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zompist bboard • View topic - Hapax Phonoumena

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 Post subject: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Wed Jun 08, 2016 8:00 pm 
Avisaru
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Wed Jun 08, 2016 8:07 pm 
Smeric
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In Malayalam, fricatives in general are limited to loanwords. The only exception to that I can think of is in the word [ɕɛˈɾi] 'okay, correct, right'.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Wed Jun 08, 2016 9:45 pm 
Sumerul
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nää džunnfin kukuch vklaivei sivei tåd.
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Wed Jun 08, 2016 11:30 pm 
Avisaru
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Location: Iowa
Do almost-but-not-quite single instances count?

Chechen and Ingush have a voiceless trill in the numbers seven /vʷor̥/ and eight /bar̥/, found nowhere else in the language. The Bats cognates are /vorɬ barɬ/. Ingush apparently also has [o:] that pops up in Russian loans (regularly replaced with native /uo/ when asked to repeat), plus in /joax/ "say" when used as a quotative or hearsay evidential [jo:x]. This occasionally extends to a few other words with /oa/. The author of the grammar calls it "not even a marginal phoneme" but that it could be one in the future.

Archi has a couple words with /ʟ̝/, /náʟ̝dut/ "blue/unripe" and /k͡ʟ̝̊ʼéʟ̝dut/ "crooked." Adjectives very often end in -tːut, -dut, -t:u, etc, so I presume it's an odd reflex when combined with /naˤk͡ʟ̝̊ʼ/ "be.blue" /k͡ʟ̝̊ʼek͡ʟ̝̊ʼ/ "be.crooked." /ʁˤʷ/ is only in three words, /íʁʷˤdut/ "heavy" /ʁʷˤálqˤi/ "fog, light north wind" /ʁʷˤárbos/ "crack of a voice." At a glance, it looks like some of the other labialized sounds are extremely rare as well, though I haven't checked meticulously.

seem to have a number of vowels that are limited to 1-3 lexemes a piece, though part of that might be incomplete data. Most also have /h/ or /ɦ/ limited to a couple items.

Japhug has /y/ only in /qaɟy/ "fish." The cognate in Tshobdun/Cǎodēng is /qɐɟwɛʔ/.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 12:16 am 
Smeric
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The only native word in Levei-Drehet with /b/ is /bo/, meaning 'water'.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 12:46 am 
Boardlord
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English [ʇ] in tsk tsk.

Sanskrit /ḷ/ occurs only in one lexeme, kḷp- 'be fit, arrange'.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 1:17 am 
Lebom
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 2:26 am 
Avisaru
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Location: Iowa
"Huh. / Huh?" and hee-haw (donkey onomatopoeia) are also obligatorily nasalized, at least for me.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 6:19 am 
Sanci
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Joined: Mon Apr 18, 2016 2:51 pm
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Arabic /ɫ/ only appears in Allah's name, no?


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 6:37 am 
Smeric
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As zomp and kodé have pointed out, interjections often contain phonemes that don't show up elswhere in a language, or violate restrictions for those phonemes. I think that can explain at least some of the cases - e.g. the negation marker or past tense marker mentioned may originally have been interjections.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 6:59 am 
Avisaru
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 8:18 am 
Sumerul
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Ubykh /h/ is only found in interjections, loans, and /hənda/ 'now'.

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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 10:46 am 
Sumerul
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I have [nɛ̃(ː)] as a negative word (I don't know how to spell it, some would spell it <nah>, but <nah> to me is [na(ː)]), and it has a clearly phonemic nasalized vowel on it.

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Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 12:17 pm 
Smeric
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 1:09 pm 
Sumerul
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Dibotahamdn duthma jallni agaynni ra hgitn lakrhmi.
Amuhawr jalla vowa vta hlakrhi hdm duthmi xaja.
Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro. Irdro.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 1:51 pm 
Avisaru
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 3:08 pm 
Avisaru
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In Hoyahoya, /s/ occurs only in the word /sa/ "bone". All other fricatives are spelled with <h>, so /s/ is spelled <sh>.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2016 6:56 pm 
Smeric
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Fri Jun 10, 2016 11:09 am 
Lebom
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If we're including loanwords, than the affricate /dʒ/ occurs in Halkomelem only in the word kinjaj meaning "Englishman" (I think this is may be from Chinook Jargon, ultimately from English "King George").

Very interesting topic, I'll have to see if I can dig up any more.


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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Fri Jun 10, 2016 12:19 pm 
Avisaru
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And while we're in the PNW, Makah contains only one word with g, x̌igi·dit "Clallam bay", a borrowing from Klallam (surprise surprise). The other voiced stops are the denasalised b and d. The nasals do occur in a few words, though, such as na·ni· "grizzly bear".

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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Fri Jun 10, 2016 3:04 pm 
Smeric
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A number of PNW languages have vowels that only appear in nonce words in ritual music (or music in general, in some cases). I don't have any of my material on hand for examples, though.

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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Sat Jun 11, 2016 4:03 pm 
Sumerul
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Norwegian /ʉi/ only appears in the word hui, which only appears in the expression i hui og hast.

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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Sun Jun 12, 2016 6:51 am 
Lebom
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Sun Jun 12, 2016 8:14 am 
Sumerul
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Finnish /ey iy/ can be generated by the morphology (e- i- + -U), but /ey/ only appears in one root, leyhyä, and the dialectal form keyri (std. kekri), and /iy/ only appears in the place name Kiysaari and dialectal tiyris. /öi yi/, when not generated by the morphology, only appear in onomatapoeia and before /j/.

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Siöö jandeng raiglin zåbei tandiüłåd;
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 Post subject: Re: Hapax Phonoumena
PostPosted: Sun Jun 12, 2016 10:31 am 
Lebom
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has a syllabic, prenasalized, voiced velarized bilabial trill which appears exclusively in the word [ʃa˥m̩ˠʙˠ˥] 'antlion'. (The only other phonemic syllabic consonant is /n̩/, which can be pronounced with any place of articulation, or as a lateral, depending on the consonants that follow it. The non-syllabic nasal phonemes are /m/, /n/ and /nʲ/.)

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