun 15, 2016 12:02 am 
Avisaru
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Come i dijot ech'roi Gachton, l'Etat ch'est mi!

I have to agree with hwhatting that an earlier POD would make more sense.
Picard was one of several literary standards for Old French, and a prominent one.

You'll have trouble finding 17th century texts... AFAIK a few fragments exist but very little Picard was written at the time.
I doubt the king and hs court would have had much interest in how the lower classes spoke.

At the time, French was already very well established as a litterary standard. Molière makes some very unconvinckng attempts at representing the servants' patois, which just looks like a mismatch of funny grammatical mistakes, with no links to any known dialect...

I'm afraid there was little interest back then in patois...


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PostPosted: Fri Jun 17, 2016 8:22 pm 
Smeric
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Wasn't there a higher class register, perhaps spoken by the burgher elite? Also, I say this again: Soissonais is neither like Picard or French, but in between. The dialectal difference would not be that huge. Their may be a minor difference in pronouncing words, but this standard would basically be French words pronounced as if they were Soissonais rather than true Soissonais, due to the massive Parisianisation of the dialect after moving the court to Soissons. If only the lower class spoke Soissonais, then I'd say that no reform of French took place. (I know that the upper class spoke regional languages in the Medieval Ages, but I do not know if they did in 1648.)

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ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 20, 2016 1:23 pm 
Smeric
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Never mind, the alternate history scenario is being scrapped for a different project.

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ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 21, 2016 3:18 am 
Avisaru
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Oh too bad...
I was disagreeing about likely Points of Divergence, but an alternate history where Picard becomes the standard dialect would've been interesting.


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PostPosted: Tue Jun 21, 2016 4:37 am 
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I'm a little upset this thread wasn't about Captain Picard's future french.


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PostPosted: Tue Jun 21, 2016 10:39 pm 
Smeric
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Here is timeline in progress (the French is reformed, so bonus points for correctly guessing all of the names). The year 1652 and beyond were going under revision:
POD: Louis XIV is miscarried, and Queen Anne stops having children afterwards due to fragile health (complications from miscarriage)
1643
May 14 – Gaston I succeeds Lwi XIII as King of France at age 35. His rule will last until his death at age 63 in 1672, a total of 28 years. Cardinal Mazaren, chief minister of France, is forcibly retired and is replaced by (someone else) as minister, yet Gaston I actually makes the decisions.
May 19
Battle of Rocrwa: The French defeat the Spanish at Rocrwa, France.
The New England Confederation is formed as a military alliance.
May 20 – Charl IV, Duke of Lorenn, signs the Treaty of Nanci, declaring Lorenn an independent grand duchy from the Holy Roman Empire and an alliance with France. He is given his duchy back by the French in turn. The Habsburg forces declare war on Lorenn in response.
June 30 – First English Civil War – Battle of Adwalton Moor: Cavaliers (supporters of Charles I) gain control of Yorkshire.
July 1 – First meeting of the Westminster Assembly of Divines
July 3 – Gaston I remarries Marguerit of Lorenn. Their marriage was previously annulled by the order of Lwi XIII; however, he gave them permission to marry at his deathbed.
.July 5 – First English Civil War – Battle of Lansdowne: Royalists and Parliamentarians battle to a draw.
July 13 – First English Civil War – Battle of Roundway Down: In England, Lord Henry Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, wins a crushing victory over the Parliamentarian Sir William Waller.
September 20 – First English Civil War – First Battle of Newbury: Royalists withdraw to end further bloodshed.
September 21 – Hong Taiji, Qing dynasty Emperor of China dies.
October 8 – The Shunzhi Emperor of China is crowned age 5, having been chosen to succeed his father by the Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers.
October 28 – The Dutch corsairs end their occupation of Valdivia in what will become Chile.
November 14 – Empress Meishō abdicates and Emperor Go-Kōmyō accedes to the throne of Japan.
November 24 – Battle of Tuttlingen: France is defeated by forces of the Holy Roman Empire.
December 25 – Christmas Island is first sighted by Captain William Mynors of the British East India Company on the Royal Mary.
1644
January 22 – The Royalist Oxford Parliament is first assembled by King Charles I of England.
January 26 – First English Civil War – Battle of Nantwich: The Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists, allowing them to end the 6-week Siege of Nantwich in Cheshire, England.
February–August – Explorer Abel Tasman's second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia.
January 30 – Battle of Ochmatów: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski secure a substantial victory over the horde of Crimean Tatars under Tugay Bey.
February 5 – Connecticut’s first livestock branding law is passed.
March 24 – In England, Roger Williams is granted an official charter for his Rhode Island Colony, allowing the establishment of a general assembly.
April 25 – A popular Chinese rebellion led by Li Zicheng sacks Beijing, prompting Chongzhen, the last emperor of the Ming dynasty, to commit suicide.
May 6 – Joham Mauritius resigns as Governor of Brazil.
May 25 – Ming general Wu Sangui forms an alliance with the invading Manchus and opens the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhaiguan pass, letting the Manchus through towards the capital Beijing.
May 26 – Battle of Montijo: The Kingdom of Portugal is victorious over Habsburg Spain in the first major action between the two nations during the Portuguese Restoration War.
May 27 – Battle of Shanhai Pass: The Manchu Qing dynasty and Wu Sangui gain a decisive victory over Li Zicheng's Shun dynasty.
June 3 – Li Zicheng claims himself as the emperor of China.
June 6 – The invading Qing army, with the help of Ming general Wu Sangui, captures Beijing, China. This marks the beginning of Manchu rule over China proper.
July 2 – English Civil War – Battle of Marston Moor: The Parliamentarians crush the Royalists, ending Charles I's hold on the north of England.
September 1 – English Civil War – Battle of Tippermuir: Montrose defeats Lord Elcho's Covenanters, reviving the Royalist cause in Scotland.
September 2 – English Civil War – Second Battle of Lostwithiel: Charles I and the Royalists gain their last major victory.
September 15 – Pope Pius VI succeeds Pope Urban VIII as the 236th pope.
October 1 – the Jews of Mogilev, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, were attacked during Tashlikh.
November – The Castle of Elvas in Portugal resists a 9-day siege by the Spanish during the Portuguese Restoration War.
November 8 – The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, is enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.
November 23
Battle of Jüterbog: Sweden's forces defeat those of the Holy Roman Empire.
Areopagitica by John Milton is published in England.
December 9 – As Christina comes of age, she is made ruling queen of Sweden.
December – Plague breaks out in Edinburgh.
1645
January 3 – The Long Parliament adopts the Directory for Public Worship in England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland, replacing the Book of Common Prayer (1559). Holy Days (other than Sundays) are not to be observed.
January 10 – Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud is executed for treason on Tower Hill, London.
January 14 – English Civil War: Fairfax is appointed Commander-in-Chief.
January 29 – English Civil War: Armistice talks open at Uxbridge.
February 2 – Battle of Inverlochy: The Covenanters are defeated by Montrose.
February 15 – English Civil War: The New Model Army is officially founded.
February 28
English Civil War: Uxbridge armistice talks fail.
Thirty Years' War: the Second Battle of Freiburg, between French forces led by Marshal Enri d' la Tour d'Overyn, Vicomt d' Turenn and the Bavarian army led by Franz von Mercy. French troops, reinforced by troops from the Siege of Namur, destroy Bavarian forces and conquer Freiburg.
March 4 – English Civil War: Prince Rupert leaves Oxford for Bristol.
March 5 – Thirty Years' War: the Battle of Jankau, one of the bloodiest of the Thirty Years' War, in southern Bohemia, some 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Prague, between the armies of Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire.
March 31 – Fearing the spread of the Black Death (plague), Edinburgh Town Council prohibits all gatherings except weddings and funerals.
April 3 – The House of Lords passes the Self-denying Ordinance, requiring members of the Parliament of England to resign commissions in the armed services.
April 10 – Because of the plague, the Edinburgh town council orders that the college graduation ceremony should be brought forward so that students can leave the city (on November 19, teaching resumes in Linlithgow).
April 23 (St George's Day) – English Civil War: One hundred and fifty Irish soldiers bound for service with King Charles I of England are captured at sea by Parliamentarians and killed at Pembroke in Wales.
May 9 – Battle of Auldearn: Scottish Covenanters are defeated by Montrose.
June 1 – English Civil War: Prince Rupert's army sacks Leicester.
June 10 – English Civil War: Oliver Cromwell is confirmed as the Lieutenant-General of the Cavalry.
June 14 – English Civil War – Battle of Naseby: 12,000 Royalist forces are beaten by 15,000 Parliamentarian soldiers.
June 28 – English Civil War: The Royalists lose Carlisle.
July 2 – Fight at Alford, Aberdeenshire.
July 10 – English Civil War – Battle of Langport: Cromwell wins in Somerset.
July 21 – Qing dynasty regent Dorgon issues an edict ordering all Han Chinese men to shave their forehead and braid the rest of their hair into a queue identical to those of the Manchus.
July 23 – Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich of Russia comes to the throne.
August 13 – The Treaty of Brömsebro is signed between Sweden and Denmark–Norway, ending the Torstenson War and ceding Jemtland, Herjedalen, Gotland and Ösel (Saaremaa) to Sweden, which also holds the province of Halland for a period of 30 years as a guarantee.
September 10 – English Civil War: Prince Rupert surrenders Bristol.
September 13 – Battle of Philiphaugh: Covenanters defeat Montrose at Selkirk.
September 24 – English Civil War – Battle of Rowton Heath: Parliamentarians defeat the Royalist cavalry.
October 8–October 14 – English Civil War: Third siege of Basing House by Cromwell results in its destruction.
October 8 – Jann Mance founds the Hôtel-Dyœ d' Montréal, the first hospital in North America, for which she received the title of Vicomtes d’Ile Sann-Hélenn.
October 11 – English Civil War: Re-fortification of Bourne Castle in Lincolnshire against a threatened Royalist attack begins.
November 20 The then Colegio de Santo Tomas, was elevated by Pope Pius VI into the University of Santo Tomas in his brief In Supreminenti. It has the oldest extant University Charter in the Philippines, as well as the whole of Asia.
1646
February 16 – First English Civil War – The Battle of Great Torrington, Devon, the last major battle of the conflict, is fought.
February 28 – Roger Scott is tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church.
March 6 – Joseph Jenkes, in Massachusetts, receives the first colonial machine patent.
April 27 – King Charles I flees from Oxford.
May 5 – King Charles I surrenders his forces to a Scottish army at Southwell, Nottinghamshire.
May 6 – Poet Anne Bradstreet becomes a founding mother of Andover Parish (now North Andover) Massachusetts.
May 30 – Spain and the Netherlands sign a temporary cease fire in the war.
June 25 – The New Model Army of Thomas Fairfax occupies Oxford.
July 12 – Lightning strikes the gunpowder tower of the castle of Bredevoort, causing an explosion that destroys parts of the castle and the town, killing Lord Haersolte of Bredevoort and his family, as well as others. Only one son, Anthonie, who is not home that day, survives.
July 30 – The English Parliament sets the Newcastle Propositions for King Charles I.
August 19 – English Civil War – Raglan Castle in Wales surrenders to General Fairfax after a 2-month siege; it is later destroyed.
October 28 – The first Protestant church assembly for natives is held in Massachusetts (see Waban).
November 4 – Massachusetts enacts the death penalty for denying the Holy Bible is God's word.
December 7 – Princess Louise Henriette (19) marries Frederick William of Brandenburg.
December 21 – Global temperatures begin to decline as part of the Little Ice Age
1647
January 7 – The Westminster Assembly begins debating the biblical proof texts to support the new Confession of Faith.
January 16 – Citizens of Dublin declare support for Rinuccini and refuse to support the army of the Marquis of Ormond.
March 13 – Thirty Years' War: Bavaria, Koln, France, Lorenn and Sweden sign the Truce of Speyer.
April 3 – In England, a letter from the Agitators of the New Model Army, protesting delay of pay, is read in the House of Commons.
May 13 – 1647 Santiago earthquake rattles Chile.
May 24 – The Marquis of Argyll and David Leslie join forces to defeat Alasdair MacColla at Rhunahoarine Point in Kintyre. MacColla flees to Ireland; his followers are massacred.
May 29 – The Rhode Island General Assembly drafts a constitution that separates church and state, and permits public referendums and initiatives on legislation.
August
The New Model Army marches to London.
Peter Stuyvesant is appointed Director of New Amsterdam by the Dutch West India Company.
August 8 – Battle of Dungan's Hill: Irish forces are defeated by English Parliamentary forces.
November – Battle of Knocknanauss: An Irish confederate force is destroyed by the army of Parliament; Alasdair MacColla is killed.
November 15 – Henry II of Guiz landed in Naples to become leader of the Neapolitan Republic.
November 16 – Thirty Years' War: The Truce of Prague is signed, ending the conflict in Germany.
November 20 – Thirty Years' War: The Treaty of Marsei is signed, ending the conflict between France and Spain.
December 28 – King Charles of England promises a church reform. This agreement leads to the Second English Civil War.
1648
January – The beginning of the Khmelnytsky Uprising in Ukraine, at this time in the Republic of Both Nations (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), which ends later that year with the Treaty of Rowne.
January 17 – England's Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Addresses, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War.
January 30 – The Dutch and the Spanish sign the Peace of Münster, ending the Eighty Years' War. The Spanish Empire recognizes the Dutch Republic of United Netherlands as a sovereign state (governed by the House of Orange-Nassau and the States General), which was previously a province of the Spanish Empire. (Ratified May 15.)
February 2 – Signing of the Peace of Prague, ending the Thirty Years' War. The Holy Roman Empire is abolished, freeing its constituent states to do as they please. All signatories of the treaty except for Spain must allow all Calvinist and Lutheran churches listed in the treaty and the Roman Catholic Church to operate in their states and have equal rights. France and Sweden gain territory, and the latter is granted an indemnity.
February 5 – The Proclamation of Swason is made.
October 31 – A treaty is signed between the Arabs and the Portuguese. The terms include a provision that the Portuguese should build fortresses at Kuriyat, Dibba Al-Hisn (Sharjah) and Muttrah (Oman).
November 11 – France agrees to give the Dutch the right to all of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin outside the French quarter. In exchange, France gets the colony of New Netherland, which is renamed New Orleanne. The Dutch are still allowed to trade within the colony, but Dutch sale of weaponry is prohibited across all of French territory.
November 20 – New Amsterdam is incorporated.
December 11 – "Pride's Purge" in England, with elements of the New Model Army, under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell invading London and expelling a majority of the Long Parliament, resulting in the creation of the Rump Parliament.
1649
January 20 – Charles I of England goes on trial for treason and other "high crimes".
January 27 – King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is found guilty of high treason in a public session. He is beheaded three days later, outside the Banqueting Hall in the Palace of Whitehall, London.
January 30
Following the execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England, a republican form of government, replaces the monarchy as the form of government of England and later of Scotland and Ireland. Members of the Long Parliament serve as government.
Charles, Prince of Wales declares himself King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. At the time, none of the three kingdoms recognize him as ruler.
February 5 – In Edinburgh, Scotland claimant King Charles II of England is declared King in his absence. Scotland is the first of the three Kingdoms to recognize his claim to the throne.
March 19 – The House of Commons of England passes an act abolishing the House of Lords, declaring that it is "useless and dangerous to the people of England".
March – Robert Blake is promoted to become a "General at Sea" of the English fleet.
May 17 – The Banbury mutiny in England ends – leaders of the Leveller mutineers in the New Model Army are hanged.
May 19 – An act declaring England to be a Commonwealth is passed by the Rump Parliament.
May 22–October – Robert Blake blockades Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Ireland.
August – The Diggers abandon their last major colony at St. George's Hill, Weybridge, England.
August 8 – Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh completes Book VIII of Leabhar na nGenealach, in Galway, within days of an outbreak of the plague.
August 15 – Oliver Cromwell lands in Dublin to begin the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
September 2 – The Italian city of Castro is completely destroyed by the forces of Pope Innocent X, ending the Wars of Castro.
September 3–11 – Siege of Drogheda in Ireland: New Model Army massacre the Irish Catholic Confederation garrison.
October 2–11 – Sack of Wexford in Ireland: New Model Army massacre the Irish Catholic Confederation garrison.
1650
April 27 – Battle of Carbisdale: A Royalist army invades mainland Scotland from the Orkney Islands but is defeated by a Covenanter army.
May – The New Model Army is decimated at the Siege of Clonmel.
June 9 – The Harvard Corporation, the more powerful of the two administrative boards of Harvard, is established (the first legal corporation in the Americas).
June 23 – Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland (at Garmouth), the only one of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler.
August 23 – Colonel George Monck forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, forerunner of the Coldstream Guards.
September 3 – Third English Civil War: Battle of Dunbar (1650).
September 27 – The Kolumbo volcano on Santorini experiences a massive eruption (VEI 6).
September 29 – Henry Robinson opens his Office of Addresses and Encounters (the first historically documented dating service) in Threadneedle Street, London.
November 4 – William III of Orange becomes Prince of the House of Orange the moment of his birth, succeeding his father who had died a few days earlier. He doesn't become stadtholder, so the United Provinces becomes a true republic.
December 25 – Thomas Cooper, former Usher of Gresham's School, England, is hanged as a Royalist rebel.
1651
February 22 – St. Peter's Flood – First storm tide in the North Sea strikes the coast of Germany, drowning thousands. The island of Juist is split in half and the western half of Buise is probably washed away.
March 4–5 – St. Peter's Flood – Another storm tide in the North Sea strikes the Netherlands, flooding Amsterdam.
July 20 – Battle of Inverkeithing in Scotland: The English Parliamentarian New Model Army under Major-General John Lambert defeats a Scottish Covenanter army acting on behalf of Charles II, led by Sir John Brown of Fordell.
September 3 – English Civil War – Battle of Worcester: the future King Charles II of England is defeated in the last major battle of the war.
October – An English diplomatic team headed by Oliver St John goes to The Hague to negotiate an alliance between the Commonwealth of England and the Dutch Republic.
October 14 – Laws are passed in Massachusetts forbidding poor people from adopting excessive styles of dress.
October 15 – Escape of Charles II to France.
October 14 – Royalist England and Scotland, as decided by Charles II, signs the Treaty of Paris (1651), giving Ireland to the Duke of Lorenn and agreeing to the religious freedoms of the Peace of Prague. Various sects of England and Ireland are added to the text of the Peace of Prague.
December 17 – Castle Cornet in Guernsey, the last stronghold which had supported the King in the Third English Civil War, surrenders.
1652
January 8 – Michiel de Ruyter marries the widow Anna van Gelder and plans retirement, but months later becomes a vice-commodore in the British Restoration War.
February 2 – End of the Portuguese Restoration War with the Treaty of Olivença. The Portuguese nobles accept the Habsburgs as their kings in exchange for political freedom. The Portuguese also accept a peace with the Dutch, in which the Dutch revoke the VOC’s right to raid and the then current territory of each side is made official. The Portuguese agree to allow the VOC to sail in Portuguese territory, but do not allow the Dutch to trade with local peoples in its colonies.
February 5 – The Constitution of Swason, a massive reform of French government, is adopted. The Constitution would go into affect a week later.
February 5 – The Constitution of Swason goes into effect. Cardinal Mazaren enters French politics and the royal court again. He becomes in charge of relations of the papacy
April 6 – Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, thus founding Cape Town.
May 18 – Rhode Island passes the first law in North America making slavery illegal.
May 29 – British Restoration War – The opening battle is fought off Dover, between Lt.-Admiral Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp's 42 Dutch ships and 21 English ships divided into 2 squadrons, one commanded by Robert Blake and the other by Nehemiah Bourne.
June 13 – George Fox preaches to a large crowd on Firbank Fell in England, leading to the establishment of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
October 8
British Restoration War – Battle of the Kentish Knock: This battle between the Dutch and Parliamentarian naval forces is fought near the shoal called the Kentish Knock in the North Sea, about 30 km from the mouth of the River Thames. Included the Landing of Dover, one of two failed Dutch attempts to enter England.
British Restoration War – Battle of Cleggan Bay: Part of the invasion of Ireland by Lorenn and Spain.
November – Oliver Cromwell launches the 'Western Design', an English expedition to the Caribbean to counter Spanish commercial interests.
1653
January – Beginning of the War of the Canton of Huttwil. Ended within some provinces with the French-led Mediation of Bern in June. Others tried to continue with their absolutist policies and refused to end their campaign. With French support, the ones who refused to the mediation were conquered by the other cantons and annexed into the new Canton of Huttwil by January in the next year.
January 23–30 – British Restoration War – Siege of Santo Domingo: Parliamentarian forces manage to capture the city of Santo Domingo after a long period of naval bombardments and two landing attempts.
February 8 – British Restoration War – Battle of Folkstone: The Dutch Fleet controlling the English Channel retreats and a second attempt to invade England fails.
February 19 – British Restoration War – Siege of Ennis: Parliamentary forces attempt to retake County Clare. After their defeat, much of Munster defects and is occupied by Spanish garrisons.
March 14 – British Restoration War – Battle of Leghorn: A Dutch fleet defeats the English; the Dutch commander, Johan van Galen, later dies of his wounds.
April 20 – Oliver Cromwell expels the Rump Parliament in England.
May 12–14 – British Restoration War – Battle of Ostend: The Dutch fleet, with Spanish reinforcements, repel the British from Spanish Flanders. The nations then sign a truce on May 15.
July 4–December 12 – Barebone's Parliament meets in London.
July 8 – John Thurloe becomes Cromwell's head of intelligence.
November – John Casor leaves Anthony Johnson's farm after claiming his contract of indenture had expired.
December 16 – Instrument of Government in England: Britain's first written constitution, under which Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, being advised by a remodelled English Council of State. This is the start of The First Protectorate, bringing an end to the first period of republican government in the country, the Commonwealth of England.
1654
January 4 – The Treaty of Westminster, ending the Dutch participation in the British Restoration War, is signed. The Dutch recognise the the Protectorate and the British recognise Dutch policy on the freedom of the seas.

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ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!
kårroť


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