IRC canal wrote:
Your handwriting is weird... what is the first letter of the second word?
Is it beth? That's not the way to write it, initially I took it for caph sufit. And what is the second letter? It looks like a streached Latin «u».
Yeah, well, I'm certainly not a native speaker (or, in this case, writer...), so my handwriting won't look entirely native (just as the handwriting of several of the Russian-learners here looks a little odd to me). My final kafs generally have longer tails. And do you mean the second letter of the second word? It's shin (the word is "beshesh").
But I swear I've seen beyt look like that before. Is it just the fact that I don't have much of an upstroke that looks odd to you?
EDIT: Oh, I see, you thought the two shin where a single letter. I didn't actually connect them, it's just the image here makes it look like it. Although I have seen Hebrew letters strung together when written by some native speakers before.
Are you a native speaker of Hebrew?
You might want to change in Lessons 7 and 11 where you have "to read" listed as Q-R-H.
Ack! So sorry about that! How'd I let that happen?!
And since I'm leaving tomorrow for a week, here's the next lesson.
<b>Lesson 12 / השעור השנים-עשר / Hashi`ur Hashnem-`Asar</b>
1) The Present Tense of Binyan Pi`el
The second binyan we're learning is pi`el. Although it has a lot of functions, probably the best single word that can be used to describe its function is "intensive". By taking the same verb roots you know from Pa`al and conjugating them according to pi`el patterns, you effectively conjugate the verbs in their "intensive" form.
The present tense paradigm is very similar to that of pa`al, except the vowels are different, and every form is prefixed with me-
(When dealing with consonants that lenite: The first and last consonants generally lenite when possible, but the second never does. In pa`al, for comparison, you lenite the second and third, but never the first)
Using the very common root ד-ב-ר D-B-R
, meaning "speak" or "talk" in pi`el:
MascSg: מדבר medaber
FemSg: מדברת medabéret
MascPl: מדברים medabrim
FemPl: מדברות medabrot
The infinitive is also very easy. All you do is take the MascSg form, drop the me-, and add le-: לדבר ledaber
For comparison, here are the pi`el meanings of several verb roots you already know:
- כותב kotev "write" > מכתב mechatev "engrave"
- אוכל 'ochel "eat, consume" > מאכל me'akel "corrode (tr)"
- אוהב 'ohev "love" > מאהב me'ahev "love passionately"
- הולך holech "walk, go" > מהלך mehalech "walk around, wander, inspire" (regular infinitive! - להלך)
And the list goes on. But that's one nice thing about pi`el - there are much fewer irregular verbs/gzarot than in pa`al.
Many roots "live" in pi`el in that pi`el is their most basic or common pattern (ie, the four above roots are most commonly used in pa`al), such as ד-ב-ר. It has pa`al forms (דובר dover
, etc, which also mean "speak", roughly), but the pi`el form is the most common form. Other such roots include.
- ב-ק-ר B-Q-R: מבקר mevaqer "visit" (which actually has no pa`al form)
- ב-ש-ל B-Sh-L: מבשל mevashel "cook" (pa`al form בושל boshel "ripen")
- ש-ל-ם Sh-L-M: משלם meshalem "pay" (pa`al form שלם shalem "be concluded" - no, I don't see the connection, and yes, it has a weird vowel pattern in pa`al, don't worry about this for now)
- ק-ב-ל Q-B-L: מקבל meqabel "receive" (no pa`al form)
- ס-ד-ר S-D-R: מסדר mesader "arrange" (no pa`al form; this is also the origin of the word "seder", which many Jews will be taking part in next week for Passover)
- ש-ח-ק S-Ch-Q: משחק mesacheq "play" (no pa`al form)
2) Quadraconsonantal Roots
Pi`el is also home to a number of quadra
consonantal roots, verb roots with four consonants. But don't worry, they're easy. Basically, you just treat the two middle consonants as though they were a single consonant. The quadraconsonantal pattern is, therefore:
MascPl: meCaCCeCim (Note the extra /e/ - Hebrew doesn't allow clusters of three consonants)
With the root ט-ל-פ-ן T-L-P-N
"to telephone [somebody]":
MascSg: מטלפן metalpen
FemSg: מטלפנת metalpénet
MascPl: מטלפנים metalpenim
FemPl: מטלפנות metalpenot
There are two main sources for quadraconsonantal roots. One, like T-L-P-N above, is from foreign loans, where the consonants are extracted and become a new root. This is a very common occurance: מטרפד metarped
The other is from a reduplicated two-consonant stem. These are generally onomatopoeic in origin: מצלצל metzaltzel
"ring (like a phone)", מבלבל mevalbel
"confuse" (also the source of the word "Babel", as in the tower)
3) "To have" in the Past Tense
If we may return to pa`al for a moment...
As you know, possession in the present tense is handled using the unchanging particle יש yesh
"there is" accompanied by ל le-
"to". Yesh doesn't have a past tense form, so you must use the third person forms of ה-י-ה H-Y-H
"to be", which you learned in the last lesson.
But wait, there's three! הייה hayah
(MascSg), הייתה haytah
(FemSg), and היו hayu
(Pl). You must use the proper form, agreeing in gender and number with the object being possessed. Curiously, though, if the possessed object is definite, you can still use את 'et
So where you have unchanging forms in the present (יש לי את הספר yesh li 'et haséfer
"I have the books", יש לי את הספרים yesh li 'et hasfarim
"I have the books"), you have varying forms in the past: הייה לי את הספר hayah li 'et haséfer
"I had the book", היו לי את הספרים hayu li 'et hasfarim
"I had the books".
And where you used אין 'eyn
instead of yesh to negate it in the present, in the past you just negate the verb with לא lo'
: לא הייה לי אותו lo' hayah li 'oto
"I didn't have it".
4) "To need" in the Past Tense
As you may remember, need in the present tense is expressed using the adjective
, followed by either a noun or verb, so that when you say אני צריך את התשובה 'ani tzarich 'et hatshuvah
"I need the answer", you are actually saying something like "I [am] needing the answer", with a zero-form "be" in the present. So, logically, the past tense is formed by sticking the proper past tense form of "be" before tzarich:
הם צריכים לדבר לך hem tzrichim ledaber lach
"They need to speak to you"
הם היו צריכים לדבר לך hem hayu tzrichim ledaber lach
"They needed to speak to you"
1) Conjugate the root ק-ב-ל Q-B-L
"receive" in the pi`el pattern, along with its infinitive.
2) The root ב-ל-ה B-L-H
in pi`el means "to have a good time, wear oneself out". For a bit of a challenge, try to guess how it's conjugated. Look at how final-H roots are conjugated in pa`al for help. Try to guess the infinitive too.
3) Translate the following sentences into Hebrew.
- I am talking to my friends on the telephone.
- She is visiting her relatives in Russia.
- He is cooking a delicious meal for our wedding.
- My teacher's lessons are really confusing me.
- How much do we pay the waiter? (lit. "to the waiter" - indirect object)
- The airplane to France left from the airport at 3.00. We had to be there before 1.00.
- They had to answer 35 questions for that test. (lit. "respond to 35 questions" - indirect object)
- Aaron and Hannah used to have two cars, but they had to sell one.
- I'm phoning Inbar to arrange a meeting tomorrow.
- We only accept cash or checks here, no credit cards. (lit. "we only receive...")
- Those boys are playing football.
- רוסיה Rusyah "Russia"
- טעים ta`im "tasty, delicious" (a > e in all other forms)
- חתונה chatunah "wedding"
- מורה moreh/morah "teacher" (m/f)
- You'd better know the word for "lesson".
- באמת be'émet "really, truly" (lit. "in truth")
- כמה kámah "how much?"
- מלצר meltzar "waiter"
- צרפת Tzarfat "France"
- נמל תעופה nemal te`ufah "airport" (lit. נמל namel "port" + תעופה te`ufah "flight" - the vowels in "namel" change in the construct form)
- שם sham "there, over there" (locative)
- לפני lifney "before" (lit. "to the face of...")
- ע-נ-ה `-N-H "answer, respond to" (infinitive: לענות la`anot)
- שאלה she'elah "question"
- מבחן mivchan "test, exam"
- מ-כ-ר M-K-R "sell" (infinitive: למכור limkor)
- פגישה pgishah "meeting"
- מחר machar "tomorrow"
- מזומן mezuman "cash"
- צ'ק cheq "check"
- פה poh "here"
- כרטיס אשראי kartis 'ashray "credit card" (lit. "card of credit")
- בן ben "son, boy" (pl. בנים banim)
- כדורגל kadurégel "football" (a portmanteau of כדור kadur "ball" and רגל régel "foot" - remember, this is soccer in the US!)
- אהרון 'Aharon "Aaron"
- חנה Chanah "Hannah"
- ענבר `Inbar "Inbar" (lit. "Amber")