Zhen Lin wrote:
Interesting. An auxiliary-oriented verbal system... (I see the future auxilliary, none, appears to be cognate with the verb to go? This particular word seems to have a particularly stable phonological form of alveolar/dental nasal + vowel + alveolar/dental nasal.)
And, still in Puoni, the perfect auxiliary ta
is cognate with the verb to become
- said verb having been reanalised, in Kozado, as the suppletive form of the mediopassive voice of se to be
(which is very convenient, as the use of se
as an auxialary requires the possibility to use it in the mediopassive voice, and because to become
is no longer needed as a stand-alone verb in Kozado, precisely because the auxiliary construction conveys a dynamic or inchoative aspect).
What is the motivation for the main verbs being placed at the end, as opposed to, say, after the subject like a participle?
I don't know for Rad, but for me it is reminiscent of the V2 word order of germanic languages.
Also the things in Kozado are more complex than this.
The basic word order is SVO :Ze ñire ro avlas ša tozio.
the wife PRVB keep-IPFV.SG a knifeThe wife keeps a knife.
If a preverbal particle other than <b>ro</b> or <b>ras</b> (negative particle) is used, the word order becomes VSO (and the subject is switched in the oblique case, but this only affect pronouns, since Kozado nouns do not decline).Zu avlas ze ñire ša tozio.
PRVB.REL-CLAUS keep-IPFV.SG the wife a knifeThe wife who keeps a knife.
If we want to had a dynamic meaning (to keep > to take) we use the auxialiary construction, but in Kozada, two word orders are possible in this case :
The conjuct order is the least marked one. The verbal noun comes right after the auxiliary :Ze ñire ro se avleža ša tozio.
the wife PRVB be.IPFV.SG take-VN a knifeThe wife takes a knife.
The disjunct order is more formal, more affirmative (kinda like the use of -dir (3SG of the verb olmak to be
in Turkish, as opposed to nothing). In this order, the verbal noun goes at the very end of the verb phrase :Ze ñire ro se ša tozio avleža.
the wife PRVB be.IPFV.SG a knife take-VNThe wife takes a knife.
(we could have been even more formal and use the irregular form of the verbal noun, evlleža
I love this project, and hope it continues.... I initially wanted to be part of the action, but with the last deadlines of November...it looks like it may be twenty years before it gets to the last person. Can anyone update me with the progress here, so I don't have to read through twelve pages of confusion?
You've got a page of who does/did what which is regularly updated here :
http://www.spinnoff.com/zbb/viewtopic.p ... 816#493816
Also : I'm in the opinion that new comers in this relay should be allowed to just make a daughter of the language they like, instead of keeping the team thing. That way people don't have to wait for months, and the resulting tree will be much more realistic.