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 Post subject: Sawaan
PostPosted: Sat Feb 04, 2017 8:14 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
Sawaan is a language related to Shaniija. It is the northernmost language of the family.

/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ñ ng>
/p t k ʔ/ <p t k '>
/s h/ <s h>
/l ɫ /<l ł>
/w j/ <w y>

/i o a/ <i o a>
/i: o: a:/ <ii oo aa>
/ai oi/ <ai oi>


Nouns do not inflect for case, but do inflect for number.
The Paucal (2-5) is formed by full reduplication: <'ałi> "woman" <'ałi 'ałi> "a few women"

Nouns have seven classes to form the plural:
1. Lengthening the first vowel when short: <'ałi> "woman" <'aałi> "women"
2. Reduplicating the first syllable. Nouns in this class whose initial vowel is long shorten the reduplicated vowel: <Tonga> "Boat" <Totonga> "boats"; 'aawa "spear" 'a'aawa "spears"
3. Prefix 'a: To'a "Chief"; 'ato'a "Chiefs"
4. Prefix pa: 'ikiñ "fish" pa'ikiñ "fish (plural)"
5. Suffix -ng when word ends in vowel: Sontaa "man" Sontaang "men"
6. Full reduplication (ie. no difference from paucal) Maika "girl" Maika maika "girls"
7. No change. Waan "Island" Waan "Islands"

erbs do not inflect for number, person or tense. There are aspect-mood particles that come before the verb. The language has Philippine alignment, and so verbs are marked for focus. There are three classes of verbs, which correspond to the way the focus is shown. Some focuses have only two different variant morphemes, and class three verbs take class morphemes in such cases.
All verb root are di- or trisyllabic and long vowels are only allowed in the penault.
Object Focus (OF): Direct object. Is the null morpheme in all classes.
Subject Focus (SF): Class 1: suffix-'añ Class 2: Infix -ya- before penault.
Instrumental focus (IF): Class 1: Prefix pa- Class 2: Suffix - ɫi Class three: Circumfix wo--'ii
Locative Focus (LF): Class 1: Suffix -hi Class 2: Circumfix ma--tan Class 3: Suffix: -taa
Benefactive focus (BF): Can be used for indirect objects, and movement toward with location nouns. Class 1: Reduplication of penault; shorten vowel if long in replicated syllable. Class 2: Infix -si- after penault. Class 3: Prefix ñaa-
Causative Focus (CF): Indicates the reason for the action. Also used for movement away with location nouns. Class 1: Lengthening of ultima. Class 2: Reduplication of ultima.

As noted before, tense does not technically exist in Sawaan, though there are aspect-mood particles that come before the verb. There is a community of speakers on the southeast and southern coasts of Fuhe, the southernmost speakers of this community do speak a dialect where the first three Aspect-Moods are used for past, present and future, though this may be considered a seperate language. Still, oftentimes, this correspondence between tense and Aspect-mood does exist in standard Sawaan to a degree, though this can be easily be broken by adverbs of time.

The four Aspects-Moods and their prepositioned particles:
1. Perfect: <Sa>: Shows completed actions; often used as the protasis of conditional sentences.
2. Imperfective:<'ai>: Continuous or Habitual aspect.
3. Subjunctive: <Ni>: Expresses things that should be but aren't; often an apodeisis.
4. Imperative: <Haa>

These can all be negated by putting the particle <Mañ > in front of them.

Adverbs are uninfected and come between the particles and the verb.
Sa kaahonti ngoi
"I came"

'ai napoo ngoi
"I am walking"
"I walk often"

Sa piikii kaahonti ngoi
PRF tomorrow come 1P.SING.FOC
"I will have come by tomorrow"

'ai wałong napoo ngoi
IMP. last.year walk 1P.SING.FOC
"I used to walk often last year."

Mañ sa piikii kaahonti ngoi
NEG PRF tomorrow come 1P.SING.FOC
"I will not have come by tomorrow"

Sa kaahonti ña , ni mooto ngoi
"If you come, I will go."

Nouns take prepositioned particles marking them as either Focus (FOC.) or Non-Focus (NFOC) The Focus Particle is <ngoi>, and the Non-Focus particle is <'añ>.
The focus usually comes right after the verb, or at the end of the sentence. However, non-focus nouns can come before the focus noun with nouns following the focus noun, to indicate "secondary emphasis" to one of them. The non-focus nouns ussually follow the following order: Subject, Object, Benefactive, instrument, location, cause.

Mañ ni ki'osingi 'añ 'aałi ngoi 'ato'a 'añ totonga 'añ woho

Mañ ni ki'o<si>ngi 'añ 'a<a>łi ngoi 'a-to'a 'añ to-tonga 'añ woho
NEG. SUBJ <BF>destroy NFOC <PLR>woman FOC PLR-chief NFOC PLR-canoe NFOC fire
"The women shouldn't destroy the canoes with fire for the chiefs"

The existential particle <ko> is used instead of the focus particle to indicate the existance of the focus noun:
Mañ ni ki'oyangi ko 'aałi añ 'ato'a 'añ totonga 'añ woho

Mañ ni ki'o<ya>ngi ko 'a<a>łi añ 'a-to'a 'añ to-tonga 'añ woho
NEG. SUBJ <SF>destroy EXIST <PLR>woman NFOCPLR-chief NFOC PLR-canoe NFOC fire
"There are women who shouldn't destroy the canoes with fire for the chiefs"

<ko> can also be used with a base intransitive verb to signify an unknown actor:
Hi'oki ko
"There is a fishing expedition going on"

1P singular: ngai
1p plr exclusive: Moi
1P plr inclusive: Ma
2P sing Ña
2P plr: Ni
3p sing: Ta
3P plr: Sai

1p sing: Ngoong
1p plr exclusive: Moom
1P plr inclusive: Maam
2P sing: Ñaang
2P plr: Niiñ
3p sing: Taan
3P plr: Siin

Possessive (inalienable):
1p sing: Ngo
1p plr exclusive: Mo
1P plr inclusive: Mao
2P sing: Ñao
2P plr: Nai
3p sing: Tao
3P plr: Sao

Possessive (alienable)
1p sing: Ngi'a
1p plr exclusive: Mi'a
1P plr inclusive: Mai'a
2P sing: Ña'a
2P plr: Na'a
3p sing: Ta'a
3P plr: Si'a

Inalienable possessive pronouns are put before the possessed noun, while inalienable pronouns are put after:
Ngo łanii
"My hand"

Tonga ngi'a
"My canoe"

Inalienable possessions without pronouns are formed with the particle 'o between the possessor and the possesee:
To'a 'o łanii
"The chief's hand

While alienable possessions are formed by POSSESOR POSSESEE followed by the 3P alienable pronoun with the right number:
To'a tonga ta'a
"The chief's canoe"

Sawaan has three sets of numerals from one to ten: Counting Non-Human and Human, the latter two of which are used before Non-Human and Human nouns respectively; though some dialects count Domesticated animals and land inverterbrates as Human because of the class system.
Counting numbers 1-10:
1. Saki
2. Minaa
3: 'atila
4. Kikoo
5. Ngam
6. Pita
7. Moto
8. 'oołi
9. Nopi
10: 'awaañ

Non-Human numbers:
1. 'osaki
2. 'oiminaa
3: 'o'atila
4. 'oikikoo
5. Nongam
6. 'oipita
7. Nomoto
8. 'o'oołi
9. nonopi
10: 'o'awaañ

Human numbers:
1. Sasaki
2. Maiminaa
3: 'a'atila
4. Kaikikoo
5. Ngangam
6. Paipita
7. Mamoto
8. 'a'oołi
9. nonopi
10: 'a'awaañ

Numbers 11-19 are formed like this:
13. 'awan'atila
numbers 20-99 are formed like this:
20. Mina'awaañ
21: Mina'awaañsaki
30: 'atila'awaañ
42: Kikoo'awaañmina

Not that the 50s are formed irregularly by dropping the glottal stop from 'awaañ and making the /m/ in ngam the initial and not a coda::
51. Ngamawaañsaki

Sawaan has three particles that occur after the aspect particle, that one might describe as being a secondary aspect, or the combined aspect.
These partciles are:
Miso: Inchoative
Kom: Cessative
'i'o Iterative

To see how these combine with the primary tenses, we will consider the phrase Pilaki ngoi "I sing"

Sa miso pilaki ngoi
"I have begun to sing"
'ai miso pilaki ngoi
"I am begining to sing"
Sa kom pilaki ngoi
"I have finished singing"
'ai kom pilaki ngoi
"I am finishing singing"
Sa 'i'o pilaki ngoi
"I have sung over and over [but such action is finished or a is completed set of songs]
'ai 'i'o pilaki ngoi
"I am singing over and over"

There are two causative constructions: The indirect causative and the direct causative. The Indirect one is formed by the particle <łañ> before the verb, and the direct causative is formed by putting the infix -pa- before the ultima (this comes after any focus markers.
Some examples to show the difference in usage between the two causatives:
Sa łañ mata'a ngoi to'a ñaang
"You have caused the chief to die"

Sa matapa'a ngoi to'a ñaang
"you have killed the chief"

Ni łañ hi'osika siin ña
"they should go on a fishing expedition because of you"

Ni hi'osipaka siin ña
"You should convince them go on a fishing expedition"

We see that the benefactive combined with the direct causative can mean "to convince". However:
Ni hi'opaka sai ñaang
"You should force them to go on a fishing expedition"

Basically, to express this using faux genrative grammar:
When X=Verb Y,Z=Human nouns:
X-causative Y(Object) Z(Benefactive) means Z convinced Y to do X
X-causative Y(Object) Z(Subject) means Z forced Y to do X

However the "convincing" use can be formed with the indirect causative:
Ni łañ hi'oka sai ñaang
"You should convince them go on a fishing expedition"
This, depending on the dialect and the social situation can express a more "gentle" convincing, however, this may just be a stylistic choice of the speaker.

There are two existential negative particles: The focus <yo> and the non focus <tai'a>:
Sa ki'osingi 'añ 'aałi yo 'ato'a 'añ totonga 'añ woho
Sa ki'o<si>ngi 'añ 'a<a>łi yo 'a-to'a 'añ to-tonga 'añ woho
PERF <BF>destroy NFOC <PLR>woman NEG.FOC PLR-chief NFOC PLR-canoe NFOC fire
"The women destroyed the canoes with fire, but not for the chiefs"

Sa ki'osingi 'añ 'aałi ngoi 'ato'a 'añ totonga tai'a woho
Sa ki'o<si>ngi 'añ 'a<a>łi ngoi 'a-to'a 'añ to-tonga 'añ woho
PERF <BF>destroy NFOC <PLR>woman FOC PLR-chief NFOC PLR-canoe NEG.NFOC fire
"The women destroyed the canoes for the chiefs, but not with fire"

Verbal chains in Sawaan are where one argument is being effected by multiple verbs. They are formed by putting one verb, called the secondary verb, before the aspect particle, unmarked for focus:
Ngoto'a sa kom hi'o'oki moom ngoi manno
Ngoto'a sa kom hi'o<'o>ki moom ngoi manno
dance.sacred PERF CES <BENFOC> go.on.fishing.expedition 1P.PLR.EX FOC Village
"We have finished dancing and going on fishing expeditions for the sake of the village."

There are two kinds of adjectives: Verbal and Adverbal.
Verbal adjectives are essentially stative verbs. If they apply to the focus, they are used as the secondary verb in a verb chain:
Malaama mañ ni ki'ongi ngoi totonga 'añ woota
Malaama mañ ni ki'ongi ngoi to-tonga 'añ woota
red NEG SUBJ destroy FOC PLR-canoe NFOC pig
"A pig should not destroy the red canoes"

If they do not apply to the focus, the verb comes between the non-focus particle and the noun, with the suffix sii attached:
Mañ ni kiya'ongi 'añ malaamasii totonga ngoi woota
Mañ ni ki<ya>'ongi 'añ malaama-sii to-tonga ngoi woota
red NEG SUBJ <SUBFOC>destroy NFOC red-ADJ PLR-canoe FOC pig
"A pig should not destroy the red canoes"

Adverbial adjectives are formed from adverbs with the prefix pai-
'ai tapoo ngoto'a ngai
IMPF well dance.sacred 1P.SING.FOC
"I dance the sacred dance well"

Mañ ni kiya'ongi 'añ totonga ngoi paitapoo woota
Mañ ni ki<ya>'ongi 'añ to-tonga ngoi pai-tapoo ngoi woota
red NEG SUBJ destroy NFOC PLR-canoe ADJ-Well FOC pig
"A good pig should not destroy the canoes"

Sawaan has two demonstratives: a Proximal and a Distal. They have have forms for singular and plural and, and for focus and non-focus:
Proximal singular: Pa
Proximal plural: Papa
Distal singular: Mai
Distal plural: Mamai

Proximal singular: Paang
Proximal plural: Papaang
Distal singular: Maim
Distal plural: Mamaim

They are used instead of 3P pronoun when the refferant is non-human.
Mañ ni ki'ongi papa 'añ woota
"A pig should not destroy these"

Polar questions are formed by the particle kaa at the beginning of the Phrase:
Kaa 'ai tapoo ngoto'a ngai
Do I dance the sacred dance well?

WH-questions are formed by replacing the noun questioned about with the wh-phrase apropiate:
"What" is the appropiate demonstrative followed by Ya:
Mañ ni ki'ongi papa ya 'añ woota
"What should a pig not destroy?"

"Who" is formed by the aproppiate 3P pronoun followed by ya:
Kaa 'ai tapoo ngoto'a ta ya
"Who dances the sacred dance well?"

Relative clauses are formed by putting the particle łi before the subordnated verb:
'ai łi nayapoo ngoi sontaang, ni hi'opaka sai ñaang
"You should force those men who are walking to go on a fishing expedition"

The accidental aspect particles particles are used in a. active voice clauses when b. the subject is human and b. does the action accidentally"
1. Perfect: <Sipaa>: Shows completed actions; often used as the protasis of conditional sentences.
2. Imperfective:<Niipaa>: Continuous or Habitual aspect.

Sipaa kiya'ongi ngoi 'aałi 'añ totonga '
"The women have destroyed the canoes by mistake"

Derivational Morphology:
Verbs can be nominalized by the suffix -tii, to mean the doer of the action:
"A walker"

The prefix moo- forms the participle,:
"The walking"

Nouns can be modified with two sets of diminutive and augmentive prefixes; one pertaining to status, and one to actual size:
Status Augmentative: koi-
Noun Sontaa

Status diminutive: Paa
Noun To'a "chief"
"Chief's assistent"

Size augmentive Yoi-
"A fatty" (often as insulting as in English"

Size dimunutive Ha-

Verbs with multiple subjects or objects take the focus that corresponds to the multiple nouns, and the two nouns are stringed together after the focus marker:
Mañ ni ki'oyangi ko 'aałi sontaa añ 'ato'a 'añ totonga 'añ woho
There are women and men who shouldn't destroy the canoes with fire for the chiefs"

Sa ki'ongi ngoi totonga 'a'aawa añ 'aałi 'ato'a 'añ woho
The women have destroyed the canoes and the spears with fire for the chiefs"

There are some verbs that when in the active voice, have their objects expressed as alienable possesions of the subject:
Sopaało "To steal"

Sa sopaało'añ ngoi sontaa 'o tonga to'a 'o tonga
"The man has stolen the canoes of the chief."

Proper names take different focus and non-focus markers then regular nouns being Li'o and waang:
Ngoto'a sa kom hi'o'oki waang Pii'o ngoi manno
Pii'o has finished dancing and going on a fishing expedition for the village.

There are three sentence-final particles that indicate Epistemic mood and sarcasm:
Dubatative : 'o'o
Assumptive: toñ
Mirative: Namo

Sa miso pilaki li'o Pii'o toñ
"I assume it might be Pii'o that began to sing"

Sa miso pilaki li'o Pii'o 'o'o
"I doubt Pii'o began to sing

Sa miso pilaki li'o Pii'o namo
"Pii'o began to sing?!!"

The non-focus particle 'añ can be used as a pronoun for inanimate objects, when they were the focus in the previous utterance:
Sa ki'ongi 'añ 'aałi 'añ 'ato'a ngoi totonga. Sa liwoyaho ngoi 'aałi 'añ '.
"The women have destroyed the canoes for the chiefs. The women burnt them [the canoes].

 Post subject: Re: Sawaan
PostPosted: Tue Feb 14, 2017 10:11 am 
User avatar

Joined: Thu Oct 29, 2015 6:44 am
Posts: 1998
Location: suburbs of Mrin
Great work! (Just hoping to bring attention to your threads, but I don't have much to say)

ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!

 Post subject: Re: Sawaan
PostPosted: Tue Feb 14, 2017 12:07 pm 

Joined: Mon Feb 13, 2017 8:15 am
Posts: 29
Aah! This is so lovely! Am I correct that Sawaan is partly inspired by Austronesian languages?

I like how exhaustive your post is, while still giving a short, sketch-overview of the language. I do have one question: You have a number of infixes that I see, but I can't determine the method you use for deciding where in the word they infix to. Generally speaking, it seems like they're inserted before the final syllable, ie. ki'o<si>ngi '<BF>destroy', hi'o<'o>ki '<BENFOC>go.on.fishing.expedition', but I also see ki<ya>'ongi '<SUBFOC>destroy', where it is inserted following the initial syllable. In natlangs with infixes, the infixes strongly tend to be either right-focused or left-focused, and there will not be overlap, but I can see evidence of both systems in Sawaan. Is this something you've considered?

My conlang family:
  • Ukumusi & Mupuasa -- Two peas in a pod. Tired of your nonsense.
  • Ku Ṣili -- Lonely Misfit. Can't make up its mind.
  • Ayakadiya -- Standoffish, self-important. Needs More Lexicon.

 Post subject: Re: Sawaan
PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2017 2:38 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
sanskacharu wrote:
Aah! This is so lovely! Am I correct that Sawaan is partly inspired by Austronesian languages?

The entire Wanian family is based on Austronesian.

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