Eddy the Great wrote:
Do I have to include the object marker in transitive sentences all the time?
Lkama(I like it)vs. Lkanima(I like it)
Yes; that's what distinguishes transitive from instransitive expressions: the presence or absence of an object marker.
A while back, when we were planning a newbie FAQ for the board here, I wrote a description of polysynthism that you may find helpful; it mentions that one of the key feature of poly languages is the marking of both subject and object within the verb. This is a mininal requirement to be considered polysynthetic (some people think object incorporation is key, but it's not; Miami does not allow object incorporation, but is poly just the same).
Here is that description:
Polysynthesis is a grammatical phenomenon most famously present in many North American Indian languages; the Algonquian and Iroquoian tongues are the most well-known. These languages, instead of using case endings on nouns and conjugatational endings on verbs, mark both subject and object inside the verb; further, subject and object inflections are considered the actual arguments of the verb, while any free-standing nouns associated with a verb are like dislocated topic phrases. Here is an example from Mohawk, an Iroquoian language spoken in upstate New York and southern Ontario:
Nominalized and rendered in normal English, this is 'I-ate a-banana'; but a more faithful translation would be 'A-banana, I-ate-it'. The pronominals 'I' and 'it' (the arguments of the verb root -k- 'eat') are expressed via the prefix ke-, which indicates a singular first-person subject and a singular third-person object. ke- is, then, akin to noun case and verb conjugation fused into a single marker and attached to the verb. Mohawk has some fifty-odd of these pronminal prefixes that express subject-object combinations; and a prefix is mandatory on every verb. By contrast, the noun teiotahi?:kton 'banana' stands in relation to the verb w?:keke' only indirectly, as a topical phrase stands in relation to a central clause in English.
Cheyenne, an Algonquian language spoken in southern Montana and Oklahoma, also marks subject and object on the verb, but does so differently; instead of a fusional marker, it uses a prefix for subject and a suffix for object. Witness:
Faithfully translated, this means 'A-man, I-saw-him'. Hetane is the noun 'man' standing in relation to the verb n?v??mo 'I-saw-him' like a topical phrase. N?- is the prefix for a singular first-person subject; -o is the marker for a singular third-person object.
In addition to marking both subject and object inside the verb, polysynthetic languages often make use of noun incorporation. This is a phenomenon where a noun becomes, in essence, an inflection on a verb. Incorporated nouns can be, depending on the language and circumstances, direct objects, indirect objects, subjects, locatives, and
of other kinds. Mohawk makes heavy use of incorporation, as in:
This translates as 'It-is-a-good-shirt', where the noun root atia’tawi (a word that can be used to refer to basically any upper-body garment) is present inside the verb. Cheyenne also uses noun incorporation on a regular basis:
This verb, meaning 'I-have-a-big-house', contains the noun morpheme maheo 'house'.
Noun incorporation can look bewildering, but is best understood in terms of English compounding. Babysit is an example of a word with a incorporated direct object; and words like deer-hunter and manslaughter make use of the same kind of incorporation.