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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 8:47 am 
Sumerul
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From here:
Imralu wrote:
How would you translate the following sentences:

I saw the house that Jack built.
I know that Jack built that house.
I saw the house where Jack was born.

Also, I know that you know, since that's what started it.

Kannow:

Ernyssow Jakoròkʼèg idèjesʼ.
er-nys-s-ow Jak-ow-rò-kʼèg i-dèje-sʼ
S.NRP-see-C7.P.SG-1S.A Jack-C1.DEF-NF.P NF.NP-house-C7.DEF
I saw the house that Jack built.

Řyhow ikʼèksow Jakow cessʼ idèjesʼ.
0-řyh-ow i-kʼèg-s-ow ces-sʼ i-dèje-sʼ
S.M.P-know-1S.A NF.NP-build-C7.P.SG-C1.A.SG that-C7.DEF NF.NP-house-C7.DEF
I know that Jack built that house.

Ernyssow Jakořkròņeŗysʼ idèjesʼ.
er-nys-s-ow Jak-ow-ř-krò-ņeŗy-sʼ i-dèje-sʼ
S.NRP-see-C7.P.SG-1S.A Jack-C1.DEF-LOC-NF.M.P-be_born-C7.DEF NF.NP-house-C7.DEF
I saw the house where Jack was born.

Řyhow iřyhnòw.
0-řyh-ow i-řyh-nʷ-ow
S.M.P-know-1S.A NF.NP-know-C1.P.SG-1S.A
I know that I know (it).

All of those examples should be fairly straightforward (but mind the noun incorporation!) except the third. In the third, a place marker is prefixed to the nonfinite verb to introduce the relative clause. I'm not sure how to explain it better than that, but in pseudo-English it'd look something like "saw I the in-which-Jack-was-born house".

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 9:18 am 
Avisaru
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Examples in Baranxe'i:

Nikãb þinun ha’inun Dźēk sepnānis varānem.
nika<n>b þin-u-n ha'in-u-n Dźēk sepn-ān-i-s var-ān-e-m
house<ACC> PROX-INAN-ACC REL-INAN-ACC Jack build-PST-M-ABS see-PST-ANIM-1.SG

I saw the house which Jack built.

Valem ēþ Dźēk mandun nikãb sepnānis.
val-e-m ēþ Dźēk mand-u-n nika<n>b sepn-ān-i-s
know-ANIM-1.SG that Jack DIST-INAN-ACC house<ACC> build-PST-M-ABS

I know that Jack built that house.

Nikãb þinun ha’inuf xõ Dźēk hirdkānikśa varānem.
nika<n>b þin-u-n ha'in-u-f xõ Jack hird-k-ān-i-s-ka var-ān-e-m
house<ACC> PROX-INAN-ACC REL-INAN-ADPOS in Jack push-PASS-PST-M-ABS-3.PASS.ABS see-PST-ANIM-1.SG

I see the house where Jack was born.

Valem ēþ valet. | Valem ēþ valetun.
val-e-m ēþ val-e-t | val-e-m ēþ val-e-t=un
know-ANIM-1.SG that know-ANIM-2.SG | know-ANIM-1.SG ēþ know-ANIM-2.SG=3.INAN.SG.ACC

I know that you know. | I know that you know it.

So, the relative clauses are along the lines of "I saw the house; that, [which Jack built]|[in which Jack was born]". The proximal pronoun þinā agrees with the noun in the head clause, the relative pronoun ha’inā agrees with its role in the subordinate clause.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:39 am 
Sumerul
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Sentalian:
Djakip kà kezamoogy mo vinà vàgy.
Jack-NOM 3.ACC build-PAST-PFV REL house-DEF.ACC see-PFV
I saw the house that [Jack built it].

Djakip làc vinmà kezamoogy maa leet.
Jack-NOM that house-DEM.ACC build-PAST-PFV COMP know
I know that [Jack built that house].

Djakip kà dò t'uudmoogy mo vinà vàgy.
Jack-NOM 3.LOC in be.born-PAST-PFV REL house-DEF.ACC see-PFV
I saw the house that [Jack was born in it].

Syyp nu leet maa (gamup) leet.
2.NOM 3.ACC know COMP (1S.NOM) know
I know that you know it.

(The 1st person subject is implicit in all of these, except possibly the last one – note that there is a different particle used for attributive relative clauses, mo, which I have marked REL for relativizer, and for complements of verbs, maa, which I have marked COMP for complementizer. Effectively, REL is treated as an adjectival phrase and COMP is treated as a nominal phrase...)


Last edited by finlay on Sun Oct 16, 2011 12:08 pm, edited 4 times in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:54 am 
Sumerul
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Panceor:
Lotpir kikosort pon Zak noisun' ki 'te.
see<PAST-1S> DEF-house REL Jack [build] 3S PAST-build
I saw the house that [Jack built it].
[ˈɫɔtpɪɾ kiˈgɔːzoɾt pɔn tsak ˈnɔ.iːzun ki tɛ]

Epira pon Zak noisun' pa kosort 'te.
know<1S> REL Jack [build] that house PAST-build
I know that [Jack built that house].
[ˈɛːbɪɾɐ pɔn tsak ˈnɔiːzun pa ˈkɔːzoɾt tɛ]

Lotpir kikosort pon Zak nun' pekol 'ta.
see<PAST-1S> DEF-house REL Jack [be.born] there PAST-be.born
I saw the house that [Jack was born there].
[ˈɫɔtpɪɾ kiˈgɔːzoɾt pɔn tsak nun ˈpɛːgoɫ ta]

Epira pon ekira.
know<1S> REL know<2S.INTR>
I know that you know.
[ˈɛːbɪɾɐ pɔn ˈɛːgɪɾɐ]


Umpát:
Kui kpas ra kain tákui macín pi Tsak.
PAST.PFV see 1S house REL=PAST.PFV build-PASS AGT Jack
I saw the house [that was built by Jack].
[kʊɪ kpas la kain ˈtagɨː məˈʔin pɪ tsax]

Ni samú ra nákui mací Tsak uit kain.
PRES.IPFV know 1S COMP=PAST.PFV build Jack this house.
I know that Jack built this house.
[ni səˈmu la ˈnagɨː məˈʔi tsax ʊɪs kain]

Kui kpas ra kain ap tákui rímpu Tsak.
PAST.PFV see 1S house in REL=PAST.PFV be.born Jack.
I saw the house [in which Jack was born].
[kʊɪ kpas la kain af ˈtagɨː ˈlimbɨ tsax]

Ni samú ra náni samú can.
PRES.IPFV know 1S COMP=PRES.IPFV know 2S
I know that you know.
[ni səˈmu la ˈnanɨ səˈmu ʔan]


Yaufulti:
Zekepu tenufuzupipenutuu fuituifiisu tenuzufufuite.
Jack-NOM NFUT-PFV-make-AGR.REL-3-REL COUNT.DEF-house-ACC NFUT-PFV-see-AGR-1
I saw the house that Jack built.
[ˈʒɛːɣɛbo ˈtɛ̃ːduvoˌʒuβipˌnunuː ˈfuiðuiˌviːzu ˈtɛ̃ːduʒoˌvuvuiθ]

Zekepu zuituifiisu tenufuzupizuinutuu lugusetapete.
Jack-NOM COUNT.OBV-house-ACC NFUT-PFV-make-AGR-3-REL IPFV-know-AGR-1.
I know that Jack built that house.
[ˈʒɛːɣɛbo ˈʒuiðuiˌviːzu ˈtɛ̃ːduvoˌʒuβiʒoiˌnunuː ˈluɣusˌtɑːbɛt]

Zekepu nupele tenuyelyanutuu fuituifiisu tenuzufufuite.
Jack-NOM 3.COUNT-LOC NFUT-PFV-be.born-3-REL COUNT.DEF-house-ACC NFUT-PFV-see-AGR-1
I saw the house that [Jack was born in it].
[ˈʒɛːɣɛbo ˈnumɛl ˈtɛ̃ːdujəlˌjɑːnuˌnuː ˈfuiðuiˌviːzu ˈtɛ̃ːduʒoˌvuvuiθ]

Lugusetapezatuu lugusetapete.
IPFV-know-AGR-2-REL IPFV-know-AGR-1
I know that you know.
[ˈluɣusˌtɑːbɛdʒəˌduː ˈluɣusˌtɑːbɛt]


Last edited by finlay on Sun Oct 16, 2011 12:07 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 11:01 am 
Smeric
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Nortaneous wrote:
From here:
Imralu wrote:
How would you translate the following sentences:


Similarly to most romance languages and English:

Vei la casa que Jack construx.
see-1s-PAST ART house REL Jack build-3s-PAST.
I saw the house that Jack built.

Sais i Jack construx sa casa.
know-1s-PRES and Jack build-3s-Past DEM house.
I know that Jack built that house.

Vei la casa ond Jack y nex. or Vei la casa en que Jack y nex.
see-1s-PAST ART house where/in which Jack there be-born-3s-PAST
I saw the house where Jack was born.

Sais i sas.*
know-1s-PRES and know-2s-PRES
I know that you know.

May also mean "I know and you know". For disambiguation the i could be dropped or, more formally, replaced by que.


Last edited by Thry on Sun Oct 16, 2011 11:11 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 11:07 am 
Avisaru
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Tentative Asuāneica:

Meicanqe qainun Jek cepaunic vraunu.
[ˈmicçɑnʔə ˈʔɛnun ɟʝɛk ˈcçɛpɒnicç ˈvɻɒnu]
meic-n-qe qain-u-n Jek cep-aun-i-c vr-aun-u
house-ACC-DEF REL-INAN-ACC Jack build-PST-M-ABS see-PST-1.SG

I saw the house [which [Jack built]].

Vrṇratu eṭ Jek meicansa cepaunic.
[vɻ̩ɳˈɻɑtu ɛʈ ɟʝɛk ˈmicçɑnsɑˈcçɛpɒnicç]
vr-rat-u eṭ Jek meic-n-sa cep-aun-i-c
see-stand-1.SG that Jack house-ACC-DIST build-PST-M-ABS

I know that [Jack built that house].

Meicanqe qainuc Jek ūdainaunainic vraunu.
[ˈmicçɑnʔɛ ˈʔɛnucç ɟʝɛk uːˈdɛnɒnɛnicç ˈvɻɒnu]
meic-n-qe qain-u-c Jek ūdain-aun-ain-i-c vr-aun-u
house-ACC-DEF REL-INAN-ADE Jack give_birth-PST-PASS-M-ABS see-PST-1.SG

I saw the house [in which [Jack was born]].

Vrṇratu eṭ vrṇratet.
[vɻ̩ɳˈɻɑtu ɛʈ vɻ̩ɳˈɻɑtɛt]
vrṇ-rat-u eṭ vrn-rat-e-t.
see-stand-1.SG that see-stand-ANIM-2

I know that you know.


Asuāneica does away with the double marking, although the suffixed definite marker -qe is related to the alternate Baranxe'i proximal clitic -hē, so the structure is superficially similar.

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Last edited by MisterBernie on Sun Oct 16, 2011 11:19 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 11:17 am 
Sumerul
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Thípi waŋ Jack káǧe kiŋ waŋbláke.
thí=pi=waŋ | Jack | káǧA=kiŋ | waŋ<wa>yáŋkA
dwell=NMLZ=DET | Jack | make=DEF | see<1S.ACT>
I see the house that Jack built.

Jack é čha thípi kiŋ hé káǧiŋ na ečhél slolwáye.
Jack | é=čha | thí=pi=kiŋ | hé | káǧA=na | ečhél | slol<wa>yÁ
Jack | be.ID=REL | dwell=NMLZ=DEF | MED | make=CONJ | in.QUOT.way | know<1S.ACT>
Jack is the one who built that house and I know it to be that way.
~
Jack thípi kiŋ hé (káǧa čha / káǧe kiŋ) slolwáye.
Jack | thí=pi=kiŋ | hé | (káǧA=čha / káǧA=kiŋ) | slol<wa>yÁ
Jack | dwell=NMLZ=DEF | MED | (make=REL / make=DEF) | know<1S.ACT>
I know (that / the fact that) Jack built that house.

Thípi waŋ Jack él yuhápi kiŋ waŋbláke.
thí=pi=waŋ | Jack | é-l | yuhá=pi=kiŋ | waŋ<wa>yáŋkA
dwell=NMLZ=DET | Jack | be:ID-IMPRS.SPAT.ADV | have=PASS=DEF | see<1S.ACT>
I see the house that Jack was born in.

Slolyáye kiŋ slolwáye. ~ Slolyáya čha slolwáye.
slol<ya>yÁ=kiŋ | slol<wa>yÁ ~ slol<ya>yÁ=čha | slol<wa>yÁ
know<2.ACT>=DEF | know<1S.ACT> ~ know<2.ACT>=REL | know<1S.ACT>
I know (the fact) that you know. ~ I know that you know.


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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 3:12 pm 
Avisaru
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Amíre na xótamal Ch'ac má ya óxta.
/a-ˈmir-e na ˈʃotam-əl t͡ʃʼak ˈma ja ˈoʃtə/
INAN.INDIR-see-1PS.ABS DAT build-INAN.ABS Jack ACC REL house-NOMZ
I saw the house that Jack built.

Tlemáque ma xótamal Ch'ac ma óxta.
/t͡ɬə-ˈmak-e ma ˈʃotam-əl t͡ʃʼak ma ˈoʃtə/
3PS.INDIR-know-1PS.ABS COMP build-INAN.ABS Jack ACC house
I know that Jack built that house.

Amíre na arópsa Ch'ac cuá ya óxta.
/a-ˈmir-e na a-ˈrops-ə t͡ʃʼak ˈkʷa ja ˈoʃtə/
INAN.INDIR-see-1PS.ABS DAT INAN.INDIR-be.born-3PS.ABS Jack LOC REL house
I saw the house where Jack was born.

Temáque ma amácat má.
/tə-ˈmak-e ma a-ˈmak-ət ˈma/
2PS.INDIR-know-1PS.ABS COMP INAN.INDIR-know-2PS.ABS COMP
I know that you know (it).
(knowing is in the class of verbs that I call propositional verbs, so it doesn't actually work without a complement clause; the second clause here is marked as null, which is why the complementizer is stressed)

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 4:50 pm 
Avisaru
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Yagalian would handle most of these using a combination of the causal affix and reflexive pronouns.

I saw the house that Jack built.
Cjamü maijeshapa Tjekgë sje Casaüak bbaizaspotja.
/çɐmɨ mɐijɛshɐpɐ tʃɛkɡə ʃɛ kɐsɐɨɐk ɓɐizɐspotʃɐ/
cjam-ü- maije-s-ha-pa tjek-gë sje casa-üak bbaiza-s-po-tja
PRN-1st-INT see-IND-NPS-PRO Jack-CAU RFX house-PSD build-IND-PAS-PER
Literally, "I seeing/will be seeing Jack-who caused himself House-which is owned to have been built(in the past)."
Or, "I am viewing the house which Jack himself built."

That verb, maije, is so flexible it can be used for knowing as well though the standard would be satja, both are intransitive however and so neither affects grammar in a different way from the other.

I know that Jack built that house.
Cjamü satjashapa Tjekgë sje Casaüak bbaizashatja.
/çɐmɨ sɐtʃɐshɐpɐ tʃɛkɡə ʃɛ kɐsɐɨɐk ɓɐizɐshɐtʃɐ/
cjam-ü-0 satja-s-ha-pa tjek-gë sje casa-üak bbaiza-s-ha-tja
PRN-1st-INT know-IND-NPS-PRO Jack-CAU RFX build-IND-NPS-PER

The last phrase is treated as a normal Transitive phrase taking the Ergative and Accusative affixes for the last two nouns.

I saw the house where Jack was born.
Cjamü maijeshapa Tjeklhüp Casabbët napaispotja.
/çɐmɨ mɐijɛshɐpɐ tʃɛkɬɨp kɐsɐɓət nɐpɐispotʃɐ/
cjam-ü-0 maije-s-ha-pa tjek-lhüp casa-bbët napai-s-po-tja
PRN-1st-INT see-IND-NPS-PRO Jack-ERG house-ACC create-IND-PAS-PER

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 6:07 pm 
Avisaru
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In Mekoshan all three of the subordinated verbs takes relative clause morphology, but in the 3rd one the subordinate clause follows the locative case particle è.

Aasayí deed hos téibžégh Jekh.
aa-sa-í deed hos téi-bžégh Jekh.
1SG.NOM-see.PFV-3SG.N.ACC ACC.DEF house 3SG.REL-build.PFV Jack

Aano téibžéghí Jekh da dé hos.
aa-no téi-bžégh-í Jekh da dé hos.
1SG-know 3SG.REL-build.PFV Jack ACC that house

Aasayí deed hos è téivozzòr Jekh.
aa-sa-í deed hos è téi-vozzòr Jekh.
1SG.NOM-see.PFV-3SG.N.ACC ACC.DEF house LOC 3SG.REL-is.born.PFV Jack

I belive it was I that gave the "I know that you know" example elsewhere, I'm not going to repeat it. :)


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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 6:19 pm 
Avisaru
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Eandil wrote:
Nortaneous wrote:
From here:
Imralu wrote:
How would you translate the following sentences:


Similarly to most romance languages and English:

Vei la casa que Jack construx.
see-1s-PAST ART house REL Jack build-3s-PAST.
I saw the house that Jack built.

Sais i Jack construx sa casa.
know-1s-PRES and Jack build-3s-Past DEM house.
I know that Jack built that house.

Vei la casa ond Jack y nex. or Vei la casa en que Jack y nex.
see-1s-PAST ART house where/in which Jack there be-born-3s-PAST
I saw the house where Jack was born.

Sais i sas.*
know-1s-PRES and know-2s-PRES
I know that you know.

May also mean "I know and you know". For disambiguation the i could be dropped or, more formally, replaced by que.
Nice RomLang!

The word for "know" is cognate to Latin ESSE? :?: :?: :?:


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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 8:24 pm 
Avisaru
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Saerienne

I saw the house that Jack built.
Minne soier le dom que Jack fer.
[min: sua lu ta:m ku tsak psa]

I know that Jack built that house.
Minne sirer que Jack fer ceci dom.
[min: sila ku tsak psa saisi ta:m]


I saw the house where Jack was born.
Minne soier le dom qu'end Jack s'es natid.
[min: sua lu ta:m kan tsak sas nati]

I know that you know.
Minne soier que toua soier.
[min: sua ku tua sua]

And, regarding later posts,

I know what you know.
Minne soier l'ac que toua soier.
[min: sua lak:u tua sua]


Last edited by maıráí on Tue Oct 18, 2011 1:39 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 8:46 pm 
Sumerul
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<fer> [psa]?

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:02 pm 
Sanci
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I saw the house that Jack built.
    Viósgcadhw Hiac postragyrí dedgochsyhmsmgyrí.
    [ˈvjoːʃkɐðu jak postɾaɡɪˈɾiː dɨd͡ʒoxsɪmsˠɪˈɾiː]
    viósgc-a-dh-w Hiac postrag-yr-í dedg-och-syhm-smgyr-í
    house-NOM.SG-REL.ACC Jack-NOM.SG build-3.SG-PAST eye-DAT.PL-POSS.1.SG-COP.3.SG-PAST
    "House built by Jack was to my eyes."

I know that Jack built that house.
    Postragyrítha viósgci ólsa Hiácmgy thégthosyhmsmgy.
    [postraɡɪˈɾiːθɐ ˈvjoːʃki ˈɔo̯lsɐ ˈjaːkˠɪ ˈθejθosɪmsˠɪ]
    postrag-yr-i-tha viósgc-i ólsa Hiác-mgy thégth-o-syhm-smgy
    build-3.SG-PAST-NOMI-NOM.SG house-GEN.SG by Jack-GEN.SG knowledge-DAT.SG-COP.3.SG
    "The building of the house by Jack is to my knowledge."

I saw the house where Jack was born.
    Viósgcadhen Hiac uveryrí dedgochsyhmsmgyrí.
    [ˈvjoːʃkɐðen jak œveɾɪˈɾiː dɨd͡ʒoxsɪmsˠɪˈɾiː]
    viósgc-a-dh-en Hiac uver-yr-í-dhen dedg-och-syhm-smgyr-í
    house-NOM.SG-REL.LOC Jack be.born-3.SG-PAST eyes-POSS.1.SG-COP-3.SG-PAST
    "House at which Jack was born was to my eyes."

I know that you know.
    Thégthosynsmgytha thégthosyhmsmgy.
    [ˈθeːjθosɪnsˠɪθɐ ˈθeːjθosɪmsˠɪ]
    thégth-o-syn-smgy-tha thégth-o-syhm-smgy
    knowledge-DAT.SG-POSS.2.SG-COP.3.SG-NOMI.NOM.SG knowledge-DAT.SG-POSS.1.sg-COP
    "The being to your knowledge is to my knowledge."

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Last edited by lctrgzmn on Wed Oct 19, 2011 2:47 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 1:57 am 
Smeric
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Leutsprech:

Ich sah das Haus, das Jack baute.
1S.NOM see.1S.PST DEF.ACC.SG house, REL.ACC.SG Jack build-PST-3S
'I saw the house that Jack built.'

Ich weiß, dass John das Haus da baute.
1S.NOM know-1S, that John DEF.ACC.SG house there build-PST-3S
'I know that Jack built that house.'

Ich sah das Haus, wo Jack geboren wurde.
1S.NOM see.1S.PST DEF.ACC.SG house, where Jack PTCP-bear.PTCP become.PST-3S
'I saw the house where Jack was born.'

Ich weiß, was du weißt.
1S.NOM know-1S, what 2S.NOM know-2S.
'I know that you know.'


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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 2:01 am 
Avisaru
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I would recommend against using the beta in your conlang's orthography-- it sticks out and looks ugly. Use "bh" or something instead. (I assume that stands for /B/?...) Also what's with the capital letters, are you going some kinda Klingon style or something?

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 2:06 am 
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Xephyr wrote:
I would recommend against using the beta in your conlang's orthography-- it sticks out and looks ugly. Use "bh" or something instead. (I assume that stands for /B/?...) Also what's with the capital letters, are you going some kinda Klingon style or something?


...

I don't think it's a beta that he's using... it's an eszett, which stands for /s/ and was commonly used in German. Deducing by his examples it's probably a German-based conlang, so it actually looks quite natural. Oh, and in German the first Letter of a Noun is always capitalized.

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 2:08 am 
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I have no idea what you're talking about.

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 2:14 am 
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Xephyr wrote:
I have no idea what you're talking about.


u be trollin'.

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 6:22 am 
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Guitarplayer wrote:
Ich weiß, was du weißt.
1S.NOM know-1S, what 2S.NOM know-2S.
'I know that you know.'

How would you say "I know what you know"?

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 6:59 am 
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Nortaneous wrote:
Guitarplayer wrote:
Ich weiß, was du weißt.
1S.NOM know-1S, what 2S.NOM know-2S.
'I know that you know.'

How would you say "I know what you know"?


I'm not a native speaker of German, but I'm positive that it's:

Ich weiß, dass du weißt. = "I know that you know."
Ich weiß (das), was du weißt. = "I know what you know" ("I know that which you know.")

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 8:19 am 
Avisaru
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Imralu wrote:
I'm not a native speaker of German, but I'm positive that it's:

Ich weiß, dass du weißt. = "I know that you know."
Ich weiß (das), was du weißt. = "I know what you know" ("I know that which you know.")

And you're right, too.

For "I know you know" I'd be very tempted to include an es in the subordinate, though.
"Ich weiß, dass du es weißt."
Otherwise, it sounds more like "I know that you know [and therefore, you are]".

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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 10:37 am 
Smeric
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TaylorS wrote:
Eandil wrote:
Sais i sas.*
know-1s-PRES and know-2s-PRES
I know that you know.

May also mean "I know and you know". For disambiguation the i could be dropped or, more formally, replaced by que.
Nice RomLang!

The word for "know" is cognate to Latin ESSE? :?: :?: :?:


Thank you a lot! :)

You say it from the forms sais and sas ([sɛʃ] and [sas])? No, it's a bit more boring than that, they're a direct reflex of Latin sapio, sapere (to know as well), cognate to Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan and Galician saber, French savoir, Italian sapere.

The verb "to be" in my romlang is ser (the corresponding forms would be "I am": sois [soʃ] and "you are": és [es]).


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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 12:06 pm 
Smeric
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Imralu wrote:
I'm not a native speaker of German, but I'm positive that it's:

TBH I wasn't really sure what the OP was aiming at. I would've translated "I know that you know" as Ich weiß, dass du es weißt 'I know that you know it' first, but then, since this is about relative clauses, I thought it was supposed to be the example for a headless relative clause and maybe idiomatic for 'I know that which you know', which is why I translated it as Ich weiß, was du weißt 'I know what you know'.


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PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 4:13 pm 
Sumerul
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Guitarplayer wrote:
Imralu wrote:
I'm not a native speaker of German, but I'm positive that it's:

TBH I wasn't really sure what the OP was aiming at. I would've translated "I know that you know" as Ich weiß, dass du es weißt 'I know that you know it' first, but then, since this is about relative clauses, I thought it was supposed to be the example for a headless relative clause and maybe idiomatic for 'I know that which you know', which is why I translated it as Ich weiß, was du weißt 'I know what you know'.

It's not idiomatic in English. It's "I know (you know)", or "I know that you know", not "I know (what you know)". What I know is that you know. That's a crap way of describing it, though, isn't it?


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