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zompist bboard • View topic - Sebastic (Semitic lang) Workpad [NP: Ergativity? Discussion)

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PostPosted: Sat Oct 08, 2016 10:37 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
I'm working on reworking my Semitlang from scratch.

One of the things I've worked on tonight is phonology. I'm not quite sure what I want to do with the emphatic consonants. I wanted to do something with dissimilation, and had the idea to use it to mess with stress patterns too.

Except at the beginning of a word, dissimilation results in a glottal stop preceding:
/k_ʔ/ > /ʔk/
/t_ʔ/ > /ʔt/
and so forth

If the emphatic begins a syllable, the glottal stop conforms to the coda of a preceding syllable.
*yatqarrib > yat.ʔkar.rib > yatʔ.kar.rib

The prosodic effect is a falling pitch. Falling pitch syllables become stressed, and the pitch accent disappears with the loss of the glottal.
*yatqárrib > yátʔ.kar.rib > yátkarrib
*yatkárrib > yatkárrib

Thoughts?


Last edited by tiramisu on Fri Mar 16, 2018 10:26 pm, edited 9 times in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 09, 2016 10:36 am 
Smeric
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I would expect a CʔC sequence to become CʼC pretty quickly. So basically you have TṬ > TʔT > ṬT. Which is a pretty cool shift, actually.

Incidentally I'm working on a Semitic language myself, a Medieval descendant of Punic spoken in the Canary Islands.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 09, 2016 2:08 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

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I'm wondering if the prosodic effect sounds plausible. As far as I can tell, this is shaky territory because the relationship between pitch, tone, and accent, as well as between articulation and pitch & tone, seem to be something that is still uncertain.


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PostPosted: Wed Oct 12, 2016 8:09 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
This may be a good time to add a disclaimer that I am not aiming for accuracy in relation to the Semitc languages so much as plausibility. Note, further and unrelated to the previous disclaimer, that Sebastic is neither East or West Semitic, but is intended to be the earliest branch of Semitic. Thus, it, in fact, predates what is typically called Proto-Semitic. In other words, Proto-Semitic would need to be revised in light of Sebastic, were Sebastic a real language. Thus, for convenience, I will generally refer to its common ancestor with East + West Semitic as 'Proto-Semitic.' Feel free to ask for clarifications about whether something described as 'Proto-Semitic' is actually Proto-Semitic or con-Proto-Semitic.

Topic: Phonology

Comparative Semitics has a 'sibilant' problem. There appears to be a fourth, undefined sibilant that merges with s in some languages in some environments, and becomes /h/ or Ø in some environments, or merges entirely with s or /h/ or Ø. Its original realization is entirely untraceable, other than that it likely had some proximity to s (probably [s]). This is the sibilant found in 'C-stem' derivations.

Another problem in Comparative Semitics comes with a handful of occurrences of the letter n. In these occurrences, vowels cannot be reconstructed in the syllable with n. Moreover, in these same occurrences, the n itself has some curious manifestations. For instance, it becomes /r/ in Aramaic in most of these occurrences. One of the popular interpretations (though far from consensus) is that Proto-Semitic had syllabic n.

These were originally the same phoneme, probably a voiced laminal alveolar trill fricative [r̝]. By Classical Sebastic, it seems to have merged with /dʒ/ (< *z, *ð), but with /r/ in the environment of an alveolar stop.

son
Proto-Semitic: *br̝
Classical Sebastic: bajā́
Arabic: ibn
Syriac: brā
Hebrew: bɛn
Akkadian: (reflex unattested)

two
Proto-Semitic: *θr̝
Classical Sebastic: chā <*tʃdʒ+a < *tʃn + a
Arabic:iθnān
Syriac: trēn
Hebrew: šnāyim
Akkadian: šina

you (fem pl)
Proto-Semitic: *ʔantr̝
Classical Sebastic: hámtir
Arabic: 'antunna
Syriac: 'atten
Hebrew: 'attɛn
Akkadian: attina

them (fem)
Proto-Semitic: *r̝r̝
Classical Sebastic: jir
Arabic: hunna
Syriac: (reflex unattested)
Hebrew: hɛn
Akkadian: šina

C-stem (*r̝V-)
Classical Sebastic: jáslāma
Arabic: Øaslama
Syriac: Øašlem
Hebrew: hišlīm
Akkadian: šuprusum

Ct-stem (*r̝ta-)
Classical Sebastic: ərtáslāma
Arabic: istaslama
Syriac: ettašlem
Hebrew: (reflex unattested)
Akkadian: šutaprusum


Last edited by tiramisu on Sat Jan 14, 2017 9:35 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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PostPosted: Wed Oct 12, 2016 8:55 pm 
Smeric
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What ship would bear me ever back across so wide a Sea?”


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PostPosted: Wed Oct 12, 2016 10:32 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

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Posts: 326
Interesting! But unlikely.

mārum has clear cognates in other Semitic languages, including Arabic and Aramaic. That by itself makes it unlikely, although Akkadian > Aramaic > Arabic borrowing has happened in several instances.
But also, even if b > m could be explained by a nasal sonorant, the nasal sonorant becoming r isn't attested anywhere else in Akkadian. You also have no way to explain the long ā there, let alone an open vowel in the first place. The internal evidence contradicts the claim that it's from *bn, and you just can't use comparative evidence against internal evidence to draw conclusions about the development of a language.

Lipinski is terrible at comparative linguistics. The poor guy. (His Comparative Semitics book is so bad that it's virtually useless.)


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PostPosted: Thu Oct 13, 2016 9:38 am 
Smeric
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Is there a good, recent source for comparative Semitic stuff?


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PostPosted: Thu Oct 13, 2016 10:36 am 
Smeric
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What ship would bear me ever back across so wide a Sea?”


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PostPosted: Thu Oct 13, 2016 5:09 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
I'm not sure anything has been published in one place, which may be why Lipinski's book is so popular. John Huehnergard has a great overview of Proto-Semitic in The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia that I would recommend. He gives a state-of-the-field bibliography at the end of useful articles as well. This was published about 12 years ago, but is still pretty up-to-date. Brevity leads to things being oversimplified or insufficiently explicated, if anything needs to be said about it. The comparative evidence itself is also not provided, so it truly is a treatise on Proto-Semitic. I expect that Huehnergard has been working on a book of his own on Comparative Semitics, and will release it sometime within the next decade now that he's entering into retirement. He at least has done significant preliminary work on one that he has been keeping held tightly over the past decade or so.


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PostPosted: Fri Oct 14, 2016 11:00 pm 
Avisaru
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Last edited by tiramisu on Sat Dec 31, 2016 3:27 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Fri Oct 21, 2016 9:14 pm 
Avisaru
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Topic: Morphosyntax, Verbal System

Note: I used fake roots for the following, in order to better demonstrate the paradigms comparatively.

Class II Verbs (First radical historical emphatic)

G-stem
Imperfective: yúsakkim
Perfective: yáskim

D-stem
Imperfective: yúsakkam
Perfective: yásakkim

C-stem
Imperfective: yəjásakkim
Perfective: yajáskim

CD-stem
Imperfective: yəjásakkam
Perfective: yajásakkim

N-stem
Imperfective: yúnsakkim
Perfective: yánsakim

ND-stem
Imperfective: yúnsakkam
Perfective: yánsakkim

NC-stem
Imperfective: yənjásakkim
Perfective: yanjáskim

NCD-stem
Imperfective: yənjásakkam
Perfective: yənjásakkim

Gt-stem
Imperfective: yústakkim
Perfective: yástakim

Dt-stem
Imperfective: yústakkam
Perfective: yástakkim

Ct-stem
Imperfective: yəjtásakkim
Perfective: yajtáskim

CDt-stem
Imperfective: yəjtásakkam
Perfective: yəjtásakkim

Class III Verbs (Second radical historical emphatic)

G-stem
Imperfective: yəsákkim
Perfective: yáskim

D-stem
Imperfective: yəsákkam
Perfective: yasákkim

C-stem
Imperfective: yəjasákkim
Perfective: yajáskim

CD-stem
Imperfective: yəjasákkam
Perfective: yajasákkim

N-stem
Imperfective: yənsákkim
Perfective: yansákim

ND-stem
Imperfective: yənsákkam
Perfective: yansákkim

NC-stem
Imperfective: yənjasákkim
Perfective: yanjáskim

NCD-stem
Imperfective: yənjasákkam
Perfective: yənjasákkim

Gt-stem
Imperfective: yəstákkim
Perfective: yastákim

Dt-stem
Imperfective: yəstákkam
Perfective: yastákkim

Ct-stem
Imperfective: yəjtasákkim
Perfective: yajtáskim

CDt-stem
Imperfective: yəjtasákkam
Perfective: yəjtasákkim

Class IV Verbs (Third radical historical emphatic)

G-stem
Imperfective: yəsakkít
Perfective: yaskít

D-stem
Imperfective: yəsakkát
Perfective: yəsakkít

C-stem
Imperfective: yəjsakkít
Perfective: yəjaskít

CD-stem
Imperfective: yəjsakkát
Perfective: yajsakkít

N-stem
Imperfective: yənsakkít
Perfective: yansakít

ND-stem
Imperfective: yənsakkát
Perfective: yansakkít

NC-stem
Imperfective: yənjəsakkít
Perfective: yanjaskít

NCD-stem
Imperfective: yənjəsakkát
Perfective: yənjəsakkít

Gt-stem
Imperfective: yəstakkít
Perfective: yastakít

Dt-stem
Imperfective: yəstakkát
Perfective: yastakkít

Ct-stem
Imperfective: yəjtəsakkít
Perfective: yajtaskít

CDt-stem
Imperfective: yəjtəsakkát
Perfective: yəjtəsakkít

In cases of 2 emphatic consonants, the second emphatic seems to dissimilate without trace of the glottalization. This means the verb is treated as though only the first of the emphatic consonants is emphatic.


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PostPosted: Sun Oct 30, 2016 5:18 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
Topic: Nouns, Adjectives, Substantives

Watch this post! This post combines a number of "working" features liable to change, and thus there are known uncertainties.

Types of Nominals
Nouns identify a person, place, or thing.
Adjectives qualify a person, place, or thing.
Sometimes, adjectives can be used as substantives, standing in place of and functioning as nouns. This function is both syntactic and morphological.

Because of the fluidity of adjectives, the term nominals will be used here to refer collectively to nouns, adjectives, and substantives.

Because substantivized adjectives function identically to nouns, the term substantives will be used when referring to both nouns and substantives, but excluding adjectives.

Nominals may be marked for gender and definiteness with suffixed morphemes. In some cases, number may also be marked with suffixes. Internal plural markings will be dealt with in a separate post.

Gender
Gender distinction in Sebastic is weak. It is largely unmarked, except with certain body parts, natural pairs, and female human nouns, all of which are marked feminine.

Masculine nominals are unmarked, and take only the nominal ending -a.
-ába 'father'
-wárda 'boy, ward'
-káyba 'dog'
-káspa 'silver'

Feminine nominals tend to end with -ay. Moreover, any noun in the singulative, -(a)ta, is treated as feminine in Classical Sebastic, though this agreement is only clear in verbs and pronouns. Some feminine nouns are morphologically indistinguishable from masculine nouns.
-chámta 'year'
-ħúsmay 'lucky girl; female oracle'
-máhra 'river'

Definiteness
Definite substantives attach -(i)m after the gender suffix.
-ábam 'the father'
-káspam 'the silver'
-chámtam 'the year'
-ħúsmaym 'the oracle'
-chamā́m 'the years'

Number
Number in Sebastic consists primarily of an unmarked form, which can refer variously to a single specimen, a collective species, or an unspecified amount of specimens. A singulative form exists, which specifies a particular specimen or part. A plurative form also exists, which specifies multiple specimens or parts, but cannot refer to a species collectively. An unproductive form likewise exists in nouns marking natural pairs, which can take either unmarked or plurative agreement.

The singulative is marked by -(a)ta. Adjectives describing the specimen will also take this ending.
-ʔíła 'wood'
-ʔíłta 'a piece of wood'
-ʔíłta makī́łta 'a chopped piece of wood'
-hákla 'food'
-háklata 'a piece of food'
-háklata tʔámta 'a tasty piece of food'

The plurative is marked with -ā. Feminine nouns ending in -ay, end in -áyya, due to historical sound changes. Some are marked by internal plurals. Some adjectives may have internal plurals when substantivized as well.
-wardā́ 'boys'
-wardā́m 'the boys'
-urā́d 'boys'
-əchghā́r 'children' (sg. chághra)
-chaghráyya 'young girls'
-chamā́ 'years'
-chamā́m 'the years'
-mahrā́ 'rivers'

Natural pairs are marked by -ay. This applies primarily to body parts and certain reproductive couples.
-ábay 'parents'
-gámlay 'pair of camels'
-hújnay '(two) ears'
-máhray 'Mesopotamia'

Adnominal Agreement
Only the head of a noun phrase may be marked definite.
-káybam wárda 'the boy's dog,' 'the dog of the boy,' 'the dog of a boy'
-káyba wárda 'a dog of the boy,' 'a dog of a boy'
-wárdam chághra 'the young boy'

Adjectives agree in gender with their head.
-bijtá chághray 'a young daughter'
-káybay sáymay 'a healthy bitch'
-nā́ka sáymay 'a healthy female camel'

Number of adjectives tend to agree with the head.
-ʔíła sayma '(some) sturdy wood'
-abā́ saymā́ 'healthy parents (pl.)'
-əchghā́r saymā́ 'healthy children'
-urā́d sáymā́ 'healthy boys'
-chaghráyya saymáyya 'healthy female children'
-káybay sáymay 'healthy bitch'
-háklata sáymata 'nourishing piece of food'


Last edited by tiramisu on Sat Jan 20, 2018 6:06 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 30, 2016 5:26 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
Dump (sticky notes for up-and-coming posts):

taʔmá, f. (ə)tʔámta 'delicious'
ʔalā́y 'god'

To-Do:
internal plurals
script
transliteration and transcription
verb modality


Last edited by tiramisu on Thu Nov 17, 2016 9:47 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Fri Nov 04, 2016 10:35 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
NOTE: The native demonym as given below is no longer correct. To be fixed.

Brief History of Speakers of Sebastic

The Chiqqēl (sg. Echqīl, pl. Echqīlīn) are a Semitic people of unknown origin. Though they seem to have settled in the region of Canaan, they do not seem to be Canaanites themselves. Instead, it seems they conquered Dor from the sea, and established a colony there around the 12 or 11th century BC. Where they came from has been lost to history. Echqīli legend claims they were seafaring nomads. In truth, they were most likely settled elsewhere along the Mediterranean, and the settlers in Dor may have been a class of warrior-fishermen, perhaps hired as mercenaries by a naval power to give the Phoenicians trouble.

Their relationship with the ancient Israelites was complicated, but they were quickly engulfed into Israelite culture. Nonetheless, they maintained a separate identity, and rebelled when oppressed. A catalyst occurred with the arrival of the Prophet Elias, a missionary sent by the Kingdom of Judea to spread its religion. Reflecting societal divisions in the region, a parallel Echqīli religion developed alongside Samaritanism — practiced in Israel — and Judaism — practiced in Judea. According to the Chiqqēl, theirs is the religion of Elias, and God's holy temple belonged on Mt. Carmel.

Nonetheless, the Chiqqēl were among the first converts to Christianity, and were the first ethnic group to completely convert. According to them, the community's conversion is recounted in Acts 8 and 9. Under the Byzantines, they were primarily located within the Sees of Sebaste and Sycaminum, and became known to outsiders as Sebastians.

In the 5th century, Christianity in the Middle East was shaken by controversy over the Council of Chalcedon. The official stance of the Sebastic Church in this period remains unclear, with certain contemporary sources suggesting dissent with Chalcedon. It is clear, however, that Sebaste initially opposed Byzantine imperialism, and communion with the Church of Jerusalem may have been severed for a time. Contemporary accounts suggest that the Sebastic community was far more sympathetic to the non-Chalcedonian communion by the reign of Justinian II, but no theological treatises have survived. During the Islamic Conquests, however, and particularly during the reign of Amīr Umar, there was furtive embrace of the Byzantine church by the Sebastic community. During this time, they seemed to have adopted the Byzantine rite, but remained quite active in the use of the Sebastic language. Today, virtually all Echqīlīn belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church.

The overall quietist nature of the Chiqqēl, however, has led to its decline by assimilation. By the mid-20th century, only about 66,000 were left. Expulsion and emigration have prevented population growth in post-1948 Israel and Palestine. Today, estimates of 75,000 are generous, though another 175,000-190,000 can be found in the diaspora.


Last edited by tiramisu on Fri Nov 04, 2016 11:36 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Fri Nov 04, 2016 11:16 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
A Psalm of Elias: The Sebastic biblical canon includes a number of poems attributed to Elias the Prophet in the psalms. The following is one such psalm, which seems to make reference to Elias' competition with the priest of Ba'al. Christian Sebastic theologians note the parallels of this psalm with the Transfiguration and the Incarnation. They note specifically the motif of YHWH's revelation of himself through light. They also draw attention to the phrase "His Angel," equating it with the Angel of the Lord and Jesus Christ. They also note the motif of an intimate connection between heaven and earth in this moment, and compare it with the Incarnation, citing Athanasius: "God became man, that man might become God." Finally, they note that "Israel is brought high through salvation" could also be read as "Israel is brought high through Jesus," as "salvation" and "Jesus" are homophonous.

Text
Yiłāʔíl hállalju
Litwákkūlap Yiłāʔíl ham YHWH
Liyətwaddí YHWH ham hára
Máħra ʔáməmju yətwaddí
Yəłámmis əkbaráka
Málʔakju yəłámmis
Tətákkaʔ łabáhāt málʔakta shā́parjim
Yúłabbit YHWH rághəmju
Yáda rághəmju yətwaddá
Samayātəm liyiłāʔíl tətpállay
Yiłāʔílu yáda yashūʔa tətʔállay
Litwákkūlap Yiłāʔíl ham YHWH

Translation
Praise him, O Israel
Let Israel hope in the Lord!
For the Lord has revealed himself on the mountain
Before his people he has revealed himself
He has shone forth in the lightning
His Angel has shone forth
The Hosts of the Angels sound their trumpets
The Lord strikes his thunder
By his thunder he makes himself known
Heaven is brought low to Israel
And Israel is brought high through salvation
Let Israel hope in the Lord!

Gloss
Yiłāʔíl hállal-ju
Israel praise.IMPV-3.M.PL.OBL
Li-twákkūl-a-p Yiłāʔíl ham YHWH
PURP-have.hope.GERUND-MASC-RES.CONJ Israel PREP YHWH
Li-yə-twaddí YHWH ham hár-a
PURP-3.M-reveal.oneself.PERF YHWH PREP mountain-MASC
Máħra ʔáməm-ju yə-twaddí
before people.ABS-3.M.SG.POSS 3.M-reveal.oneself.PERF
Yə-łámmis ək-barák-a
3.M-shine.PERF PREP-lightning-MASC
Málʔak-ju yə-łámmis
angel-3.M.PL 3.M-shine.PERF
Tə-tákkaʔ łabá(h)-āt málʔak-ta shā́par-jim
3.COL-blast host-F.PL angel-COL trumpet.COL-3.M.PL.POSS
Yú-łabbit YHWH rághəm-ju
3.M.IMPF-strike.IMPF YHWH thunder.ABS-3.M.SG.POSS
Yáda rághəm-ju yə-twaddá
through thunder.ABS-3.M.SG.POSS 3.M-reveal.oneself.IMPF
Samay-āt-(ə)m li-yiłāʔíl tə-tpállay
sky-3.F.PL-DEF PURP-Israel 3.COL-humble.IMPF
Yiłāʔíl-u yáda yashūʔ-a tə-tʔállay
Israel-CONJ through salvation-MASC 3.F-raised.up.IMPF
Li-twákkūla-p Yiłāʔíl ham YHWH
PURP-have.hope.GERUND-MASC-RES.CONJ Israel PREP YHWH

Notes:
Cohortative mood is marked by a purposive prefix with the resultative conjunction
Yiłāʔíl - borrowed from Heb.
hára - borrowed from Heb.
yəłámmis - a verb used typically to refer to the sun and daylight
málʔak - borrowed from Heb.
łabáhāt - borrowed, uncertain which language
yúłabbit - native Sebastic word, but similar enough to łabáhāt that a Sebastic speaker would likely connect the two
shā́par - borrowed from Heb.?
tətpállay - from Pre-PS biconsonantal root PL
yashūʔa - borrowed from Heb.
tətʔállay - calls to mind a divine realm for a Sebastic speaker (cf. 'god' ʔalā́y)

Poetic Nuance
Color highlighting is used to emphasize parallelism and structure.

Yiłāʔíl hállalju
Litwákkūlap Yiłāʔíl ham YHWH
Litwaddí YHWH ham hára
Máħra ʔáməmju yətwaddí
Yəłámmas əkbaráka
Málʔakju yəłámmas
Tətákkaʔ łabáhāt málʔakta shā́parjim
Yúłabbit YHWH rághəmju
Yáda rághəmju yətwaddá
Samayātəm liyiłāʔíl tətpállay
Yiłāʔílu yáda yashūʔa tətʔállay
Litwákkūlap Yiłāʔíl ham YHWH


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PostPosted: Tue Nov 22, 2016 12:26 pm 
Avisaru
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Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
Topic: Verbs, Syntax

To be fleshed out! Watch this post for illustrative examples.

Topicalization
Verbs can be topicalized by the addition of -ma. This is perhaps typical in sentences with more than one verb.
In sentences with coordinated verbs, it is usually attached to the first verb in the sequence, and can be translated as a conjunction. It implies sequence -- that the marked verb has begun prior to the beginning of the second verb -- but does not always imply result.

Subordination
Verbs and clauses may be subordinated by adding the conjunction -u to the head of the subordinated clause, usually a verb. In cases of possible ambiguity between subordination and coordination (as -u on its own is a coordinating conjunction), the subordinating verb often takes a topicalization marker.

Subordinated nominal clauses typically have a circumstantial interpretation.

Irrealis

Imperative
The imperative is formed from the stem of the perfective conjugation. If there is no word directly before it which ends in a vowel, it may take a prosthetic vowel ə-.

Optative
The optative is formed by adding lə- or li- to the perfective conjugation stem. lə- exists only in pro-pretonic first or second person optatives.

Optatives may be used with imperative force.


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PostPosted: Sun Dec 04, 2016 3:25 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
Bump.
[Probably premature, but I am very busy at the moment and know I will not add to this thread for a while, and I've lost threads on this board in the past by erring on the side of not bumping prematurely, so...]


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PostPosted: Sun Jan 01, 2017 10:26 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326


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PostPosted: Tue Jan 03, 2017 11:19 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326


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PostPosted: Sat Jan 14, 2017 10:11 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
Topic: Modern Sebastic, phonology, verbs, nouns

Modern Sebastic
Modern Sebastic comes in three forms. It includes two colloquial dialects, referred to as Galilean and Diasporal. The Galilean dialect belongs to the largest concentration of Sebastic speakers, in the southern Galilee region, who also produce the most cultural output. The Diasporal dialect is descended from the Jerusalem dialect, whose largest concentration of speakers in the region is now in Bethlehem. The majority of its speakers now live abroad, where a sort of koine serves as the lingua franca among them. Remnants of other dialects have influenced very local uses of the Diasporal dialect, but have, for the most part, died out.

A standard written dialect, referred to as simply Modern Sebastic, has also existed since the 19th century. It is a slightly classicizing or conservative standard, intended to be accessible to modern Sebastic speakers.

Below is a look at the standard written dialect, with partial notes on the phonologies of the Galilean/Diasporal dialects.

Phonology
β̥ (from *b) > v in Galilean, some Diasporal; > w in other Diasporal (incl. in Bethlehem)
l > j / _.C in both Galilean, Diasporal
l > w / V_V in Diasporal
w > v in Galilean, some Diasporal; remains w in other DIasporal (incl. in Bethlehem)
ā > ɔ in Diasporal
ī > e
ū > o
Galilean dialect undergoes advanced imāla: a > ε, ī > e > i, ā > ɔ > a
Some Diasporal accents influenced by this.

Verbs
The verbal system condenses significantly in Modern Sebastic.

Stems:
Gt, Dt disappear
D stems tend to merge morphologically: (G, D), (C, CD), (N, ND), (NC, NCD), (Ct, CDt).
Ct/CDt no longer productive and fossilized in meaning.
Classical D and CD stem meanings tend to transfer to Ct/CDt stem. Sometimes their meanings replace the G-stem or C-stem. Sometimes the meanings disappear entirely.
In some cases, D-stem is replaced with a stem of reduplication.
Meanings of t-stem verbs tend to transfer to N-stem verbs.
N-stems are almost always intransitive. The other stems (G, C, Ct/CDt) tend to be either transitive or intransitive.
Intransitives, especially mediopassives and passives, of Ct/CDt tend to take an indirect object to mark this function. They are similar in this regard to reflexive verbs of the Indo-European languages.

Examples:
'put down roots, become entrenched': Classical D-stem yəsakkám > Modern G-stem esákkim (also 'settle, settle down')
'chop up': Classical D-stem yákassir > Modern Redup. yákaskis
'be chopped up': Classical Dt-stem yátkassir > Modern Ct/CDt ejtákassir (see below)
'fall to pieces': Classical NCD-stem yəmjákassir > Modern Ct/CDt ejtákassir (used also transitively as 'break apart,' the Classical meaning of this verb)
'cut oneself': Classical Gt-stem yátkasir > Modern N-stem yámkasir (subsumed under the broader meaning: 'be cut')

Other notes:
Gender is no longer marked in verbs.
e- replaces yə- as 3S subject prefix.

Nouns
The archaic nominal marker -a is reanalyzed as an indefinite article. One theory claims this would have been motivated by a reanalysis of the Classical definite marker -(i)m as marking direct objects, in confusion with the actual direct object marker, -ma. There is little to evidence the theory, however.

Indefinite marker: -a (kásba 'a piece of money')
Definite marker: -Ø (kásib 'the money')
Indef Direct Object marker: -ma (ejtəhakkílmaju kásibma 'he spent some money on it')
Definite Direct Object marker: -imma (ejtəhakkílmaju kásbimma 'he spent the money on it')

The feminine marker is no longer productive, as a homophonous morpheme marks collectives/specimens.
Gender agreement thus falls out of use.
Semantic distinctions in masculine/feminine nouns remain only in nouns that preserve social or economic differentiations based on gender. In some cases they come from different roots entirely (mas man; vashar woman), while in other cases, the feminine marker is preserved fossilized to make the distinction (bajɔ́ son; bájit daughter).


Next post: Comparison of Classical/Modern/Galilean/Diasporal


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PostPosted: Sat Jan 14, 2017 11:53 pm 
Avisaru
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Example of differences between the dialects, with recordings of Classical, Galilean, and Diasporal dialects. (Click for soundcloud links). Glosses to be edited in later.

English: His lovely wife took down the bottle, and poured out a drink for us
Classical:
Modern: tɔj jamjú tɔv ejáble beḫ, ke ejtəballé mama síkarma
Colloquial Galilean:
Colloquial Diasporal:


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PostPosted: Sun Jan 15, 2017 1:17 pm 
Smeric
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Joined: Thu Oct 29, 2015 6:44 am
Posts: 1998
Location: suburbs of Mrin
Where is it spoken, and what happens to the Jews? Also, is this the same universe as Marshlandic and Βλάχεαν?

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ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!


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PostPosted: Sun Jan 15, 2017 1:43 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
They are all spoken in our universe. They all exist in 'different universes,' in the sense that I don't have them interacting with each other in any way. Nothing happens to the Jews-- why would it affect them? Sebastic has nothing to do with them.

This is a map of the Sebastic communities in Palestine in 1947:

This is a map of the Sebastic communities in Palestine in 2013:


These maps are about 4 years old or so, and aren't quite what I conceptualize now, but they're good enough for now.
There's also a about 5 or so posts into this thread. Again, it's a bit outdated for what I conceptualize now, but it does the job until I update it.


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PostPosted: Sun Jan 15, 2017 2:11 pm 
Smeric
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Joined: Thu Oct 29, 2015 6:44 am
Posts: 1998
Location: suburbs of Mrin
So they take the combined role of Palestinians/Israeli Druze, or just Palestinians?

_________________
ìtsanso, God In The Mountain, may our names inspire the deepest feelings of fear in urkos and all his ilk, for we have saved another man from his lies! I welcome back to the feast hall kal, who will never gamble again! May the eleven gods bless him!


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PostPosted: Sun Jan 15, 2017 4:10 pm 
Avisaru
Avisaru

Joined: Sat May 29, 2004 5:07 pm
Posts: 326
Palestinians. Not sure how/why they could be Druze; the post about the Sebastic speakers that I linked in the previous post explains that they are a Christian community. Certainly most of the Galilean speakers are Israeli citizens.


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