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Last edited by Mecislau on Wed Aug 22, 2007 7:47 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Mon Dec 19, 2005 8:10 pm 
Avisaru
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Well, seeing as no one knows how to get Hebrew encoding to work...



I have a few other little comments to make about Hebrew's triconsonantal system.

Alongside the seven major binyanim discussed earlier (roughly corresponding to active, intensive, causative, reflexive, passive, passive of intensive, and passive of causative) and the "new major binyan" hitpu`al (the passive of reflexive), there are also a dozen-odd "minor binyanim", which only contain a few verbs apiece. Some of them seem very interesting, though, in my opinion.

There is a sizeable collection of so-called "minor binyanim",
which only contain a small set of roots. Many of these are
retentions of older binyanim that are no longer productive,
while some are innovations (like hitpu`al) and others are
dialectical, like nitpa`el. Several of these binyanim are
classified as a variant of a major binyan, while others are
simple considered meyuchad "special".

These minor binyanim include:
* Po`el
* Hitpo`el
* Po`al
* Pi`lel
* Pu`lal
* Pe`al`al
* Pilpel
* Polpal
* Hitpalpel
* Tif`el
* Tuf`al
* Shif`el
* Hishtaf`el
* Pa`el
* Pu`le`
* Nitpa`el
* Hitpu`al
* Myuchedim

Note that some of these take the place of other binyanim. For example, Pa`el is essentially a "replacement" for pa`al (in that no verb with a pa`el form has a pa`al form), but is distinct in that it has distinct rules for what it actually means. The definitions of pa`al and pa`el are quite distinct.


Po`el is a marker of "malicious intent". Note verbs like meloshen "to slander" (from L-SH-N "tongue") or me`oyen "to give the evil eye" (from `-Y-N "eye").

Hitpo`el is its reflexive form, and Po`al is its passive form.

Pi`lel (with a doubling of the final consonant) marks an accidental or temporary condition: ri`nen "refresh", `imlel "sadden".

Pu`lal is its passive form.

Pe`al`al (formed by redoubling the final two consonants) marks several actions done in rapid succession. It likely came from a verb actually being repeated, and then fusing into one: secharchar "palpitate" (from S-CH-R "run about"), chatzotzar "blow a trumpet" (from CH-TZ-R "trumpet" - the first /r/ was lost, but left its mark by changing the previous /a/ to /o/). Other places instead prefer to classify these as five-consonant roots (ie, S-CH-R-CH-R or CH-TZ-R-TZ-R).

Pilpel is formed by doubling a biconsonantal root (or is a distinct quadraconsonantal root - your choice). It also represents repeated actions, and often is based in onomatopoeia: metzaltzel "ring", metziftzef "chirp", mevalbel "confuse, scramble".

Polpal is its passive, and Hitpalpel is its reflexive.

Tif`el is an ancient binyan, one which one was functional but nowadays has all but disappeared. I'm not 100% sure of what its function is, but I think it may have something to do with increasing valency: tirgel "teach to walk, lead" ( < R-G-L "foot"), tichareh "contend with" ( < CH-R-H "be hot").

Shif`el, also an ancient binyan, was likely the predecessor of modern-day hif`il (the causative), as the original /S/ weakened to /h/. A very small set of verbs retained the /S/ for some reason, however: shilhev "inflame, impassion" ( < L-H-B "blaze")

Hishtaf`el is its reflexive form. Or causative. Or something. It's related to shif`el, though.

Pa`el marks a stative verb: yashen "sleep", gadel "grow", rochev "ride" (Rochev is an iffy one - it's like pa`el in all forms but the present). This is actually a relatively large minor binyan, containing many dozens of roots.

Pu`le` (formed by taking the medial consonant to the end) is a very rare passive binyan. I'm not sure of its exact function. chushfesh "be peeled off" ( < CH-SH-P "peel, scale").

Nitpa`el is a dialectical form. Where Israeli Hebrew uses hitpu`al to form the passive of reflexive (formed by combining the reflexive pattern hitpa`el with the vowels of the passive pu`al), Mishnaic Hebrew accomplished the same by merging together the passive binyan nif`al with the reflexive hitpa`el.


And finally the myuchedim", a special class of verbs that technically don't belong into any binyan at all, but are typically listed as pa`al because there's no better place to put them. These include yachol "be able to", tzarich "need", muchrach "must", as well as a few non-grammatical roots. Nagish "approach" is also a meyuchad verb, because if you look at its conjugation, it's both an active and a passive verb at the same time. Don't ask me how that works. I don't get it either, but it's true :?


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PostPosted: Tue Dec 20, 2005 10:15 am 
Sanci
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Nice.

Would mevalbel be related to Babel?


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PostPosted: Thu Dec 22, 2005 12:06 am 
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I'm hoping this hasn't already been asked, but: Is it possible for a Hebrew noun to be derived from a root that has already been conjugated into one of the binyanim? For example, could a noun be derived from the root K-T-V and retain the meaning of the binyan hif'il verb hitkatev ('correspond')?


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PostPosted: Sat Jan 21, 2006 1:57 pm 
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 21, 2006 5:41 pm 
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If there are masculine and feminine forms of the 2nd-person conjugation, what do you do if you don't know the gender of the person you're talking to (e.g. if you're writing a book and need to address the reader)? Do you assume the masculine, or guess based on gender roles, or something else entirely? In a mixed group, do you use the masculine like they do in French?


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PostPosted: Thu Jan 26, 2006 3:56 pm 
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 16, 2006 9:04 am 
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This may or may not be worth mentioning, but in classical Arabic, the syllable structure was CV(C)(C) [that is, the first C ain't optional].

Of course, bear in mind that Arabic is a triconsonantal system...

:)

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Last edited by Mecislau on Wed Aug 22, 2007 7:50 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Mon Mar 06, 2006 8:21 am 
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Mercator: confusingly, "Ba'al" is/was both a title and a name. Its as though Christians called Jehovah 'the Lord', but called each angel "Lord of such-and-such" - and then the people connected with a particular angel called just called him '"the lord" when it was clear Jehovah wasn't meant.

This, I'm told, makes it very confusing for historians, because it's very hard to work out which Ba'als are the same and which are different!

Furthermore, the other names given to the Ba'als often ALSO meant 'lord', 'king', 'ruler', 'the one to be sacrificed to', and so on, and could probably also be used as titles to be applied to either other gods (including other Ba'als) OR human rulers!

AND said names were sometimes the actual or ceremonial names of human rulers, as well as their titles!

Hence the ensuing tangle of countless Ba'als, Els, Milcoms, Molechs, Asteroths and Melqarts is rather confusing.

Additionally, it is thought now that the hebrews misreported many of the names, either due to incompetance or due to ideology. For instance, many of the names of foreign gods and practices apparently have had the vowels changed to match those of the word for 'shame' [how that ties in with triconsonentalism and the non-spelling of vowels, I don't know]. It's now thought, eg, that Molech and Milcom may have been the same originally (not similar consonants). Then again, same with Melqart (since I've seen Milcom as Milqom).



The main Ba'als that we talk about now, by the way, are Ba'al meaning El, Ba'al meaning some sort of companion of El, Ba'al Hammon the old lord of Carthage, and Melqart the Ba'al of Tyre.

The second Ba'al, when combined with El, was referred to as Elohim. He may have been the same as Adonai.

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