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zompist bboard • View topic - Deriving Stative Verbs

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 Post subject: Deriving Stative Verbs
PostPosted: Fri Oct 24, 2014 10:48 am 
Avisaru
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Are there any languages that regularly derive stative verbs from eventive ones? (or vice-versa?) That is, like the following:
-- fall asleep -> sleep
-- put on -> wear (and likewise, take off -> not wear, I suppose)
-- pick up -> carry
-- grab -> hold


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PostPosted: Fri Oct 24, 2014 4:01 pm 
Avisaru
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A lot of old IE languages do similar things via perfectives.

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PostPosted: Sat Oct 25, 2014 3:10 am 
Lebom
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*perfects.

Indeed, Homeric Greek being the prime example.

Doesn't Arabic do this, e.g. with forms IX and XI-XV in this table http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_ver ... orms.22.29 ? Maybe someone more knowledgeable on Arabic than me can help.

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PostPosted: Sat Oct 25, 2014 12:02 pm 
Avisaru
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No - Classical/Literary Arabic doesn't generally have much of a distinction between statives and what you might call 'inchoatives'. 'Become X' and 'be X' are usually expressed by the same verb. احمرّ iḥmarra for example, a form VIII verb, means both 'be red' and 'become red', though I would say in modern literature and in the classical literature I've encountered the 'become' interpretation is far more common because there are generally adjectives, or participles (which in Arabic are generally resultative, i.e. the participle of iḥmarra muḥmirr is 'having become red') with an unambiguously stative meaning. Forms XI-XV, which in any case are quite rare, are stative verbs but they are not derived from action verbs. There are some examples in Classical Arabic of form I (i.e. notionally 'underived') verbs which have both stative and non-stative counterparts - I can't actually think of any examples off the top of my head but there'll be two verbs identical in form except falling into different ablaut classes, one stative-ish/intransitive and one transitive. These are not productive though and it's difficult to say that the intransitive/stative is derived from the transitive as opposed to the other way around.

That said, the resultative participle arguably does this, though it's a morphological form rather than a derivational one and doesn't have entirely verbal characteristics - it can't be habitual, for example, and has to be combined with the verb 'to be' to express habitual meaning, like an English adjective. You have pairs in colloquial Arabic like هو نايم huwwe nāyim 'he's asleep [having gone to sleep]' < هو بينام huwwe binām 'he goes to sleep, falls asleep' and هو لابس huwwe lābis 'he's wearing [having put on]' and هو بيلبس huwwe byilbis 'he puts on, he wears...'. Persian is the same: نشسته‌است neshaste-e 'he is sitting [has sat down]' vs می‌نشیند mi-nešine 'he sits down'.

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PostPosted: Sat Oct 25, 2014 4:48 pm 
Avisaru
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Maybe not quite what you're looking for, but Ingush (one end of a dialect continuum with Chechen) apparently has a set of adjective-inchoative-causative triplets. A few examples are shiila / shal-lu /shal-d.u (cold - become cold - make cold), d.weaxa / d.weax-lu / d.weax-.du (long - become long - make long) and ghoaza / ghoz-d.oal / ghoz-d.oaqq (happy / become happy / make happy), with d. marking noun class agreement. Most, but not all, have different ablaut grades between the adjective and verbs, and the endings -lu/-.du always deletes the final schwa found on the adjective and -d.oal/-d.oaqq sometimes does (which in the modern language is usually only present as the release of the last consonant anyways, but that's apparently a recent thing). The -lu and -d.u endings create inceptives and causatives when attached to verbs, same with -d.oal and d.oaqq, but I didn't have a chance to check if ablaut is a common result as well. All four endings are transparently derived from verbs: lu is give, d.u is make/do, d.oal is go, and d.oaqq is take.


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PostPosted: Mon Oct 27, 2014 1:00 pm 
Smeric
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 27, 2014 3:20 pm 
Sanno
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