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PostPosted: Sun Jul 23, 2017 6:40 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
In Old Laqar, descended from Proto-Laqar, I have come up with a basic ablaut system based on the basic principles:

  • In Proto-Laqar, stress always fallen on one of the last three syllables that has the heaviest syllable weight, and of if there are more than one of those, the one furthest to the left; Proto-Laqar syllables can have the forms CV, CV:, CVC, and CV:C, i.e. light, heavy, heavy, and superheavy syllables respectively.
  • In Old Laqar, all short vowels other than a stressed one are reduced to one of /e ɐ o/, or if adjacent to a historical uvular consonant, /ɑ/ or /ɔ/ instead of /ɐ/, unless they formed part of a diphthong (with /w j/), where then they may become /y/ as well.
  • Furthermore diphthongs always become one of /e ej o ow y yj yw/ regardless of stress.
  • After these changes, in Old Laqar historical vowel length is lost and stress is moved to the antepenultimate position.

This results in syllables in words having the following forms:

  • Alternating between /i/ and /e/, between /u and o/, between /æ/ and /ɐ/, and between /ɔ/ and /ɐ/
  • Fixed as having /i y e æ ɑ ɔ o u ej ow yj yw/

This is aside from other alternations between /æ/ and /ɑ/, /ɐ/ and /ɑ/, and /ɐ/ and /ɔ/ based on the presence of historical uvular consonants.

So this looks like the beginnings of turning historically agglutinative morphology into a templatic system, but I am wondering how I can actually make this more templatic in an organic fashion.

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 23, 2017 9:01 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
I added another rule where, applied leftward and rightward from the stressed syllable, V[-long -stress] > ∅ / VC_CV, to form new consonant clusters in a stress-dependent fashion.

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Tue Jul 25, 2017 11:19 pm 
Lebom
Lebom

Joined: Thu Dec 22, 2011 1:13 pm
Posts: 168
Location: Ohio
Very interesting. After reading this I tried out a tiny scheme of my own like this, using just /i a u/ and two syllable types - CV and CV: - and with the stress falling on the heaviest of the last two syllables. Short unstressed /i u/ became [ɨ]; short unstressed /a/ became [ə]; but after alevolars the unstressed short vowels were realized as [ɪ] and [ɛ] respectively. Then length was lost and stress became penultimate. I got alternations like:

1. kilɪ - kilɪti - kilikə - kilɪkəti (CV:CV)

2. napu - naputi - napukə - napukəti (CV:CV:)

3. talɪ - talɪti - talikə - talɪkəti (CV:CV)

4. lunɪ - lɪnɪti - lɪnikə - lɪnɪkəti (CVCV)

5. kikɨ - kɨkɨti - kɨkukə - kɨkɨkəti (CVCV)

6. lapə - lɛpəti - lɛpakə - lɛpəkati (CVCV)

7. nɪpa - nɪpati - nɪpakə - nɪpakəti (CVCV:)

The listed consonant-syllable structures are the weight structures of the original roots. It looks like there are four different inflectional classes based on the weight of the original roots, which is to be expected.

It seems to me that in a system like this, the conditionally changed unstressed short vowels (my [ɪ ɛ], your [ɑ ɔ]) remain allophones of the unchanged short unstressed vowels.

And while it isn't entirely implausible, it does seem to me that when reassigning stress, the short unstressed vowels would more likely just be deleted to fit the new antepenultimate stress instead of re-stressed.


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PostPosted: Thu Jul 27, 2017 12:04 am 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
From just the couple of partial paradigms I have worked out, I like how this results in paradigms that are seemingly irregular despite diachronically being entirely regular. The two partial paradigms I have worked out are (from the lexicon building thread):

'dagger' (lit. 'stabber'), masculine, singular/plural number:

sg. indef. nukme
pl. indef. nukmemu
sg. def. nukmedə
pl. def. nokmemudər
sg. indef. 3rd sg. m. poss. nukmetə
pl. indef. 3rd sg. m. poss. nokmemutə
sg. def. 3rd sg. m. poss. nokmitdə
pl. def. 3rd sg. m. poss. nokmemutdər

'feather pen' (lit. 'quill stylus'), feminine, singular/plural number:

sg. indef. tš'elə nistə
pl. indef. tš'elə nistələ
sg. def. tš'elə nistədo
pl. def. tš'elə nistəldum
sg. indef. 3rd sg. m. poss. tš'elə nistətə
pl. indef. 3rd sg. m. poss. tš'elə niståltə
sg. def. 3rd sg. m. poss. tš'elə niståtdo
pl. def. 3rd sg. m. poss. tš'elə nistələtdum

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Thu Jul 27, 2017 10:07 am 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Here is an example partial verb paradigm:

'think'

3rd sg. m. ind. pfv. past: sawə
3rd sg. m. ind. pfv. non-past: soyyə
3rd sg. m. ind. ipfv. past: sonatwə
3rd sg. m. ind. ipfv. non-past: sonyə
3rd sg. f. ind. pfv. past: səwin
3rd sg. f. ind. pfv. non-past: soyyen
3rd sg. f. ind. ipfv. past: sonətwin
3rd sg. f. ind. ipfv. non-past: sonyen
3rd pl. m. ind. pfv. past: səwu
3rd pl. m. ind. pfv. non-past: soywu
3rd pl. m. ind. ipfv. past: sonətwu
3rd pl. m. ind. ipfv. non-past: sonwu
3rd pl. f. ind. pfv. past: sorå
3rd pl. f. ind. pfv. non-past: soyrå
3rd pl. f. ind. ipfv. past: sontorå
3rd pl. f. ind. ipfv. non-past: sonrå
3rd sg. m. ind. pfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sawwə
3rd sg. m. ind. pfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: soyiwə
3rd sg. m. ind. ipfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sontåwwə.
3rd sg. m. ind. ipfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sonaywə
3rd sg. f. ind. pfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: səwinwə
3rd sg. f. ind. pfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: soyyinwə
3rd sg. f. ind. ipfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sonətwinwə
3rd sg. f. ind. ipfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sonyinwə
3rd pl. m. ind. pfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: səwuwə
3rd pl. m. ind. pfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: soywuwə
3rd pl. m. ind. ipfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sonətwuwə
3rd pl. m. ind. ipfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sonwuwə
3rd pl. f. ind. pfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: soråwə
3rd pl. f. ind. pfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: soyråwə
3rd pl. f. ind. ipfv. past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sontoråwə
3rd pl. f. ind. ipfv. non-past, 3rd sg. m. obj.: sonråwə
pfv. act. part., sg. m. attr.: soydə
pfv. act. part., sg. f. attr.: soyde
pfv. act. part., pl. m. attr.: soydəm
pfv. act. part., pl. m. attr.: soydem
ipfv. act. part., sg. m. attr.: sonaydə
ipfv. act. part., sg. f. attr.: sonayde
ipfv. act. part., pl. m. attr.: sonəydam
ipfv. act. part., pl. m. attr.: sonəydim
pfv. pass. part., sg. m. attr.: sowatə
pfv. pass. part., sg. f. attr.: sowate
pfv. pass. part., pl. m. attr.: sowatəm
pfv. pass. part., pl. m. attr.: sowatem
ipfv. pass. part., sg. m. attr.: sonwatə
ipfv. pass. part., sg. f. attr.: sonwate
ipfv. pass. part., pl. m. attr.: sonwatəm
ipfv. pass. part., pl. m. attr.: sonwatem
pfv. act. ger., 3rd sg. m. agt.: soguhwə
pfv. act. ger., 3rd sg. f. agt.: soguhri
pfv. act. ger., 3rd. pl. m. agt.: soguho
pfv. act. ger., 3rd. pl. f. agt.: soguhxå
ipfv. act. ger., 3rd sg. m. agt.: songuhwə
ipfv. act. ger., 3rd sg. f. agt.: songuhri
ipfv. act. ger., 3rd pl. m. agt.: songuho
ipfv. act. ger., 3rd pl. m. agt.: songuhxå
pfv. pass. ger., 3rd sg. m. pat.: sotsewə
pfv. pass. ger., 3rd sg. f. pat.: sotseri
pfv. pass. ger., 3rd pl. m. pat.: sotsyo
pfv. pass. ger., 3rd pl. f. pat.: sotsexå
ipfv. pass. ger., 3rd sg. m. pat.: sontsewə
ipfv. pass. ger., 3rd sg. f. pat.: sontseri
ipfv. pass. ger., 3rd pl. m. pat.: sonatsyo
ipfv. pass. ger., 3rd pl. f. pat.: sontsexå

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


Last edited by Travis B. on Thu Jul 27, 2017 10:43 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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PostPosted: Thu Jul 27, 2017 5:14 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
I need to do some major analogy with these paradigms, as just that partial paradigm above is dizzyingly complex to comprehend. At times it seems like it is almost "regular" synchronically, but forms pop out that are completely unexpected. Of course all of this is completely regular diachronically, and aside from the underlying intention of creating a language with templatic-like qualities through regular vowel reduction and stress movement the actual forms found above are largely unplanned.

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Thu Jul 27, 2017 11:52 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru
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Joined: Sun Mar 01, 2009 3:34 am
Posts: 402
Location: North Yorkshire, UK
I worked on something similar a couple of years ago for a (technically not abandoned but ill-worked on) conlang called Proto-Skawlas which eventually led to this and this for the nouns. The diachronics behind the system are spread throughout the rest of the thread, but mostly on the first page, and are heavily depending on stress and vowel reduction. Ablaut isn't the only phonological process going on in the various paradigms (there's gemination, stress shifts, reduplication, etc.) but in nouns like pëḍli (sing.) ~ peḍli (pl.) and spraq ~ sopraq, the only process going on is ablaut. There's no real stress shift, just a change in the vowels.

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You can tell the same lie a thousand times,
But it never gets any more true,
So close your eyes once more and once more believe
That they all still believe in you.
Just one time.


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PostPosted: Wed Aug 02, 2017 10:57 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
More paradigms!

'know'

ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj. wagə
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj. wədžin
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj. wəgu
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj. wagrå
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wagwə
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wagri
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wagwo
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wagxå
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wədžinwə
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wədžinri
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wagno
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wədžinxå
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəguwə
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəguri
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəguwo
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəguxå
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wagråwə
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wagråri
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wagråwo
ipfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wagråxå
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj. wagtəwə
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj. wagtəwen
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj. wagtəwu
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj. wagtorå
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgtåwwə
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtəwri
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtåwwo
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtəwxå
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgtəwinwə
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtəwinri
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtåwno
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtəwinxå
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgtəwuwə
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtəwuri
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtəwuwo
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtəwuxå
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgtoråwə
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtoråri
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtoråwo
ipfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtoråxå
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj. wagləyə
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj. wagləyen
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj. wagləwu
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj. waglərå
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəglåywə
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyri
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəglåywo
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyxå
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyinwə
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyinri
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəglåyno
pfv., past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyinxå
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləwuwə
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləwuri
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləwuwo
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləwuxå
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləråwə
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləråri
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləråwo
pfv., past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləråxå
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj. wəglåyyə
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj. wəgləyyin
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj. wəgləywu
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj. wəgləyrå
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyiwə
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyeyri
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyiwo
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyeyxå
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyyinwə
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyyinri
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyino
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyyinxå
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləywuwə
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləywuri
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləywuwo
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləywuxå
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyråwə
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyråri
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyråwo
pfv., non-past, ind., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyråxå
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj. wagše
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj. wədžinše
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj. wəguše
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj. wagråše
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgašwə
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgəšri
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgašwo
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgəšxå
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wədžinšewə
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wədžinšeri
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wədžinšewo
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wədžinšexå
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgušwə
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgušri
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgušwo
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgušxå
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgråšwə
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgråšri
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgråšwo
ipfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgråšxå
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj. wəgtåwše
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj. wəgtəwinše
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj. wəgtəwuše
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj. wəgtoråše
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wagtəwašwə
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtəwəšri
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtəwašwo
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtəwəšxå
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgtəwinšewə
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtəwinšeri
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtəwinšewo
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtəwinšexå
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgtəwušwə
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtəwušri
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtəwušwo
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtəwušxå
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgtoråšwə
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgtoråšri
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgtoråšwo
ipfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgtoråšxå
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj. wəglåyše
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj. wəgləyinše
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj. wəgləwuše
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj. wəgləråše
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyašwə
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyəšri
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyašwo
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyəšxå
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyinšewə
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyinšeri
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyinšewo
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyinšexå
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləwušwə
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləwušri
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləwušwo
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləwušxå
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləråšwə
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləråšri
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləråšwo
pfv., past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləråšxå
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj. wəgləyiše
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj. wəgləyyinše
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj. wəgləywuše
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj. wəgləyråše
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyyašwə
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyyəšri
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyyašwo
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyyəšxå
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyyinšewə
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyyinšeri
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyyinšewo
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd sg. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyyinšexå
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləywušwə
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləywušri
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləywušwo
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. m. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləywušxå
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. m. obj. wəgləyråšwə
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd sg. f. obj. wəgləyråšri
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. m. obj. wəgləyråšwo
pfv., non-past, sjv., 3rd pl. f. subj., 3rd pl. f. obj. wəgləyråšxå

Edit: now with more of the paradigm

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Fri Aug 04, 2017 5:10 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
I have more paradigm stuff up at https://travisb.neocities.org/conlanging/old_laqar/paradigms/index.html. I am liking how this is turning out, especially with how the more synchronically "irregular" forms being the more frequently used ones (which was entirely unintentional), e.g. "irregular" vowels in many imperative and 3rd sg. m. intransitive indicative forms for CVCV-stem verbs, while many of the less frequently used ones are much more noticeably regular. I am still going to have to work out paradigms for a wider range of words, as I have only done so yet for CVC-stem default-imperfective verbs and CVCV-stem default-perfective verbs, but I am getting more a feel of how this will turn out (and have changed a couple things that looked like they were not going to turn out as I wanted them to). (Whether a verb by default imperfective or perfective significantly affects its paradigm.)

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Tue Jan 23, 2018 4:28 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
I am having thoughts as to how an Early Middle Laqar would turn out, and a big part of it is applying some analogy to the various classes of stems. The problem is that there are so many different forms, with so much surface irregularity, for any given verbal stem that it is hard for me to wrap my head around all the different forms for any given conjugation class, combined with that there are a good few different classes of stem, which would all have to be considered (probably with reducing the number of classes in mind through analogy).

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Tue Jan 23, 2018 8:41 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
I tried listing all the possible classes of verb stems, and apparently there are a lot of them, because verbs can be perfective or imperfective, can be monosyllabic or disyllabic, can have short or long vowels (in either or both positions for disyllabic verbs) in Proto-Laqar, can contain two-consonant clusters or geminates medially in the case of disyllabic verb stems, and can end in a consonant. That makes, if my math is right, forty conjugation classes, and that is complicated by that syllable-final glides in Proto-Laqar are "weak".

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Tue Jan 23, 2018 11:17 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Okay, from some thought, aside from the perfective/imperfective distinction (which does not really have to do with how word-forms operate), there are the following important variables:

  • Is a stem monosyllabic or disyllabic?
  • How heavy are the two syllables in the stem, before any affixes containing vowels are attached?
  • Does the stem end in a consonant, and if it does, is it a weak consonant?
  • Does the stem contain a consonant cluster or geminate, or, for disyllabic stems, is the second vowel long?

This gives us, for the stems marked for a 3.S.M subject:

CV stems: huyə "become.PFV-3.S.M" (stem *hu)
CVC stems: wagə "know.IPFV-3.S.M" (stem *wæg)
CV: stems: kuyə "say.PFV-3.S.M" (stem *kʰuː)
CV:C stems: šarə "sit.IPFV-3.S.M" (stem *ɕæːɾ)

This demonstrates a common pattern, where for stems ending in vowels, a /j/ is inserted for both the 3.S.M and the 3.S.F subject before the ending.

In CV and CVC stems there is vowel reduction if a 3.S.F subject ending is attached, due to the final closed syllable (historical, because subsequent vowel elision often forms other closed syllables) resulting in a stress shift:

CV stems: hoyin "become.PFV-3.S.F"
CVC stems: wəgin "know.IPFV-3.S.F"

In CV: and CV:C stems the 3.S.F ending is reduced due to stress being attracted by the initial heavy syllable:

CV: stems: kuyen "say.PFV-3.S.F"
CV:C stems: šaren "sit.IPFV-3.S.F"

A common pattern is that the ending vowel is lost in the case of the 3.S.M subject ending, leaving this /j/ as the only marker of the presence of ending or the only indicator of its former presence being the lack of a subject ending. This is shown by stems marked for both a 3.S.M subject and a 3.S.M object:

CV stems: huywə "become.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
CVC stems: wagwə "know.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
CV: stems: kuywə "say.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
CV:C stems: šarwə "sit.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"

There is vowel reduction for CV and CVC stems when a 3.S.F object ending is attached due to the stress shift:

CV stems: hoyri "become.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
CVC stems: wəgri "know.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"

This does not occur for CV: and CV:C stems:

CV: stems: kuyri "say.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
CV:C stems: šarri "sit.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"

The 3.S.M vowel is preserved if endings result in the 3.S.M subject marker becoming the stressed syllable, as shown by:

CV stems: hoyašwə "become.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
CVC stems: wəgašwə "know.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"

Here we also see the stress movement result in the reduction of the stem vowels.

This vowel reduction does not take place in CV: or CV:C stems, as shown by:

CV: stems: kuyašwə "say.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
CV:C stems: šarašwə "sit.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"

If we move the stress to a different syllable, due to having a heavier syllable later in the word, we get:

CV stems: hoyəšri "become.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"
CVC stems: wəgəšri "know.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"
CV: stems: kuyəšri "say.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"
CV:C stems: šarəšri "sit.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

CVCV stems operate like CV stems in that /j/ is inserted before the 3.S.M and 3.S.F subject endings. They have their own property that in many cases the second vowel in the stem is lost, and only resurfaces with certain combination of endings:

Stem *jænæ

yanyə "travel.IPFV-3.S.M"
yənyin "travel.IPFV-3.S.F"
yənaywə "travel.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
yənəyri "travel.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
yənyašwə "travel.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
yənyəšri "travel.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


Last edited by Travis B. on Wed Jan 24, 2018 11:20 am, edited 3 times in total.

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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 12:36 am 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
CV:CV stems are similar to CVCV stems, aside from having an unreduced initial vowel and certain endings being reduced where they are unreduced with CVCV stems due to the initial syllable attracting stress:

Stem *liːɣʷæ

liġyə "pay.PFV-3.S.M"
liġyen "pay.PFV-3.S.F"
liġaywə "pay.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
liġəyri "pay.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
liġyašwə "pay.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
liġyəšri "pay.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

CVCV: stems differ in that it is the second vowel that remains unreduced and which attracts stress:

Stem *dzælæː

dzəlayə "refuse.PFV-3.S.M"
dzəlayen "refuse.PFV-3.S.F"
dzəlaywə "refuse.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
dzəlayri "refuse.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
dzəlayašwə "refuse.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
dzəlayəšri "refuse.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

CVCCV stems differ in that neither vowel remains unreduced, but the cluster or geminate prevents some vowel elision, and the closed syllable attracts stress:

Stem *ninnæ

ninnəyə "taste.IPFV-3.S.M"
ninnəyen "taste.IPFV-3.S.F"
nennaywə "taste.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
nennəyri "taste.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
nennəyašwə "taste.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
nennəyəšri "taste.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 11:06 am 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
CVCCV: stems are similar to CVCCV stems aside from that the second vowel remains unreduced.

Stem *tsʼænkʰuː

ts'ankuyə "decide.PFV-3.S.M"
ts'ankuyen "decide.PFV-3.S.F"
ts'ənkuywə "decide.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
ts'ənkuyri "decide.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
ts'ənkuyašwə "decide.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
ts'ənkuyəšri "decide.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


Last edited by Travis B. on Wed Jan 24, 2018 5:24 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 11:27 am 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
CV:CV: stems are like CV:CV stems aside from that the second syllable remains unreduced:

Stem *liːʑæː

ližayə "confuse.IPFV-3.S.M"
ližayen "confuse.IPFV-3.S.F"
ližaywə "confuse.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
ližayri "confuse.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
ližayašwə "confuse.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
ližayəšri "confuse.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 1:18 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
CVCVC stems behave as is follows:

Stem *libutʰ

libtə "disperse.PFV-3.S.M"
lebtin "disperse.PFV-3.S.F"
lebutwə "disperse.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
lebotri "disperse.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
lebtašwə "disperse.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
lebtəšri "disperse.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 1:28 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
CV:CVC stems behave as follows:

Stem *kʰæːwin

kawnə "work.IPFV-3.S.M"
kawnen "work.IPFV-3.S.F"
kawinwə "work.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
kawenri "work.IPFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
kawnašwə "work.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
kawnəšri "work.IPFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 2:55 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Currently not nearly all the possible verb classes actually have members, due to my having started with CV, CV:, CVC, and CV:C monosyllables, and only later adding a limited number of disyllabic verb stems. (On the other hand, most nominal stems are disyllabic.)

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 3:17 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
CVCV:C stems behave similarly to the following (the following is not the best example, due to ending in a weak consonant, but this does not affect these examples, and it is the only example that currently exists):

Stem *duɕɒːj

došåyə "draw/write.PFV-3.S.M"
došåyen "draw/write.PFV-3.S.F"
došåywə "draw/write.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
došåyri "draw/write.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"
došåyašwə "draw/write.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.M"
došåyəšri "draw/write.PFV-3.S.M-SJV-3.S.F"

Note however, due to the weak consonant:

došeytsə "draw/write-GER"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Wed Jan 24, 2018 8:38 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
The following demonstrates different forms that can be found for weak stems:

Stem *ɾikʰæːw

rekawo "confess.PFV-1.S"
rekowlå "confess.PFV-1.P"
rekowne "confess.PFV-2.S.M"
rekowkə "confess.PFV-2.S.F""
rekowbe "confess.PFV-2.P.M"
rekowmə "confess.PFV-2.P.F"
rekawə "confess.PFV-3.S.M"
rekawen "confess.PFV-3.S.F"
rekawu "confess.PFV-3.P.M"
rekowrå "confess.PFV-3.P.F"
rekowtsə "confess-GER"

Vowel elision does not affect what vowels appear in the stem, as shown by:

rekawwə "confess.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.M"
rekawri "confess.PFV-3.S.M-3.S.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Thu Jan 25, 2018 5:24 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Nouns have fewer forms than verbs because they have only one set of personal endings rather than two, but they still have quite a few forms because they mark person and number of their possessor, whether they are plural, and whether they are definite. Here are some examples of forms for nouns:

Stem *jɒɾ

yår "thing.M"
yəri "thing.M-2.S.M"
yəra "thing.M-2.S.F"
yårwə "thing.M-3.S.M"
yårri "thing.M-3.S.F"
yårdə "thing.M-DEF.S.M"
yårwədə "thing.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
yərit "thing.M-P.M"
yəritdər "thing.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
yəritwə "thing.M-P.M-3.S.M"
yəritwədər "thing.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M""
(Note yårto "thing.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *jul

yul "choice.F"
yoli "choice.F-2.S.M"
yola "choice.F-2.S.F"
yulwə "choice.F-3.S.M"
yulri "choice.F-3.S.F"
yulde "choice.F-DEF.S.F"
yulwəde "choice.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
yullə "choice.F-P.F"
yullədem "choice.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
yulləwə "choice.F-P.F-3.S.M"
yolləwdim "choice.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *tɕʼæːɾ

tš'ar "brother.M"
tš'ari "brother.M-2.S.M"
tš'ara "brother.M-2.S.F"
tš'arwə "brother.M-3.S.M"
tš'arri "brother.M-3.S.F"
tš'ardə "brother.M-DEF.S.M"
tš'arwədə "brother.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
tš'aret "brother.M-P.M"
tš'aretdər "brother.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
tš'aretwə "brother.M-P.M-3.S.M"
tš'aritwədər "brother.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note tš'arto "brother.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *tʰæːl

tal "case.F"
tali "case.F-2.S.M"
tala "case.F-2.S.F"
talwə "case.F-3.S.M"
talri "case.F-3.S.F"
talde "case.F-DEF.S.F"
talwəde "case.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
tallə "case.F-P.F"
tallədem "case.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
talləwə "case.F-P.F-3.S.M"
talləwdim "case.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *dzinæ

dzinə "room.M"
dzenyi "room.M-2.S.M"
dzenya "room.M-2.S.F"
dzinwə "room.M-3.S.M"
dzenri "room.M-3.S.F"
dzində "room.M-DEF.S.M"
dzenawdə "room.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
dzenyit "room.M-P.M"
dzenyitdər "room.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
dzenyitwə "room.M-P.M-3.S.M"
dzenyitwədər "room.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note dzenayto "room.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *lætɕʼæ

latš'ə "brush.F"
lətš'yi "brush.F-2.S.M"
lətš'ya "brush.F-2.S.F"
latš'wə "brush.F-3.S.M"
lətš'ri "brush.F-3.S.F"
latš'de "brush.F-DEF.S.F"
lətš'awde "brush.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
latš'lə "brush.F-P.F"
lətš'əldim "brush.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
lətš'alwə "brush.F-P.F-3.S.M"
lətš'ləwdim "brush.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *niːtʰɒ

nitə "son-in-law.M"
nityi "son-in-law.M-2.S.M"
nitya "son-in-law.M-2.S.F"
nitwə "son-in-law.M-3.S.M"
nitri "son-in-law.M-3.S.F"
nitdə "son-in-law.M-DEF.S.M"
nitåwdə "son-in-law.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
nityet "son-in-law.M-P.M"
nityitdər "son-in-law.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
nityitwə "son-in-law.M-P.M-3.S.M"
nityitwədər "son-in-law.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note nitåyto "son-in-law.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *ɕæːlæ

šalə "form.F"
šalyi "form.F-2.S.M"
šalya "form.F-2.S.F"
šalwə "form.F-3.S.M"
šalri "form.F-3.S.F"
šalde "form.F-DEF.S.F"
šalawde "form.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
šallə "form.F-P.F"
šaləldim "form.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
šalalwə "form.F-P.F-3.S.M"
šalləwdim "form.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *læɕæː

ləša "sun.M"
ləšayi "sun.M-2.S.M"
ləšaya "sun.M-2.S.F"
ləšawə "sun.M-3.S.M"
ləšari "sun.M-3.S.F"
ləšadə "sun.M-DEF.S.M"
ləšawdə "sun.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
ləšayet "sun.M-P.M"
ləšayetdər "sun.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
ləšayetwə "sun.M-P.M-3.S.M"
ləšayitwədər "sun.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note ləšayto "sun.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *ʔætɬʼuː

əts'u "spear.F"
əts'uyi "spear.F-2.S.M"
əts'uya "spear.F-2.S.F"
əts'uwə "spear.F-3.S.M"
əts'uri "spear.F-3.S.F"
əts'ude "spear.F-DEF.S.F
əts'uwde "spear.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
əts'ulə "spear.F-P.F"
əts'uldem "spear.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
əts'ulwə "spear.F-P.F-3.S.M"
əts'uləwdim "spear.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *lænih

lənih "paternal_uncle.M"
lənhi "paternal_uncle.M-2.S.M"
lənha "paternal_uncle.M-2.S.F"
lənihwə "paternal_uncle.M-3.S.M"
lənihri "paternal_uncle.M-3.S.F"
lənihdə "paternal_uncle.M-DEF.S.M"
lənihwədə "paternal_uncle.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
lənhit "paternal_uncle.M-P.M"
lənhitdər "paternal_uncle.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
lənhitwə "paternal_uncle.M-P.M-3.S.M"
lənhitwədər "paternal_uncle.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note lənihto "paternal_uncle.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *ɾidzæh

redzah "keel.F"
redzhi "keel.F-2.S.M"
redzha "keel.F-2.S.F"
redzahwə "keel.F-3.S.M"
redzahri "keel.F-3.S.F"
redzahde "keel.F-DEF.S.F"
redzahwəde "keel.F-3.S.F-DEF.S.F"
redzahlə "keel.F-P.F"
redzahlədem "keel.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
redzahləwə "keel.F-P.F-3.S.M"
redzəhləwdim "keel-F.P-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *liːtʰæɾ

litər "oil.M"
litri "oil.M-2.S.M"
litra "oil.M-2.S.F"
litərwə "oil.M-3.S.M"
litərri "oil.M-3.S.F"
litərdə "oil.M-DEF.S.M"
litarwədə "oil.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
litret "oil.M-P.M"
litritdər "oil.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
litritwə "oil.M-P.M-3.S.M"
litritwədər "oil.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note litarto "oil.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *læːsih

laseh "food.F"
lashi "food.F-2.S.M"
lasha "food.F-2.S.F"
lasehwə "food.F-3.S.M"
lasehri "food.F-3.S.F"
lasehde "food.F-DEF.S.F"
lasihwəde "food.F-3.S.F-DEF.S.F"
lasehlə "food.F-P.F"
lasihlədem "food.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
lasihləwə "food.F-P.F-3.S.M"
lasehləwdim "food.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


Last edited by Travis B. on Fri Jan 26, 2018 9:52 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Fri Jan 26, 2018 5:47 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Stem *sælæːtʰ

səlat "animal.M"
səlati "animal.M-2.S.M"
səlata "animal.M-2.S.F"
səlatwə "animal.M-3.S.M"
səlatri "animal.M-3.S.F"
səlatdə "animal.M-DEF.S.M"
səlatwədə "animal.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M'
səlatet "animal.M-P.M"
səlatetdər "animal.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
səlatetwə "animal.M-P.M-3.S.M"
səlatitwədər "animal.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note səlatto "animal.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *ɾugæːn

rogan "rope.F"
rogani "rope.F-2.S.M"
rogana "rope.F-2.S.F"
roganwə "rope.F-3.S.M"
roganri "rope.F-3.S.F"
rogande "rope.F-DEF.S.F"
roganwəde "rope.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
roganlə "rope.F-P.F"
roganlədem "rope.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
roganləwə "rope.F-P.F-3.S.M"
roganləwdim "rope.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *nikʰkʰɒ

nikkə "log.M"
nikkəyi "log.M-2.S.M"
nikkəya "log.M-2.S.F"
nikkəwə "log.M-3.S.M"
nikkəri "log.M-3.S.F"
nikkədə "log.M-DEF.S.M"
nekkåwdə "log.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
nikkəyet "log.M-P.M"
nekkəyitdər "log.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
nekkəyitwə "log.M-P.M-3.S.M"
nekkəyitwədər "log.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note nekkåyto "log.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *zinni

zinne "cave.F"
zinneyi "cave.F-2.S.M"
zinneya "cave.F-2.S.F"
zinnewə "cave.F-3.S.M"
zinneri "cave.F-3.S.F"
zinnede "cave.F-DEF.S.F"
zenniwde "cave.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
zinnelə "cave.F-P.F"
zenneldim "cave.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
zennilwə "cave.F-P.F-3.S.M"
zenneləwdim "cave.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"
(Note zennilwo "cave.F-P.F-3.P.M")

Stem *miːɾkʰæ

mirkə "neighbor"
mirkəyi "neighbor-2.S.M"
mirkəya "neighbor-2.S.F"
mirkəwə "neighbor-3.S.M"
mirkəri "neighbor-3.S.F"
mirkədə "neighbor-DEF.S.M"
mirkawdə "neighbor-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
mirkəyet "neighbor-P.M"
mirkəyitdər "neighbor-P.M-DEF.P.M"
mirkəyitwə "neighbor-P.M-3.S.M"
mirkəyitwədər "neighbor-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note mirkayto "neighbor-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *niːstʰɒ

nistə "stylus.F"
nistəyi "stylus.F-2.S.M"
nistəya "stylus.F-2.S.F"
nistəwə "stylus.F-3.S.M"
nistəri "stylus.F-3.S.F"
nistəde "stylus.F-DEF.S.F"
niståwde "stylus.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
nistələ "stylus.F-P.F"
nistəldim "stylus.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
nistålwə "stylus.F-P.F-3.S.M"
nistələwdim "stylus.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"
(Note nistålwo "stylus.F-P.F-3.P.M")

The following two are repeats of the previous two classes, which I listed forgetting that I had already listed them:

Stem *kʼæːjhi

k'eyhe "town.M"
k'eyheyi "town.M-2.S.M"
k'eyheya "town.M-2.S.F"
k'eyhewə "town.M-3.S.M"
k'eyheri "town.M-3.S.F"
k'eyhedə "town.M-DEF.S.M"
k'eyhiwdə "town.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
k'eyheyet "town.M-P.M"
k'eyheyitdər "town.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
k'eyheyitwə "town.M-P.M-3.S.M"
k'eyheyitwədər "town.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note k'eyhito "town.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *kʷʰiːnnæ

kinnə "shirt.F"
kinnəyi "shirt.F-2.S.M"
kinnəya "shirt.F-2.S.F"
kinnəwə "shirt.F-3.S.M"
kinnəri "shirt.F-3.S.F"
kinnəde "shirt.F-DEF.S.F"
kinnawde "shirt.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
kinnələ "shirt.F-P.F"
kinnəldim "shirt.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
kinnalwə "shirt.F-P.F-3.S.M"
kinnələwdim "shirt.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"
(Note kinnalwo "shirt.F-P.F-3.P.M")

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2018 1:58 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Stem *sillɒː

sillå "smoke.M"
sillåyi "smoke.M-2.S.M"
sillåya "smoke.M-2.S.F"
sillåwə "smoke.M-3.S.M"
sillåri "smoke.M-3.S.F"
sillådə "smoke.M-DEF.S.M"
sellåwdə "smoke.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
sillåyet "smoke.M-P.M"
sellåyetdər "smoke.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
sellåyetwə "smoke.M-P.M-3.S.M"
sellåyitwədər "smoke.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note sellåyto "smoke.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *nizmæː

nizma "hoe.F"
nizmayi "hoe.F-2.S.M"
nizmaya "hoe.F-2.S.F"
nizmawə "hoe.F-3.S.M"
nizmari "hoe.F-3.S.F"
nizmade "hoe.F-DEF.S.F"
nezmawde "hoe.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
nizmalə "hoe.F-P.F"
nezmaldem "hoe.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
nezmalwə "hoe.F-P.F-3.S.M"
nezmaləwdim "hoe.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *kʰɒlliɾ

kåller "hawk.M"
kålleri "hawk.M-2.S.M"
kållera "hawk.M-2.S.F"
kållerwə "hawk.M-3.S.M"
kållerri "hawk.M-3.S.F"
kållerdə "hawk.M-DEF.S.M"
kəllirwədə "hawk.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
kålleret "hawk.M-P.M"
kəlleritdər "hawk.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
kəlleritwə "hawk.M-P.M-3.S.M"
kəlleritwədər "hawk.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note kəllirto "hawk.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *ɾistʰæn

ristən "tide.F"
ristəni "tide.F-2.S.M"
ristəna "tide.F-2.S.F"
ristənwə "tide.F-3.S.M"
ristənri "tide.F-3.S.F"
ristənde "tide.F-DEF.S.F"
restanwəde "tide.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
ristənlə "tide.F-P.F"
restanlədem "tide.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
restanləwə "tide.F-P.F-3.S.M"
restənləwdim "tide.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *lispʰuːɾ

lespur "snake.M"
lispuri "snake.M-2.S.M"
lispura "snake.M-2.S.F"
lespurwə "snake.M-3.S.M"
lespurri "snake.M-3.S.F"
lespurdə "snake.M-DEF.S.M"
lespurwədə "snake.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
lispuret "snake.M-P.M"
lespuretdər "snake.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
lespuretwə "snake.M-P.M-3.S.M"
lespuritwədər "snake.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note lispuro "snake.M-3.P.M")
(Note lespurto "snake.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *dæɾkʼuːm

dərk'um "anchor.F"
dark'umi "anchor.F-2.S.M"
dark'uma "anchor.F-2.S.F"
dərk'umwə "anchor.F-3.S.M"
dərk'umri "anchor.F-3.S.F"
dərk'umde "anchor.F-DEF.S.F"
dərk'umwəde "anchor.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
dərk'umlə "anchor.F-P.F"
dərk'umlədem "anchor.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
dərk'umləwə "anchor.F-P.F-3.S.M"
dərk'umləwdim "anchor.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"
(Note dark'umo "anchor.F-3.P.M")

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2018 8:08 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Stem *wiːkʷæː

wika "wika"
wikayi "wika-2.S.M"
wikaya "wika-2.S.F"
wikawə "wika-3.S.M"
wikari "wika-3.S.F"
wikadə "wika-DEF.S.M"
wikawdə "wika-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
wikayet "wika-P.M"
wikayetdər "wika-P.M-DEF.P.M"
wikayetwə "wika-P.M-3.S.M"
wikayitwədər "wika-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note wikayto "wika-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *siːɾæː

sira "wine.F"
sirayi "wine.F-2.S.M"
siraya "wine.F-2.S.F"
sirawə "wine.F-3.S.M"
sirari "wine.F-3.S.F"
sirade "wine.F-DEF.S.F"
sirawde "wine.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
siralə "wine.F-P.F"
siraldem "wine.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
siralwə "wine.F-P.F-3.S.M"
siraləwdim "wine.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

Stem *zuːtʰæːɾ

zutar "farm.M"
zutari "farm.M-2.S.M"
zutara "farm.M-2.S.F"
zutarwə "farm.M-3.S.M"
zutarri "farm.M-3.S.F"
zutardə "farm.M-DEF.S.M"
zutarwədə "farm.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
zutaret "farm.M-P.M"
zutaretdər "farm.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
zutaretwə "farm.M-P.M-3.S.M"
zutaritwədər "farm.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note zutarto "farm.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *wɒːbæːtʰ

wåbat "plain.F"
wåbati "plain.F-2.S.M"
wåbata "plain.F-2.S.F"
wåbatwə "plain.F-3.S.M"
wåbatri "plain.F-3.S.F"
wåbatde "plain.F-DEF.S.F"
wåbatwəde "plain.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
wåbatlə "plain.F-P.F"
wåbatlədem "plain.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
wåbatləwə "plain.F-P.F-3.S.M"
wåbatləwdim "plain.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2018 8:25 pm 
Sumerul
Sumerul

Joined: Mon Jun 20, 2005 12:47 pm
Posts: 3581
Location: Milwaukee, US
Stem *duːjlætʰ

düylət "wasp.M"
düyləti "wasp.M-2.S.M"
düyləta "wasp.M-2.S.F"
düylətwə "wasp.M-3.S.M"
düylətri "wasp.M-3.S.F"
düylətdə "wasp.M-DEF.S.M"
düylatwədə "wasp.M-3.S.M-DEF.S.M"
düylətet "wasp.M-P.M"
düylətitdər "wasp.M-P.M-DEF.P.M"
düylətitwə "wasp.M-P.M-3.S.M"
düylətitwədər "wasp.M-P.M-3.S.M-DEF.P.M"
(Note düylatto "wasp.M-P.M-3.P.M")

Stem *læːɾɾin

larren "estuary.F"
larreni "estuary.F-2.S.M"
larrena "estuary.F-2.S.F"
larrenwə "estuary.F-3.S.M"
larrenri "estuary.F-3.S.F"
larrende "estuary.F-DEF.S.F"
larrinwəde "estuary.F-3.S.M-DEF.S.F"
larrenlə "estuary.F-P.F"
larrinlədem "estuary.F-P.F-DEF.P.F"
larrinləwə "estuary.F-P.F-3.S.M"
larrenləwdim "estuary.F-P.F-3.S.M-DEF.P.F"

_________________
Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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