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PostPosted: Mon Apr 23, 2018 3:11 pm 
Sanci
Sanci
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Joined: Fri Feb 24, 2017 1:01 pm
Posts: 18
Location: Los Angeles, CA, USA
Hello fellow conlangers!

I wanted to share my latest work with the community.

Some of you might know about the language Lortho - some through the posts about its writing system. This time around, I wanted to share an overview of the language here.

----

The Basics

  • Type: Agglutinating
  • Alignment: Nominative-Accusative
  • Word Order: VSO
  • Type of Writing System: Alphabet
  • Direction of Writing: Left-to-Right

----

Phonology

Consonants:

Code:
                    | Labial | Alveolar  | Postalveolar | Velar | Glottal |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nasal               |    m   |    n      |              |       |         |
Plosive             | p pʰ b | t tʰ d dʰ |              | k kʰ  |         |
Fricative           |   f    |     s     |       ʃ      |       |    h    |
Lateral Approximant |        |     l     |              |       |         |
Tap or Flap         |        |     ɾ     |              |       |         |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


Vowels:

Code:
          | Front | Central | Back |
------------------------------------
Close     |   i   |         |   u  |
Close-Mid |       |         |   o  |
Open-Mid  |   ɛ   |         |      |
Open      |       |    a    |      |
------------------------------------


Diphthongs:

/ei/, /ai/, /oi/, and /au/.

----

Phonotactics

Syllable Structure:

  • (C)(C)V(V)(C)1

Stress:

  1. Stress is on the penult of a word except :
    • -n verbs will always receive stress on the final syllable of the infinitive.
    • all verbs will retain the stress on the final syllable of the stem when conjugated
    • adverbs always receive stress on the final syllable
  2. Stress is neither given to prefixes nor suffixes except :
    • pluralized nouns will shift the stress to the penult

----

Orthography

The writing system is an alphabet, albeit it behaves similarly to an abugida. Consonant-vowel combinations are written in ligature form except for /i/ which is a stand alone vowel. With the recent updates to the writing system, the vowel [ɛ] can be written underneath the consonant as a separate glyph vs in ligature form. More about the writing system can be seen here.

----

Morphology

Nouns

Nouns in Lortho have three main features:

  1. They are one of three genders: masculine, feminine, or neuter
  2. All nouns are modified to denote case
  3. All nouns end in a vowel (there are exceptions)

Gender

Code:
Masculine | Feminine | Neuter        |
--------------------------------------
-i        | -u       | -a            |
dharakhi  | dhammu   | hadikha       |
mountain  | chair    | country, land |
--------------------------------------



Grammatical Case

Code:
Case         | Example        | Translation                      |
------------------------------------------------------------------
Nominative   | kansaptha      | the forest  (neut.)              |
Accusative   | kansaptha-me   | forest (dir obj)                 |
Dative       | kansaptha-mela | forest (ind obj)                 |
Genitive^2   | kansaptha-nau  | of the forest                    |
Lative^3a,b  | kansaptha-ina  | in/into the forest               |
Ablative     | kansaptha-nat  | out of/from the forest           |
Allative     | kansaptha-dan  | to/towards the forest            |
Prolative    | kansaptha-dar  | through/via/by way of the forest |
Instrumental | kansaptha-len  | using the forest                 |
Vocative     | fa-kansaptha   | Hey, Forest!                     |
------------------------------------------------------------------


Pluralization

Each noun class is pluralized by adding a suffix:

  1. Feminine (-u) and neuter (-a) nouns add the suffix –ne:
    • e.g.
      1. Fem: kansaphu [kanˈsapʰu] (tree); plural kansaphune [kansaˈpʰunɛ]
      2. Neut: hadikha [haˈdikʰa] (land, country); plural hadikhane [hadiˈkʰanɛ]
  2. Masculine (-i) nouns add the infix –en- before –i:
    • e.g. olakhi [oˈlakʰi] (boat); plural olakheni [olaˈkʰɛni]
  3. Masculine nouns ending in –ni will change the plural suffix to –emi:
    • e.g. phorenni [pʰoˈɾenːi] (peak, summit); plural phorennemi [pʰoɾɛnˈnɛmi]

Like Persian, nouns are not pluralized when counted.

Definite and Indefinite Articles

The definite article does not exist and is implied with the absence of the indefinite article. The indefinite article is the numeral 1 (ikhi). The counting system in Lortho is decimal (base 10) and you can see them here.

Verbs

There are currently three types of verbs4 :

  1. -o verbs
    • the verb stem is made by subtracting the final -o
    • e.g. konpharo (to speak); konpharin (I speak)
  2. -t verbs
    • the verb stem is made by changing the final -t to -d
    • e.g. lharit (to run); lharidin (I run)
  3. -n verbs
    • the infinitive is also the verb stem
    • e.g. shailan (to sit); shailanin (I sit)


Conjugation

Present Tense: konpharo

Code:
------------------------------------------------------
Singular | Masc         | Fem          | Neut        |
------------------------------------------------------
1S       | konphar-in   | konpharun    | -           |
2S       | konphar-anni | konphar-annu | -           |
3S       | konphar-i    | konphar-u    | konphar-a   |
------------------------------------------------------
Plural   | Masc         | Fem          | Neut        |
------------------------------------------------------
1P       | konphar-inan | konphar-unan | -           |
2P       | konphar-amin | konphar-amun | -           |
3P       | konphar-imi  | konphar-imu  | konphar-ima |
------------------------------------------------------



Present Tense: thomit

Code:
---------------------------------------------------
Singular | Masc        | Fem         | Neut       |
---------------------------------------------------
1S       | thomid-in   | thomid-un   | -          |
2S       | thomid-anni | thomid-annu | -          |
3S       | thomid-I    | thomid-u    | thomid-a   |
---------------------------------------------------
Plural   | Masc        | Fem         | Neut       |
---------------------------------------------------
1P       | thomid-inan | thomid-unan | -          |
2P       | thomid-amin | thomid-amun | -          |
3P       | thomid-imi  | thomid-imu  | thomid-ima |
---------------------------------------------------



Present Tense: shailan

Code:
------------------------------------------------------
Singular | Masc         | Fem          | Neut        |
------------------------------------------------------
1S       | shailan-in   | shailan-un   | -           |
2S       | shailan-anni | shailan-annu | -           |
3S       | shailan-I    | shailan-u    | shailan-a   |
------------------------------------------------------
Plural   | Masc        | Fem         | Neut          |
------------------------------------------------------
1P       | shailan-inan | shailan-unan | -           |
2P       | shailan-amin | shailan-amun | -           |
3P       | shailan-imi  | shailan-imu  | shailan-ima |
------------------------------------------------------



Preterite:

The preterite of all verbs are made by adding the suffix -ikh before the personal endings:

  • e.g. konpharikhin (I spoke)

Adjectives

All adjectives are roots to which the corresponding gender suffix is added (-i, -u, -a) to agree with the gender of the noun which they modify. They are placed before the noun. They do not agree with number.

Adverbs

Adverbs are easily discernible since most end in -r and are usually placed before the word they modify; however, this is not a rule.

Agreement

Verbs must be conjugated in gender and number to agree with the subject, whether implicit or implied. Adjectives agree in gender, but not in number.

Special Markers

In order to form a question, the mandatory question marker kaura is placed at the beginning of the sentence.

----

Examples

Here you can find multiple written samples with IPA, romanization, translation, and interlinear glosses.

----

Footnotes:

  1. Onset consonant clusters are possible, though extremely rare.
  2. The genitive case is only one aspect of possession.
    1. For masculine nouns, the ending is -ena; feminine nouns change the -u to -o to form the diphthong -oina.
    2. There is no locative case. Lortho handles this mainly through context with the verb. For example:


      1. thomid-in kansaptha-ina
        live-1MSG forest.N-LAT

        I live in the forest

        vs
      2. lharid-in kansaptha-ina
        run-1MSG forest.N-LAT

        I run into the forest
  3. Stress is maintained on the final syllable of the verb stem.

_________________
"Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn't." - Mark Twain
--------
http://lortho.conlang.org


Last edited by bbbourq on Thu Apr 26, 2018 5:08 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Thu Apr 26, 2018 2:33 pm 
Smeric
Smeric
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Joined: Sun Aug 15, 2010 5:00 pm
Posts: 1139
I like the aesthetic, both of the writing system and the language itself.

_________________
"But if of ships I now should sing, what ship would come to me,
What ship would bear me ever back across so wide a Sea?”


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 27, 2018 3:55 pm 
Sanci
Sanci
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Joined: Fri Feb 24, 2017 1:01 pm
Posts: 18
Location: Los Angeles, CA, USA
Zaarin wrote:
I like the aesthetic, both of the writing system and the language itself.

Thank you!

_________________
"Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn't." - Mark Twain
--------
http://lortho.conlang.org


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PostPosted: Thu May 03, 2018 9:52 pm 
Sanci
Sanci
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Joined: Fri Feb 24, 2017 1:01 pm
Posts: 18
Location: Los Angeles, CA, USA
In this post, I want to present to you all the development of the script from inception to now. Below are five images in chronological order. A couple of texts have spelling mistakes, but the intent is to show how the script looked at that particular stage in development.

----

26 Feburary 2017:
More: show
Image


1 March 2017:
More: show
Image


8 June 2017:
More: show
Image


15 July 2017:
More: show
Image


29 April 2018:
More: show
Image

_________________
"Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn't." - Mark Twain
--------
http://lortho.conlang.org


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PostPosted: Sat May 19, 2018 7:00 pm 
Sanci
Sanci
User avatar

Joined: Fri Feb 24, 2017 1:01 pm
Posts: 18
Location: Los Angeles, CA, USA
For my wife's birthday, I wrote a small birthday note in Lortho on Egyptian papyrus. I couldn't be more happier about the final result.

Image

Here is the IPA, romanization, gloss, and translation (don't worry, it's not too personal):

More: show
Code:
[kʰaɾ luˈtʰaɾikʰin hin ˈmanːumɛ ˈhaɾlikʰinan bɛliˈʃikɔɪna]
khar luthar-ikh-in   hin     mannu  -me  harl-ikh-inan belishiko-ina
when meet  -PST-1MSG PN.1MSG PN.2FSG-ACC be  -PST-1MPL Belgium.F-LAT

When I met you we were in Belgium

Code:
[dʰaniˈpoɾikʰin ˈdasaɾ pʰɾo͜lˈhana ɛˈfodʰaɪnan luˈnanɛmɛ]
dha-nipor-ikh-in   dasar 5 lhana  efodh-a  -inan luna   -ne-me
NEG-aware-PST-1MSG after 5 year.N have -FUT-1MPL child.N-PL-ACC

I didn't realize that 5 years later we would have children

Code:
[ˈtʰaʃi ɛˈfodʰinan ˈikʰi ˈtʰaɾɛku ˈhaɾumɛ ˈhana muˈnaɾ ɛˈfodʰaɪnan ˈikʰi ˈmonu ˈhaɾumɛ]
thashi efodh-inan ikhi tharek -u haru  -me  hana     munar    efodh-a  -inan ikhi mon  -u haru  -me
now    have -1MPL one  perfect-F girl.F-ACC and.CONJ soon.ADV have -FUT-1MPL one  other-F girl.F-ACC

Now we have a perfect daughter and soon we will have another girl

Code:
[dʰatʰuˈmɛdin ˈhaɾlin dʰuʃiˈnalimɛ]
dha-thumed-in   harl-in   dhu -shinal   -i-me
NEG-able  -1MSG be  -1MSG COMP-happy.ADJ-M-ACC

I can't be happier

Code:
[ˈaʃin ˈmanːumɛ niˈminalɛn]
ash -in   mannu  -me  ni       -mina-len
love-1MSG PN.2FSG-ACC POSS.1MSG-soul-INST

I love you with my soul

Code:
[paɾ ˈtodʰamɛ koˈɾaʃanau]
par       todha-me  korasha-nau
enjoy.IMP day.N-ACC birth.N-GEN

Enjoy your birthday

Code:
[buˈsanikʰu lunˈdimu]
busan-ikh-u lun      -dimu
sign -PST-F POSS.2FSG-love.F

Signed, your love

_________________
"Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn't." - Mark Twain
--------
http://lortho.conlang.org


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PostPosted: Sat May 19, 2018 7:44 pm 
Smeric
Smeric
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Joined: Sun Aug 15, 2010 5:00 pm
Posts: 1139
That script (and papyrus) is gorgeous. :D

_________________
"But if of ships I now should sing, what ship would come to me,
What ship would bear me ever back across so wide a Sea?”


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PostPosted: Sun May 20, 2018 6:41 pm 
Sanci
Sanci
User avatar

Joined: Fri Feb 24, 2017 1:01 pm
Posts: 18
Location: Los Angeles, CA, USA
Zaarin wrote:
That script (and papyrus) is gorgeous. :D
Thank you very much!

_________________
"Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn't." - Mark Twain
--------
http://lortho.conlang.org


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