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PostPosted: Fri Mar 03, 2017 5:24 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
In this thread, I'm be discussing the Tasarian languages, a Language family with a wide range in my conworld, stretching from the Kirmitite speakers in the South and the M'aillys speakers in the North. It is highly based on IRL IE.
Firstly; Proto-Tasarian Phonology:
/p pʰ b bʱ t tʰ d dʱ k kʰ g gʱ kʷ kʷʰ gʷ gʷʱ/
/s h/
/l i̯ u̯/
/i i: u u: ɛ ɔ a a:/
/r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩/
/ai ɛi ɔi/

The phonotactics are (C)(C)V(C), with the only second consonant in a cluster allowed being the glides i̯ u̯.

Proto-Tasarian nouns had two numbers, singular and plural, three genders, masculine and feminine and neuter, nine cases, and four declensions.
Let's look at the first the declension, the -at declension, mostly consisting of Masculines, but with some feminine family nouns included.

Example: Tas- "Man"
Nominative: Tasar
Accusative: Tasa:r
Dative: Tasr̩
Genetive: Tasas
Locative: Tasat
Ablative: Tasadʱa
Lative: Tasɛ
Instrumental: Tasu
Vocative: Tasa:

Nominative-Vocative: Tasai
Accusative: Tasa:i̯
Dative: Tas
Genetive: Tasais
Locative: Tasait
Ablative: Tasaidʱ
Lative: Tasɛi
Instrumental: Tasɔi

The a-declension:
This mostly consists of feminines, though there are some neuters.
Example: gʱɔira "cow"
Nominative: gʱɔira
Accusative: gʱɔira:
Dative: gʱɔiri
Genetive: gʱɔiras
Locative: gʱɔirat
Ablative: gʱɔiradʱa
Lative: gʱɔirɛ
Instrumental: gʱɔiru
Vocative: gʱɔira

Nominative-Vocative: gʱɔirai
Accusative: gʱɔira:i̯
Dative: gʱɔir
Genetive: gʱɔirais
Locative: gʱɔirait
Ablative: gʱɔiraidʱ
Lative: gʱɔirɛi
Instrumental: gʱɔirɔi

The -am declension: Mostly consists of neuters, though there are some masculines
Example: kʰr̩tam "Stone"
Nominative: kʰr̩tam
Accusative: kʰr̩ta:m
Dative: kʰr̩tm̩
Genetive: kʰr̩tas
Locative: kʰr̩tat
Ablative: kʰr̩tadʱa
Lative: kʰr̩tɛ
Instrumental: kʰr̩tu
Vocative: kʰr̩ta:

Nominative-Vocative: kʰr̩tai
Accusative: kʰr̩ta:i̯
Dative: kʰr̩t
Genetive: kʰr̩tis
Locative: kʰr̩tait
Ablative: kʰr̩taidʱ
Lative: kʰr̩tɛi
Instrumental: kʰr̩tɔi

The -al declension: mixed genders
Singular:r̩bal "wheel" m
Nominative: r̩bal
Accusative: r̩ba:l
Dative: r̩bl̩
Genetive: r̩bas
Locative: r̩bat
Ablative: r̩bad
Lative: r̩bɛ
Instrumental: r̩bu
Vocative: r̩ba:

Nominative-Vocative: r̩balai
Accusative: r̩ba:i̯
Dative: r̩b
Genetive: r̩bis
Locative: r̩bait
Ablative: r̩baid
Lative: r̩bɛi
Instrumental: r̩bɔi

Before I post about the proto-lang's verb system, which I am still working on, I want to discusswhere I want to take the family.
First of all, I want there to be a possibility of this forming a macrofamily with m'aillys and possibly Fuheko. For the former there is the possible cognate *kʷʰn̩ar "Head" and M'allys "Pen" "head".

I want there to be a two-way division in the amily much like IE Satem/centum. There is P-Tasarian, where the labiovelars became labials, and K-Tasarian, where the labiovelars fused with the plain velars. P-Tasarian is also marked by simply turning the syllabic consonants into schwa-consonant series, while the K-Tasarian have /m̩ n̩/ become a nasal schwa. Ie. ən əm vs. ə̃. K-Tasarian will also feature /ɛ ɔ/ fusing with /a/, except in diphthongs, while P-Tasarian preserves these vowels.

PostPosted: Sun Mar 05, 2017 12:34 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
the verb:
There are seven tenses: Plain Present, Present progressive, Perfect, Aorist, Imperfect, pluperfect and Future.
Let's look at the verb bʱi̯ɛr "To look" constructed in each tense without personal endings:
Plain Present: bʱi̯ɛr
Present progressive:ɛbʱi̯ɛr
Perfect: bʱabʱi̯ɛr
Aorist: bʱi̯ɛrl̩
Imperfect: ɛbʱi̯ɛrl̩

The Personal endings of the present tenses:
1P sing: u:
1P PLR: un
2P sing: i
2P plr: as
3p sing masc: r̩
3p sing fem: a
3p sing neut.: m̩
3P plr: -at

Thus some example sentences:
kʰr̩ta:m bʱi̯ɛru:
"I see the stones"

Tasai r̩ba:i̯ ɛbʱi̯ɛrat
"The men are seeing the wheel"

The Personal endings of the past and future tenses:
1P sing: u̯
1P PLR: n
2P sing: i̯
2P plr: s
3p sing masc: r
3p sing fem: h
3p sing neut.: m
3P plr: t
Tasai r̩ba:i̯ bʱi̯ɛrl̩t
"The men saw the wheel"
kʰr̩ta:m bʱabʱi̯ɛrl̩u̯
"I have seen the stone"

The first and second person pronouns:
1P singular:
Nominative: r̩m
Accusative: mi
Dative: mr̩
Genetive: Mis
Locative: Mit
Ablative: Midʱ
Lative: Mɛ
Instrumental: Mu

1P Plr:
Nominative: r̩n
Accusative: Nu
Dative: nr̩
Genetive: nus
Locative: nut
Ablative: nudʱ
Lative: nɛ
Instrumental: nu

2p sing:
Nominative: r̩tʰ
Accusative: tʰi
Dative: tʰr̩
Genetive: tʰis
Locative: tʰit
Ablative: tʰidʱ
Lative: tʰɛ
Instrumental: tʰu

2P plr:
Nominative: r̩s
Accusative: si
Dative: sr̩
Genetive: sis
Locative: sit
Ablative: sidʱ
Lative: sɛ
Instrumental: su

PostPosted: Sun Mar 05, 2017 8:19 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
The moods:
Proto-Tasarian had four moods independent of the tenses:
Again let's look at the roots with bʱi̯ɛr "to look":
Subjunctive: a:bʱi̯ɛr
Potential: ɔbʱi̯ɛr
Conditional: bʱi̯ɛrm̩
Imperative: bʱi̯ɛras

The sub. and pot. moods take the present tense personal markings while the conditional takes the non-present. The imperative never changes:
a:bʱi̯ɛri mi
"You would see me"

ɔbʱi̯ɛro mi
"You could see me"

bʱi̯ɛrm̩i̯ mi, a:bʱi̯ɛru: tʰi
"If you saw me, I would see you"

bʱi̯ɛras mi!
"See me!"

PostPosted: Thu Mar 09, 2017 12:01 am 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
The medio-passive voice:
The medio-passive voice uses the same roots as the active voice but uses a different set of personal endings that mark the subject (really the object) of the verb. In some languages these would fuse to allow polypersonal agreement:
The Personal endings of the medio-passive voice:
1P sing: (u̯)ɔi
1P PLR: (u̯)ɔn
2P sing: (u̯)ɛ
2P plr: (u̯)ɔs
3p sing masc: (u̯)ɔr
3p sing fem: (u̯)ɔ
3p sing neut.:(u̯)ɔm
3P plr: (u̯)ɔt

These can be used a plain passive:
kʰr̩tam mi ɛbʱi̯ɛrɔr
"The stones were seen by me"

or it can be used in a reflexive sense:
du̯i:s "to wash"
"I washed myself"

In some descendents the medio-passive evolved into a plain passive, while they evolved into a reflexive.

PostPosted: Thu Mar 09, 2017 9:27 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
Närẃūsarian, A descendant:
/kʷ kʷʰ gʷ gʷʱ/>/p pʰ b bʱ/
/i ɛ ɛɪ/>/e/
/u ɔ/>/o/
/i: u:/>/i u/
/bʱ dʱ gʱ/>/pʰ tʰ kʰ/
/C̩C/> /CəC/
/pi̯ bi̯ pʰi̯/>/t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ʃʰ/
/ti̯ di̯ tʰi̯/>/t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ʃʰ/
/ki̯ gi̯ kʰi̯/>/t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ʃʰ/
/pu̯ bu̯ pʰu̯/>/f w f/
/tu̯ du̯ tʰu̯/>/p b pʰ/
/ku̯ gu̯ kʰu̯/>/p b pʰ/

/p pʰ b t tʰ d t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ k kʰ g/ <p ph b t th d c ch j k kh g>
/m n/ <m n>
/f s ʃ h/ <f s sh h>
/r/ <r>
/l w j ʍ/ <l w y ẃ>

/i i: u u: e e: o o: ə a a:/ <i ī u ū e ē o ō ä a ā>

They have three declensions:
Declension I: The r declension, containing mostly masculine and neuters, but also some feminine family terms:
Singular:räbar "wheel" m
Nominative: räbar
Accusative: räbāl
Dative: räbär
Genetive: räbas
Locative: räbat
Instrumental: räbo
Vocative: räbā
Nominative-Vocative: räbai
Accusative: Räbai
Dative: räb
Genetive: räbes
Locative: räbait
Instrumental: räboi

Declension II the a declension:
The a-declension:
This mostly consists of feminines, though there are some neuters.
Example: Khoira "cow"
Nominative: Khoira
Accusative: Khoirā
Dative: Khoire
Genetive: Khoiras
Locative: Khoirat
Instrumental: Khoiro
Vocative: Khoira

Nominative-Vocative: Khoirai
Accusative: Khoirai
Dative: Khoir
Genetive: Khoirais
Lative: Khoirē
Instrumental: Khoiroi

Declension III the m declension:
Example: khärtam "Stone"
Nominative: khärtam
Accusative: khärtām
Dative: khärtäm
Genetive: khärtas
Locative: khärtat
Instrumental: khärto
Vocative: khärtā

Nominative-Vocative: khärtai
Accusative: khärtai
Dative: khärt
Genetive: khärtes
Locative: khärtait
Instrumental: khärtoi

Närẃūsarian has five tenses: Plain Present, Continuous Present, Aorist, Past Perfect (derived from the PT Present perfect) and future.
The present tense of the verb chēr "to see:
1P sing: Chēru
1P PLR: Chēron
2P sing: Chēre
2P plr: Chēras
3p sing masc: Chērär
3p sing fem: Chēra
3p sing neut.Chēräm
3P plr: Chērat

The present progressive:
1P sing: Echēru
1P PLR: Echēron
2P sing: Echēre
2P plr: Echēras
3p sing masc: Echērär
3p sing fem: Echēra
3p sing neut.Echēräm
3P plr: Echērat

1P sing: Chēräläw
1P PLR: Chērälän
2P sing: Chēräläy
2P plr: Chēräläs
3p sing masc: Chērälär
3p sing fem: Chērälä
3p sing neut.Chēräläm
3P plr: Chērälät

In Närẃūsarian, the past perfect is formed by reduplicating the first consonant of the verb root followed by an <a>. However, if the consonant is aspirated, and the vowel is short, the reduplicated consonant is unasparated. If the consonant is aspirated and the vowel is long, the reduplicated consonant becomes voice:
1P sing: Jachēru
1P PLR: Jachēron
2P sing: Jachēre
2P plr: Jachēras
3p sing masc: Jachērär
3p sing fem: Jachēra
3p sing neut.Jachēräm
3P plr: Jachērat

The Future:
1P sing: Chērämäw
1P PLR: Chērämän
2P sing: Chērämäy
2P plr: Chērämäs
3p sing masc: Chērämär
3p sing fem: Chērämä
3p sing neut.Chērämäm
3P plr: Chērämät

Chēräläw khärtām
"I saw stones"

Tasar khoirā echērär
"The man is seeing the cow"

The locative case can be proceeded by räp "Out of" or khän "to":
Khoirā räp phērat ewesär
"The cows are coming out of the house"

PostPosted: Tue Mar 14, 2017 2:41 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
The moods in Närẃūsarian:
Subjunctive: prefix ā before verb root
Potential: Prefix o before verb stem
Imperative: suffix -as after verb stem

Example sentences:

Tasar khoirā āchērär
"The man would see a cow"

Tasar khoirā ochērär
"The man could see the cow"

The potential mood is also used as a conditional:
Khoirā räp phērat owesär, räm to āchēru
"If the cows came out of the house, I would see them

PostPosted: Tue Mar 14, 2017 2:42 pm 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
Forest Toisian is a Tasarian language spoken just south of the Närẃūsarian civilization, and whose speakers are considered by the Närẃūsarians to be barbarians, and have conducted raids into Närẃūsarian teritory.
/p b t d t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g/ <p b t d č j k g>
/m n/ <m n>
/f s ʃ x h/ <f s š x h>
/r/ <r>
/l j / <l y>

/i y u e ø o ə a/ <i ü u e ö o a â>

Nouns have two genders, masculine and feminine, and three declensions:
Declension I: The r declension, containing mostly masculines, but also some feminine family terms:
Nominative: rabar
Accusative: rabâl
Dative: rabar
Genetive: rabas
Oblique: rabo

Nominativ: rabai
Accusative: Rabâi
Dative: rab
Genetive: rabe
Oblique: raboi

Declension II the a declension:
The a-declension:
This mostly consists of feminines, though there are some Masculines.
Example: Goira "cow"
Nominative: Goira
Accusative: Goirâ
Dative: Goire
Genetive: Goiras
Oblique: Goiro

Nominative: goirai
Accusative: goirâi
Dative: goir
Genetive: goirais
Oblique: Khoiroi

Declension III the m-declension, consisting mostly of masculines:
Example: Xartam "Stone"
Nominative: Xartam
Accusative: Xartâm
Dative: Xartam
Genetive: Xartas
Oblique: Xarto

Nominative: Xartai
Accusative: Xartâi
Dative: Xart
Genetive: Xartes
Oblique: Xartoi

Forest Toisian has four tenses in the active indicative: Present, past, Future, and Past perfect:
Example verb: Bör "to see"
1P sing: Böru
1P PLR: Böron
2P sing: Böre
2P plr: Böras
3p sing: Börar
3P plr: Börat

1P sing: Böramu
1P PLR: Böramon
2P sing: Börme
2P plr: Börmas
3p sing: Börmar
3P plr: Börmat

1P sing: Böralu
1P PLR: Böralon
2P sing: Börle
2P plr: Börlas
3p sing: Börlar
3P plr: Börlat

Past perfect:
1P sing: Baböru
1P PLR: Baböron
2P sing: Baböre
2P plr: Baböras
3p sing: Babörar
3P plr: Babörat

Example sentences:

Xartâm baböru
"I have seen the stone"

Tasar goirâ düsar
"The man is washing the cow"

PostPosted: Wed Mar 15, 2017 11:58 am 

Joined: Sun Sep 15, 2013 8:15 pm
Posts: 129
Use of the Oblique Case in Forest Toisan is defined by the use of particles before the noun, as this case represents the collapse of the locative, Ablative, Lative and Instrumental cases of PT.
List of particles:
In: Mod
On: mös
Out of: arp
To: Xan
Through/with: Dok

Tasar goirâ dok hars düsar
"The man washed the cow with water"

Goirai arp šâfo parbalat
"The cows came from the forest"

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