So "an" can stand alone (not an bhfuil)?. Or is "an" always alone when it is with the copula?
Sorry, I should have been more precice. Here, "an" is
the copula (the copula has different forms for tense and mood). So it goes like this:Is leabhar ?.
~ "It is a book."An leabhar ??
~ "Is is a book?"N? leabhar ?.
~ "It is not a book."
All "is, an, n?" are just different forms of the copula. Above, they are in present/future tense, indicative mood, interogative mood and negative mood respectively.
But I dont understand this:
at? s? ? fhoghlaim agat?
I mean, I understand , but not this:
at? s? ? fhoghlaim agat.
I don't understand why it's ? and not a. ? would stand for something like "a a" ?
WHOOPS! Sorry, that was meant to be "? foghlaim
" with NO s?imhi?. I'll try to explain:
Take the sentence- "T? m? ag foghlaim Gaeilge
". Nothing out of the ordinary here. This means "I am learning Irish".
Now. If you want to say "I am learning it", and want to use a pronoun instead of "Irish", you might come up with this:
"*T? m? ag foghlaim ?.
However, in Irish the "ag" and "?" merge into one, to become: "?". This comes before the verbal noun:
"T? m? ? foghlaim.
The verbal noun must agree with the "?" (nothing strange), so if it's a feminine noun (Gaeilge) that you're replacing, there's NO s?imhi? on "foghlaim".
However, for "T? m? ag foghlaim B?arla", it'd be:
"T? m? ? fhoghlaim."
And for plurals, "T? m? ag foghlaim Gaeilge agus B?arla":
"T? m? a bhfoghlaim."
Compare these to regular possession:
his shoe --> a bh
her shoe --> a br?g
their shoe --> a m
his song --> a amhr?n
her song --> a h
their song --> a n-
Well anyways. I still have alot to learn. Lenition and eclips are to me the hardest things because they seem to appear in such perticular cases! And also contractions. Like "c?rb siad" Why is it c?rB, and not c?rbh? Or is it just a typo...
To be honest, they're probably dialectal variations, depending on what sourses you're using.
If you feel like doing some excersises on the above, try to translate:
0-- "T? m? ag ?l tae" --> "I am drinking it (masc.)"
T? m? ? ?l
1-- "T? m? ag l?amh leabhair" --> "I am reading it (masc.)"
2-- "T? m? ag buaileadh S?le" --> "I am hitting her (masc.)"
3-- "T? m? ag canadh amhr?in" --> "I am singing it (masc.)"
4-- "T? m? ag ithe sceall?ga" --> "I am eating them (pl.)"
5-- "T? m? ag p?inte?il an bhalla" --> "I am painting it (masc.)"
6-- "T? m? ag mar? na lacha" --> "I am killing it (fem.)"
7-- "T? m? ag scr?obh na litreach" --> "I am writing it (fem.)"
8-- "T? m? ag oscailt na gc?fra?" --> "I am opening them (pl.)"
an leabhar -- the book
an t-amhr?n -- the song
na sceall?ga -- the chips
an balla -- the wall
an lacha -- the duck
an litir -- the letter
na c?fra? -- the drawers
(note that these are in the Genitive Case in the above, something for an entirely different lesson altogether!)
I hope that helped clear some things up for you!