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PostPosted: Thu Sep 18, 2003 10:15 pm 
Boardlord
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Quechua sound changes

Not final by any means...

Ayacucho

? :> ch
sh :> s
q :> [X] (uvular fricative)

(phonetic interpretation of proto-Quechua ? is uncertain; there was a distinction between ch and ? though)

Cuzco

ch :> ch' (word-initially, 50% of cases... otherwise :> ch)
? :> ch
sh :> s
m :> n / _[+dental | +velar]

p :> [F] / _[+stop] F = bilabial fricative
t, ch, ? :> s / _C
k :> x / _C
q :> X / _C
ll :> l / _q

0 :> h / #_V

Rare or incipient changes:

? :> n (4 of 36 cases)
k :> h / V_V (3 of 47 cases)
q :> h / V_V (2 of 42 cases)
w :> y / _$ (3 of 18 cases; $ = syllable boundary)

Cajamarca

? :> tr
h :> 0 / #_
q :> k
ll :> Z / V_V

Jun?n

? :> tr
r :> l
q :> 0 / #_
q :> ? (glottal stop) elsewhere
s :> h / #_ (about 35% of the time; but 58% of cases before a)

Ancash (Huaraz)

? :> ch
ch :> ts (word-initially, 2/3 of the time; otherwise :> ch)
s :> h / #_ (about 45% of the time)
s :> 0 / [+labial]_V
s :> y / V_i, i_V
s :> w / u_V
s :> h / other V_V
? :> n / #_
ll :> l / #_ (about 18% of the time)
ay :> ee
uy :> ii
aw :> oo
q :> X / V_[-voiced]
q :> [+voice] / *_[+voiced] (* = any phoneme)


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PostPosted: Sat Sep 20, 2003 12:24 am 
Lebom
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Late Middle Chinese (~1000) to Old Mandarin (~1300)
(Hsueh's Phonology of Old Mandarin)

The author uses V1, V2, V3, V4, Vn, Vch, and Vta to represent Late Middle Chinese vowels. I am going to very tentatively assign the values of o, a, ia, e, ?, a(ch) and a(ta) to these vowels. These should be taken as orthographical convenience rather than actual speculation.

I am also going to number tones according to their traditional order, i.e. F1, F2, F3, F4, F5. Since tones change rapidly, it is impossible to accurately reconstruct their values; we can only know how many there were, and agree on an order to renumerate them. Middle Chinese starts out with no F2.

A few more things:

H = a voiced /h/ and a breathy element across the syllable
y = palatalization
w = labialization
j = palatal articulation of previous consonant
r = retroflex articulation of previous consonant

These (H, y, w, j, r) will be treated as separate phonemes in the sound change list; note that they are not.

Middle Chinese phonology

vowels
V1 (*o)
V2 (*a)
V3 (*ia)
V4 (*(i)e)
Vn (*?) can be palatalized (*y?)
Vta and Vch - ???

initial consonants
p ph pH m
t th tH
n l
ts tsh tsH s sH
tj tjh tjH
tsr tsrh tsrH sr srH
tsj tsjh tsjH sj sjH nj(nr)
k kh kH x xH ng
? 0

final consonants
y w m n ng p t k

tones
F1 F3 F4 F5
(F5 exists if and only if in syllables ending with stop)

List:

0 > w / bilabial_V
xH > 0 / _y(w){? or ia or a(ta)}
y > 0 / retro(af)fricat_
j > r
n > 0 /_r (retroflex n loses its nasality; what remains is a retroflex approximant)
F1 > F2 / syllables with H or liquid(incl. nasals)
F3 > F4 / syllables with H
? > 0
F5 > F2 / syllables with H
F5 > F4 / syllables with liquid(incl. nasals)
F5 > F3 / all other syllables
H > h / stop _ toneF2
H > 0 / all other cases
y > 0 / m_w + ?{w or k or ng}
p(h) > f / _y+w
m > v / _y+w
y > 0 / {f or v}_
w > o / y_? + w
ia > a / C(w)_
ia > e / _
0 > y / velar/pharyn. _ {a or a(ch)}
o > a / C_C as long as ending C is not w, and if beginning C is a velar/pharyn. then the ending C cannot be p,t,k
ng > n / n_y + a(ta)
ng > ng / #_o(w)
ng > 0 / #_
k > y / {o or a or e}_
k > w / V_
o, a > e / _ng
a(ta), a(ch) > a / _ng; o otherwise
? > o / _ng
y > 0 / alveolar.(af)fric or retroflex _? + y
y > 0 / C + ?_
t > ts / _r
p, t > y / y + ?_
p, t > 0 / V_
o > a / y_w
0 > w / C_o# as long as C is not a velar/pharyn.
w > 0 / retroflex + y_? + w ---- optional
w > 0 / w + ?_
? > a / C + w_y
o, e > ? / _y
y > 0 / _w + ? + y
0 > w / retrof._a + ng
e > o / w_ng ---- optional
y > 0 / _w + a +ng
y > 0 / retro_w + o + ng
m > n / syllables beginning with bilabial

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PostPosted: Tue Nov 04, 2003 4:28 am 
Smeric
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 07, 2003 7:54 am 
Smeric
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2nd instalment: Sound changes from Proto-Slavic (PS) to Old Russian (OR):

These are more limited; OTOH, some of the diverging developments enumerated in the previous post might also be put here.

1. Denasalisation of nasalised vowels:

PS /e~/ > /'a/ (' denotes palatalisation of the preceding consonant)
PS /o~/ > /u/

OCS je~zykъ Polish język Russian jazyk "tongue"
OCS ro~ka Polish ręka Russian ruka "hand"

(All Slavic Languages except Polish denasalised the PS nasalised vowels, although with differing results).

2. Treatment of word-initial (and some intervocalic) /j/

/jV/ > /V/ for V = /e/, /u/, /o~/; in this case, /e/ > /o/

OCS jezero Polish jezioro Russian ozero "lake"

OCS jutro Russian utro "morning" Polish jutro "tomorrow"

PS *pajo~kъ Polish pająk Russian pauk "spider"

/jь/ > /i/

PS *jьgra > Polish gra Russian igra "game"

3. Prothetic /j/

/#a/ > /ja/

PS *ablъko Polish jabłko Russian jabloko "apple"

Especially for 3) it is in many cases disputed to which extent the /j/ in those Slavic languages which have it is prothetical or original (with those languages that don't show it having lost the /j/ due to rules analogical to rule 2).

Last instalment (OR > Modern Russian) when I have time; I'll be away for a while, so don't expect anything for the next two weeks).

Best regards,
Hans-Werner


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PostPosted: Fri Nov 07, 2003 10:14 am 
Avisaru
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 25, 2003 11:03 am 
Smeric
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 25, 2003 4:15 pm 
Lebom
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This kinda shows how low my knowledge is, but...


-The Great Vowel Shift-
(changes in the long vowels from Middle to Modern English)

a: > E: > eI
E: > e: > i:
e: > i:
i: > @i > ai
o: > u
O: > o
u: > @u > au
[y > ju] (bracketed because I'm not sure about this one)

...and that is all that I know. I'll try to get in the Great Consonant Shift when I make sure I got that one right.


Last edited by Jaaaaaa on Sun Dec 07, 2003 2:53 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Tue Nov 25, 2003 5:25 pm 
Lebom
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If it's English sound changes you want, there's some .


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PostPosted: Sat Dec 06, 2003 5:29 pm 
Avisaru
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http://www.veche.net/alashian - Grammar of Alashian


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PostPosted: Sat Dec 06, 2003 5:37 pm 
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 07, 2003 8:46 am 
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http://www.veche.net/alashian - Grammar of Alashian


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PostPosted: Sun Dec 07, 2003 10:56 am 
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