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 Post subject: PIE Roots
PostPosted: Tue Sep 17, 2013 5:36 pm 
Smeric
Smeric
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Joined: Thu Apr 25, 2013 4:48 am
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Location: Britannia
How do you turn PIE roots into verbs, nouns, or whatever? I don't have any examples to hand, but what with the IE langs currently on-going, I am struck as to how they decide how to turn roots into stems and then words. Can anyone give a decent explanation of this?


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 Post subject: Re: PIE Roots
PostPosted: Tue Sep 17, 2013 7:11 pm 
Avisaru
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Joined: Tue May 24, 2005 10:01 am
Posts: 571
Generally, to turn a root into a verb, you just add a verbal suffix, and to turn a root into a noun, you just add a substantive suffix.
- snejg^w^h-e-ti == it snows [1]
- snejg^w^h-s == snow

Most PIE roots can form verbs, but some form only nouns.
- pod-s == foot
- neg^w^h-ro-s == kidney [2]

There's the past-tense participle suffix -to-.
- klew-ti == it hears x
- klew-to- == famous, heard
- lew-ti == it smears x, it makes x dirty
- lew-to-m == dirt (neuter)

There's the present-tense participle suffix -nt-.
- we-nt-o-s == wind
- d-nt-s == tooth

There's the result suffix -men-.
- gen-e-ti == it produces x, it engenders x [1]
- gen-men == germ, seed
- b^hlew-e-ti == it flows [1]
- b^hlew-men == river

There's the action/causer suffix -os-.
- klew-os == fame
- gen-os == lineage, race

[1] The -e- is there because the root is thematic. Why? What does it mean? I don't know; Go read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-European_verbs to try to understand the clusterfuck that the PIE verbal system was.
[2] Note the root extension -ro-.

Edit: Added another example suffix. Specified past *participle*.


Last edited by Terra on Fri Sep 27, 2013 3:41 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: PIE Roots
PostPosted: Wed Sep 18, 2013 11:50 am 
Smeric
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Joined: Thu Apr 25, 2013 4:48 am
Posts: 2144
Location: Britannia
Thanks, Terra.


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